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o  marks 

Northern  Germany  as  far  as  the  Bavarian  and  Anstrian  frontiers. 

With  49  Maps  and  75  Plans.  Fourteenth  edition.  1904    .  .  8  marks 
Southern  Germany  (Wurtemberg  and  Bavaria).  With  30  Maps  and 

23  Plans.  Tenth  edition.  1907 6  marks 


52  Ml 

including  the  Seven  Mountains, . 

Taunus,    the  Odenwald  and 
he  Black  Forest,  etc.    With 

n.  1906 7  marks 

Great  Britain.  England,  Wales,  and  SooUand,  With  22  Maps, 
58  Plans,  and  a  Panorama.  Sixth  edition.  1906 10  marks 

London  and  its  Environs.  With  5  Maps  and  24  Plans.  Fifteenth 
edition.  1908 6  marks 

Greeoe,  the  Greek  lelanda,  and  anExonrsion  to  Crete.  With  11  Maps, 
25  Plans,  and  a  Panorama  of  Athens.  Third  edition.  1905.  8  marks 

Holland,  see  Bel^m  and  HoUand, 


/.  Northern  Italy,  inclnding  Leghorn,  Florence,  Eavenna,  and  Rentes 
through  Switzerland  and  Austria.  With  30  Maps  and  40  Plans. 
Thirteenth  edition    1906 8  marks 

//.  Central  Italy  and  Rome.  With  14  Maps,  49  Plans,  a  Panorama 
of  Borne,  a  view  of  the  Forum  Eomannm,  and  the  Arms  of  the 
Popes  since  1417.  Fourteenth  edition.  1904 7  marks  50  pf . 

///.  Southern  Italy  and  Sicily,  with  Excursions  to  Malta,  Sardinia, 
Tunis,  and  Corfu.  With  30  Maps  and  28  Plans.  Fifteenth  edition. 
1908 6  marks 

Italy  from  ihe  Alps  to  Naples.  With  26  Maps  and  44  Plans. 
1904 8  marks 

Norway,  SvT'eden,  and  Denmark,  including  an  Excursion  to 
Spitsbergen.  With  37  Maps,  22  Plans,  and  3  Panoramas.  Eighth 
edition.  1903     8  marks 

Palestine  and  Syria,  including  the  principal  routes  through  Meso- 
potamia and  Babylonia,  With  20  Maps,  52  Plans,  and  a  Panorama 
of  Jerusalem.  Fourth  edition.  1906 12  marks 

Portugal,  see  Spain  and  Portugal, 

Biviera,  see  Southern  France, 

Russia,  in  German  or  French  only : 

Russland.  Europ.  BuBland,  Eisenbahnen  in  Russ.-Asien,  Teheran,  Pe- 
king. Mit  20  Earten,  40  Planen  u.  11  Grundr.  6.Aufl.  1904.  15  marks 

Russischer  SprachfUhrer,  4.  Aufl.  1903 1  mark 

Russie.  Avec  19  cartes  et  32  plans.  S^  Edition.  1902   ....  15  marks 

Manuel  de  langue  Russe.  3«  edition.  1903 1  mark 

Scotland,  see  Great  Britain, 

Spain  and  Portugal,  with  Excursions  to  Tangier  and  the  Balearic 
Islands,  With  9  Maps  and  57  Plans.  Third  edition.  1908.  16  marks 

Switzerland  and  the  adjacent  portions  of  Italy,  Savoy,  and  Tyrol. 
With  69  Maps,  18  Plans,  and  11  Panoramas.  Twenty-second  edition. 
1907 * 8  marks 

Tyrol,  see  TJie  Eastern  Alps, 

The  United  States,  with  an  Excursion  iato  Mexico,  With  25  Maps 
and  35  Plans.  Third  edition.  1904 12  marks 

I         LONDON 
















WITH  9  MAPS  AND  19  PLANS        V    ^ 




All  right*  reserved. 








m         *Oo,  little  book,  God  send  thee  good  passage 
J^      '  And  specially  let  this  be  thy  pray  ere 
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The  chief  object  of  the  Handbook  for  London  is  to  enable 
the  traveller  so  to  employ  his  time,  his  money,  and  his 
energy,  that  he  may  derive  the  greatest  possible  amount  of 
pleasure  and  instruction  from  his  visit  to  the  greatest  city 
in  the  modern  world. 

As  several  excellent  English  guide-books  to  London  al- 
ready existed ,  the  Editor  in  1878  published  the  first  English 
edition  of  the  present  Handbook  with  some  hesitation ,  not- 
withstanding  tne  encouragement  he  received  from  numerous 
English  and  American  correspondents,  who  were  already 
familiar  with  the  distinctive  characteristics  of  'Baedeker  s 
Handbooks'.  So  favourable  a  reception,  however,  was  accord- 
ed to  the  first  edition  that  the  issue  of  a  second  became  ne- 
cessary iij  little  more  than  a  year,  while  thirteen  other  editions 
have  since  been  called  for.  The  present  volume  embodies  the 
most  recent  information,  down  to  the  month  of  June,  1908, 
obtained  in  the  course  of  personal  visits  to  the  places  de- 
scribed, and  from  the  most  trustworthy  sources. 

In  the  preparation  of  the  Handbook  the  Editor  -has  re- 
ceived most  material  assistance  from  several  English  and 
American  friends  who  are  intimately  acquainted  with  the 
great  Metropolis. 

Particular  attention  has  been  devoted  to  the  description 
of  the  great  public  collections,  such  as  the  National  Gallery, 
the  British  Museum,  the  Wallace  Collections,  the  National 
Portrait  Gallery,  the  Tate  Gallery,  and  the  South  Kensington 
Museum,  to  all  of  which  the  utmost  possible  space  has  been 

The  Introduction  is  intended  as  a  brief  condensation  of 
general  and  historical  information  most  likely  to  be  of  use 
and  interest  to  the  traveller  on  his  way  to  London,  while 
under  the  heading  Preliminary  Information  are  summarized 
all  the  practical  details  that  are  best  calculated  to  make  a 
stranger  feel  at  home  in  London,  and  to  familiarise  him  with 
its  manners  and  customs.  While  the  descriptive  part  of  the 
work  is  topographically  arranged,  so  that  the  reader  may  see 
at  a  glance  which  of  the  sights  of  London  may  be  visited 
together,  the  preliminary  portion  classifies  the  principal  sights 
according  to  their  subjects,  in  order  to  present  the  reader 
with  a  convenient  index  to  their  character,  and  to  facilitate 
his  selection  of  those  most  congenial  to  his  taste.  As,  however, 
it  has  not  been  the  Editor's  purpose  to  write  an  exhaustive 


account  of  so  stupendous  a  city,  but  merely  to  describe  the 
most  important  objects  of  general  interest  contained  in  it,  he 
need  hardly  observe  that  the  information  required  by  spe- 
cialists of  any  kind  can  be  given  only  to  a  very  limited  extent 
in  the  present  work.  The  most  noteworthy  sights  are  indi- 
cated by  asterisks. 

The  list  of  Hotels  and  Restaurants  enumerated  in  the 
Handbook  comprises  the  most  important  establishments  and 
many  of  humbler  pretension.  Those  which  the  Editor  has 
reason  to  believe  especially  worthy  of  commendation  in  pro- 
portion to  their  charges  are  denoted  by  asterisks;  but  doubt- 
less there  are  many  of  equal  excellence  among  those  not  so 
distinguished.  The  hotels  at  the  West  End  and  at  the  prin- 
cipal railway-stations  are  the  most  expensive,  while  the  inns 
in  the  less  fashionable  quarters  of  tne  Metropolis  generally 
afford  comfortable  accommodation  at  moderate  charges. 

The  Maps  and  Plans,  upon  which  the  utmost  care  has  been 
bestowed,  will  also,  it  is  hoped,  be  found  serviceable. 
Those  relating  to  London  itself  (see  p.  x])  are  placed  at  the  end 
of  the  volume  in  a  separate  cover,  which  may  if  desired  be 
severed  from  the  Handbook  altogether.  The  subdivision  of 
the  Plan  of  the  city  into  three  sections  of  different  colours  will 
be  found  greatly  to  facilitate  reference ,  as  it  obviates  the 
necessity  of  unfolding  a  large  sheet  of  paper  at  each  consult- 

The  Routes  to  places  of  interest  in  the  Environs  of  London, 
although  very  brief,  will  probably  suffice  for  the  purposes 
of  an  ordinary  visit.  Some  of  the  longer  excursions  that 
appeared  in  earlier  editions  have  now  been  transferred  to 
Baedeker^ »  Handbook  to  GretU  Britain, 

To  hotel-owners,  tradesmen,  and  others  the  Editor  begs  to 
intimate  that  a  character  for  fair  dealing  and  courtesy  to- 
wards travellers  is  the  sole  passport  to  his  commendation, 
and  that  advertisements  of  every  kind  are  strictly  excluded 
from  his  Handbooks.  Hotel-keepers  are  also  warned  against 

Sersons  representing  themselves  as  agents  for  Baedeker's 

M.  =  Engl,  mile}  hr.  8  hoar;  min.  sss  minute ;  r.  a=  right',  1.  =  left; 
N.  =  north,  northwardB,  northern;  S.  s  south,  etc.;  E.  s  east^  etc.; 
W.  B  west,  etc.;  B.  =  Route  or  room;  B.  =  breakfast;  D.  s=  dinner; 
A.  s=  attendance;  L.  =  luncheon;  pens.  =  pension  (i.e.  board,  lodging,  and 
attendance);  rfints.  =  refreshments;  carr.  =  carriage;  c,  ca.  =  circa,  about. 
The  letter  d,  with  a  date,  after  a  name  indicates  the  year  of  the  person's 

Aeteriaks  are  used  as  marks  of  commendation. 


Intro  daction.  Page 

I.  Money.  Expenses.  Season.  Passports.   Custom  House. 

Time xi 

II.  Routes  to  and  from  London xii 

III.  Railways xvi 

IV.  Outline  of  English  History xvii 

V.  Historical  Sketch  of  London xxiii 

YI.  Topography,  Statistics,  and  Administration xxvii 

YII.  Books  relating  to  London xxxv 

Preliminary  Information. 

1.  Arrival  in  London 1 

2.  Hotels.   Boarding  Houses.   Private  Lodgings 1 

3.  Restaurants.  Dining   Rooms.  Oyster  Shops  ^ 10 

4.  Gaf^s.   Tea  Rooms.  Confectioners 16 

5.  Baths 17 

6.  Cabs.   Omnibuses.    Tramways.   Coaches 18 

7.  Railway  Termini  and  Suburban  Trains 26 

8.  Underground  Railways 29 

9.  Steamboats 38 

10.  Post  and  Telegraph  Offices.    Parcels  Companies.    Com- 
mlssionnaires.   Messengers.   Lady  Couriers 39 

11.  Theatres,  Music  Halls,  and  other  Entertainments   ...  43 

12.  Concerts  and  Exhibitions  of  Pictures 49 

13.  Races,  Sports,  and  Games 51 

14.  Shops,  Bazaars,  and  Markets.    The  Co-operative  System  56 

15.  Libraries,  Reading  Rooms,  and  Newspapers 65 

16.  Embassies   and  Consulates.     Colonial  Representatives. 
Bankers 67 

17.  Divine  Service 69 

18.  Guilds.   Charities.   Societies.    Clubs 72 

19.  General  Hints .    . 76 

20.  Preliminary  Ramble 78 

21.  Disposition  of  Time 81 

Sights  of  London. 
I.  The  City. 

1.  St.  Paul's  Cathedral 85 

2.  General  Post  Office.   St.  Giles.   Holborn 95 

Paternoster  How.  Peers  Statue,  95.  —  Kewgate  Street. 
Central  Criminal  Court,  97.  —  St.  Sepulchre's  Churcb. 
Holborn  Viaduct,  93.  —  Ely  Chapel,  99. 

3.  Smlthfleld.     St.  Bartholomew's  Hospital  and  Church. 
Charterhouse 100 

London  Central  Heat  Market,  100.  —  St.  John's  Gate,  103. 
—  Bunhill  Fields  Cemetery.  Friends'  Burial  Ground. 
Honourable  Artillery  Company,  104.  —  Wesley  Museum^  100. 

viii  CONTENTS. 


4.  Gheapside.   Gaildliall.   Mansion  House 106 

Ooldsmiihs'  Hall,  106.  —  Bow  Church,  107.  ~  Greflham 
College,  HI.  —  MercerB'  Hall.  Qroeers^  Hall.  Armoorera* 
Hall,  112.  —  St.  Stephen's  Church,  113. 

5.  The  Bank  of  England.   The  Exchange 113 

Bankers'  Clearing  House.  Stock  Exchanse,  114.  —  Drapers' 
Hall.  Dutch  Church,  116.  —  Lloyd's,  116.  —  Merchant  Tay- 
lors'Hall.  St.  Helen's,  117.— Bishopsgate.  Shoreditch,  118. — 
Stoke  Kewlngton.  Comhill.  Leadenhall Market.  St.  Andrew's  . 
Undershaft.  St.  Catherine  Cree,  119.  —  Com  Exchange. 
St.  Olaye's,  130.  —  Houndsditch.    Minories,  121. 

6.  London  Bridge.    The  Monument.    Lower  Thames  Street     121 

St.  Mary  Woolnoth,  121.  —Fishmongers' Hall,  133.— Vintners' 
Hall.  St.  Magnus.  Billingsgate.  Custom  House,  134.  —  Coal 
Exchange.   St.  Donstan's  in  the  East.  St.  Mary  at  HiU,  125. 

7.  Thames  Embankment.   Blackfriars  Bridge.    Queen  Vic- 
toria Street.   Cannon  Street 125 

Cleopatra's  Needle,  126.  —  Office  of  the  Times.  128.  —  Bible 
Society,  129.  —  Heralds'  College.  London  Stone,  130.  — 
Southwark  Bridge,  131. 

8.  The  Tower 131 

Trinity  House,  138.  —  All  Hallows,  Barking.  Tower  Sub- 
way.   Eoyal  Mint,  139.  —  Tower  Bridge,  140. 

9.  The  Tort  and  Docks 140 

St.  Katharine  Docks.  London  Docks,  141.  —  Thames 
Tunnel.  Rotherhithe  Tunnel.  Surrey  Commercial  Docks, 
142.  —  West  India  Docks.  East  India  Docks.  Millwall 
Docks.    Blackwall  Tunnel.    Victoria  and  Albert  Docks,  143. 

10.  Bethnal  Green   Museum.   Victoria  Park 144 

Toynbee  Hall,  14i.  —  People's  Palace,  14B. 

11.  Fleet  Street.  Chancery  Lane.  Temple.  Courts  of  Justice     148 

St.  Bride's.  148.  —  St.  DunsUn's  in  the  West,  149.  —  Kew 
Record  Office,  160.  —  Patent  Office.  Lincoln's  Inn,  151.  -— 
Gray's  Inn,  162.  —  Temple  Church,  163.  —  Temple  Bar,  165. 

n.  The  West  End. 

12.  Strand.   Somerset  House.   Waterloo  Bridge 157 

St.  Clement  Danes,  167.  —  Aldwych  and  Kingsway.  Roman 
Bath.  King's  College.  159.  —  St.  Mary  le  Strand,  159.  — 
Savoy  Chapel,  160.  —  The  Adelphi.  Society  of  Art*,  161.  — 
Charing  Cross  Station.    Eleanor's  Cross,  162. 

13.  Trafalgar  Square 162 

Nelson  Column,  162.  —  St.  Martin's  in  the  Fields,  163.  — 
Charinp:  Cross.  Charing  Cross  Boad.  National  Life  Boat 
Institution,  164.  —  Shaftesbury  Avenue,  166. 

14.  The  National  Gallery 166 

16.  The  National  Portrait  Gallery 197 

16.  Royal  College  of  Surgeons.   Soane  Museum 207 

Lincoln^s  Inn  Fields,  207.  —  Covent  Garden  Market,  210. 
—  St.  Paul's.    Garrick  Club,  211. 

17.  Whitehall 211 

Admiralty.  Horse  Guards.  War  Office,  212.  —  Banqueting 
Hall.  Royal  United  Service  Museum,  214.  —  Government 
Offices.  Montague  House,  215.  —  New  Scotland  Yard. 
Westminster  Bridge,  216. 

i8t  Houses  of  Parliament  and  Westminster  Hall 216 

S^  Margaret's  Church,  224- 



19.  Westminster  Abbey 226 

Westminster  Golamn.  ■  Westminster  Schoo),  248.  —  Cborch 
House.  Westminster  HospiUl.  Victoria  Street,  249.  —  West- 
minster Cathedral,  2G0. 

20.  The  Tate  Gallery 251 

8t.  John  the  Eyangelist's,  251.  —  Yanxhall  Bridge,  260. 

21.  Pall  Mall  and  Piccadilly 260 

Haymarket.  Waterloo  Place.  Crimean  Monument.  York 
Column,  261.  —  St.  Jameses  Square.  Marlborough  House,  262. 
—  St.  James's  Street,  268.  —Burlington  House.  Boyal  Society, 
264.  —  Boyal  Academy,  265.  —  St.  James's  Church,  266.  — 
Leicester  Square,  267. 

22.  Regent  Street.   Oxford  Street.   Holbom  .   .   .   .  ^.   .   .    267 

Geological  Museum.  Hanover  Square.  St.  George'o,  26S.  — 
Polytechnic.  All  Saints'.  Carendish  Square.  Langham  Place. 
Portland  Place,  269.  —  Orosvenor  Square.  Berkeley  Square. 
Bond  Street,  270.  —  Soho  Square.  Tottenham  Court  Road. 
St.  Giles-in-the-Fields,  271.  —  Bloomsbury.  University  Col- 
lege. Catholic  Apostolic  Church,  272.  —  St.  Pancras'  Church. 
Canonbury  Tower,  278.  —  Foundling  Hospital,  274. 

23.  The  Wallace  Collection 275 

24.  Rejfent's  Park 284 

Marylebone,  284.  —  Zoological  Gardens,  280.  —  Botanic 
Gardens.  St.  Katharine's  Hospital.  Primrose  Hill,  289.  - 
Lord's  Cricket  Ground,  290. 

25.  The  British  Museum 290 

26.  St.  James's  Palace  and  Park.   Buckingham  Palace  ...     321 

Queen  Victoria  Memorial,  323.  —  Boyal  Mews,  324.  — 
Green  Park,  325. 

27.  Hyde  Park.   Kensington  Gardens  and  Palace 325 

St.  George's  Cemetery,  330.  —  Paddington.  Kensal  Green 
Cemetery,  331. 

28.  Private  Mansions  around  Hyde  Park  and  St.  James's  .    .     332 

Grosvenor  House,  332.  —  Stafford  House.  Bridgewater  House, 
333.  —  Lansdowne  House.  Apsley  House,  335.  —  Dorchester 
House.  Lady  Brassey  Museum.  Devonshire  House,  835.  — 
Korthbrook  Collection.    Dr.  L.  Mond's  Collection,  337. 

29.  Albert  Memorial.   Albert  Hall.   Holland  House  ....     337 

Campden  Hill.    Leighton  House,  339. 

30.  Imperial  Institute.  University  of  London.  Natural  History 
Museum 340 

Royal  College  of  Music,  3^0  —  School  of  Art  Keedlework. 
Royal  College  of  Science,  342. 

31.  South  Kensington  Museum 345 

Exhibition  Galleries,  861.  —  The  Oratory,  866. 

32.  BelgraYla.   Chelsea 366 

Chelsea  Hospital.  Duke  of  York's  Military  School,  867.  — 
Carlyle's  House,  363.  —  Chelsea  Old  Church,  369. 

33.  Hampstead.  Highgate.  Alexandra  Palace.  Kensal  Green 
Cemetery 370 

Hampstead  Heath,  371.  —  Highgate  Cemetery.  Waterlow 
Park,  873. 

m.  The  Surrey  Side. 

34.  St.  Saviour's  Church 374 

Guy's  Hospital.  Barclay  and  Perkins's  Brewery,  377.  —  Cam- 
berweU,  378.  —  South  London  Fine  Art  Gallery,  379. 


36.  Lambeth  Palace.  Bethlehem  Hospital.  Battersea  Park  .  379 
Albert  Embankment.  St.  Thomaa'a  HoipiUl,  379.  —  St. 
George's  Cathedral.  Ghriit  Charch,  381.  —  DouUon*i  Pottery 
Wdrka.  Ecnnington  Oval.  Vauxhall  and  Kennington  Parka. 
Glapham  Common.  Clapham  Church*  389.  —  Batteraea  Poly- 
technic, 8^3.  —  Direa'  Flonr  Hilla,  384. 

Excursions  from  London. 

36.  The  Thames  from  London  Bridge  to  Hampton  Court   .    .  385 

37.  The  Thames  from  London  Bridge  to  Gravesend    ....  389 

38.  Greenwich  Hospital  and  Paik 391 

39.  Woolwich 395 

40.  Dalwich.    The  OrysUl  Palace 396 

Brockwell  Park,  400.  —  Homiman  Huaeum,  403. 

41.  Hampton  Court.   Richmond.   Kew 404 

42.  Epping  Forest.   Waltham  Ahbey.   Rye  fiouse     ....     414 

Chingford,    415.  —  Edmonton.    Enfield,  416.  —  From  Bye 
Houae  to  Hertford,  417. 

43.  St.  Albans 417 

Whitchurch,  417.  —  Hatfield  Houae,  418. 

44.  Harrow.    Rickmans worth.   Chenies.    Chesham     ....     419 

45.  Windsor.   Eton 422 

From  Slough  to  Stoke  Pogea  and  Burnham  Beeches,  422.  «- 
Bunnimede.    Holloway  College,  423. 

46.  Gravesend.    Chatham.   Rochester 431 

Eltham,  432.  —  Cobham  Hall,  433. 

List  of  Eminent  Persons 435 

Index 440 

Index  to  Plan  of  London  in  the  Appendix. 

List  of  KapB  and  Plans. 

1.  Railway  Map  of  England,  before  the  title-page. 

2.  Map  of  the  Environs  of  London,  between  pp.  384  and  385. 

3.  Key-Plan  of  London. 

5  a 

I-  o 

4.  Plan  of  London  in  three  sections. 

5.  Special  Plan  of  the  West  End  from  Baker  Street  to  Soho, 

6.  ;,  „      „  Holbom,  Fleet  Street,  and  Strand. 

7.  „  „      .  the  City. 

8.  „  „      ,;  the  West  End  from  Hyde  Park  and  Bel- 

grayia  to  the  Thames. 

9.  Railway  Map  of  London. 
10.  St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  p.  88;  11.  Tower,  p.  132;  12.  National 

Gallery,  p.  166;  13.  National  Portrait  Gallery,  p.  197;  14. 
Houses  of  Parliament,  p.  216;  15.  Westminster  Abbey,  p.  226; 
16.  Tate  Gallery,  p.  252;  17,  18.  Wallace  Gallery,  pp.  276, 
281;  19.  Zoological  Gardens,  p.  286;  20.  British  Museum, 
p.  290;  21.  Natural  History  Museum,  p.  342;  22-24.  South 
Kensington  Museum,  survey-plan,  p.  346 ;  special  plans,  pp.  347 
and  358;  25.  Crystal  Palace,  p.  401 ;  26.  Environs  of  Hampton 
Court,  p.  406;  27.  Kew  Gardens,  p.  413;  28,  Windsor  Castle, 
p.  424.  


I.   Money.  Expenses.  Season.  Passports.  Custom 
House.  Time. 

Money.  In  Great  Britain  alone  of  the  more  important  states 
of  Europe  the  currency  is  arranged  without  much  reference  to  the 
decimal  system.  The  ordinary  British  Gold  coins  are  the  sovereign 
or  pound  (I.  s  libra)  equal  to  20  shillings,  and  the  half-soToreign. 
The  Silver  coins  are  the  crown  (5  shillings),  the  half-crown,  the 
florin  (2  shillings),  the  shilling  (s.  s=  solidus),  and  the  six-penny 
and  three-penny  pieces.  The  Bron%e  coinage  consists  of  the  penny 
(d.  s  denarius),  of  which  12  make  a  shilling,  the  halfpenny  (}/^  d.), 
and  the  farthing  CV4c20*  '^^^  Guinea,  a  sum  of  21s.,  though  still 
used  in  reckoning,  has  heen  out  of  circulation  as  a  coin  since  ahout 
1820.  A  sovereign  is  approximately  equal  to  5  American  dollars, 
25  francs,  20  German  marks,  or  24^2  Austrian  crowns.  The  Bank 
of  England  issues  notes  for  5,  10,  20,  50,  and  100  pounds,  and 
upwards.  These  are  useful  in  paying  large  sums ;  but  for  ordinary 
use,  as  change  is  not  always  readily  procured,  gold  is  preferable. 
The  number  of  each  note  should  be  taken  down  in  a  pocket-book, 
as  there  is  a  bare  possibility  of  its  being  in  this  way  traced  and 
recovered,  if  lost  or  stolen.  Foreign  Money  does  not  circulate  in 
England,  and  should  always  be  exchanged  on  arrival  (see  p.  69). 
A  oonvenient  and  safe  mode  of  carrying  money  from  America  or  the 
Continent  is  in  the  shape  of  letters  of  credit,  or  circular  notes, 
which  are  readily  procurable  at  the  principal  banks.  The  travellers' 
cheques  issued  by  the  American  Express  Company  (pp.  xiy,  69)  or 
the  circular  notes  of  Messrs.  Cook  (p.  69)  may  be  found  convenient 
also.  A  larger  sum  than  will  suffice  for  the  day's  expenses  should 
never  be  carried  on  the  person,  and  gold  and  silver  coins  of  a  similar 
size  {e.g.  sovereigns  and  shillings)  should  not  be  kept  in  the  same 

Expenses.  The  cost  of  a  visit  to  London  depends,  of  course,  on 
the  habits  and  tastes  of  the  traveller.  If  he  lives  in  a  first-class 
hotel,  dines  at  the  table-d'h6te,  drinks  wine,  frequents  the  theatre 
and  other  places  of  amusemOnt,  and  drives  about  in  cabs  or  flys 
instead  of  using  the  economical  train  or  omnibus,  he  must  be 
prepared  to  spend  30-40«.  a  day  or  upwards.  Persons  of  moderate 
requirements,  however,  will  have  little  difficulty,  with  the  aid  of 
the  information  in  the  Handbook,  in  living  comfortably  and  seeing 
the  principal  sights  of  London  for  15-200.  a  day  or  even  less. 

Season.  The  'London  Season'  is  chiefly  comprised  within  the 
months  of  May,  June,  and  July,  when  Parliament  is  sitting,  the 
aristocracy  are  at  their  town-residences,  the  greatest  artistes  in  the 
world  axe  performing  at  the  Opera,  and  the  picture  exhibitions  are 


open.  Families  who  desiie  to  obtain  comfortable  accommodation 
had  better  be  in  London  to  secure  it  by  the  end  of  April ;  single 
travellers  can,  of  conrse,  more  easily  And  lodgings  at  any  time. 

Paiiports  are  not  necessary  in  England,  though  occasionally 
useful  in  procuring  delivery  of  registered  and  poate  restanU  letters 
(comp.  p.  39).  American  travellers,  who  intend  to  proceed  from 
London  to  the  Continent,  should  provide  themselves  with  passports 
before  leaving  home.  Passports,  however,  may  also  be  obtained  by 
personal  application  at  the  American  Embassy  in  London  (p.  67). 

Custom  House.  Almost  the  only  dutiable  articles  likely  to 
be  in  the  possession  of  ordinary  travellers  are  spirits  (including 
perfumed  spirits)  and  tobacco,  but  half-a-pint  of  the  former  and 
V2lb.  of  the  latter  (including  cigars)  are  usually  passed  free  •of 
duty,  if  duly  declared  and  not  found  concealed.  Passengers  from 
the  Channel  Islands  are  allowed  only  half  these  quantities.  On 
larger  quantities  duty  must  be  paid  at  the  rate  of  12«.  Ad,  to  i9s.  id, 
per  gallon  of  spirits  and  3a.  to  5«.  6(2.  per  pound  of  tobacco.  A  small 
fine  is  leviable  also  on  packets  of  tobacco  or  cigars  weighing  less 
than  SOlbs. ;  but  a  quantity  of  7lbs.  from  non- European  ports  or 
3lbs.  from  European  ports  outside  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar  are  passed 
without  fine.  Chocolate  and  sweetmeats  of  all  kinds  also  are  duti- 
able. Foreign  reprints  of  copyright  English  books  are  confiscated. 
The  custom  house  examination  is  generally  lenient.  —  Dogs  arc  at 
present  allowed  to  land  in  Great  Britain  only  on  condition  that 
they  shall  be  detained  and  isolated  under  the  care  of  a  veterinary 
surgeon  for  six  months. 

Time.  Uniformity  of  time  throughout  Great  Britain  is  maintained 
by  telegraphic  communication  with  Greenwich  Observatory  (p.  394). 

II.  Routes  to  and  from  London. 

Boutes  to  Exigland  from  the  United  States  and  Canada. 

The  data  in  the  following  lists  refer  to  the  summer-services  of 
the  various  steamship  companies,  but  the  times  and  fares  are  liable 
to  alteration.  On  the  more  popular  routes  and  at  the  most  frequented 
seasons  it  is  desirable  to  secure  berths  and  staterooms  in  advance. 
Fares  are  reduced  during  the  winter  season  (Nov.  1st  to  March  31st), 
and  children  between  1  and  10  years  of  age  are  generally  charged 
half-fare  (between  1  and  12  in  the  second  cabin). 

Of  recent  years  there  has  been  a  rapid  increase  in  the  size  of 
transatlantic  passenger  steamers;  and  while  the  vessels  of  any  of 
the  undermentioned  companies  afford  comfortable  accommodation, 
some  of  the  newest  and  largest  steamers  are  fitted  up  with  palatial 
magnificence,  with  lifts  between  the  various  decks,  restaurants  a 
la  carte,  wireless-telegraph  installations  (p.  42),  etc.  It  is  worth 
noting  that  the  largest  and  swiftest  steamers  are  said  not  always  to 
be  the  most  comfortable  for  indifferent  sailors. 


Cttnard  Une.  A  steamer  of  this  company  starts  erery  Sat.  and  every 
alternate  Tues.  from  New  York  and  every  alternate  Tues.  from  Boston 
for  Queenstown  and  Liverpool.  Cabin  fare  75-176  dollars;  second  cabin 
42V2-57  dollars.  Steamers  from  Liverpool  for  New  York  every  Sat.,  for 
Bjston  every  alternate  Tuesday.  Fare  12-601. ;  second  cabin  9/.-15^  London 
offices,  99  Bishopsgate  Street  and  29  Gockspur  Street,  Charing  Cross.  Chief 
steamers :  'Mauretania'  (31,900  tons),  'Lusitania'  (30,800  tons),  the  largest 
and  finest  steamers  on.  the  Atlantic;  *Caronia\  *Saxonia\  etc. 

The  five  lines  immediately  following  all  belong  to  the  IntemaHtmal 
Mercantile  Marine  Co.  (the  ^American  Combine*),  with  combined  offices  at 
1  Cockspur  St.,  S.W.,  and  88  Leadenhall  St.,  E.C. 

White  Star  Line.  Every  Thurs.  in  summer  (fortnightly  Jan.'March) 
from  New  York  to  Qneenstown  and  Liverpool  and  vice  versd.  Cabin  from 
821/3  dollars ;  second  cabin  from  45  dollars.  —  Steamers:  ^Baltic'  (21,000 tons), 
'Cedric',  'Celtic'  (each  21,000  tons).  —  From  New  York  to  Southampton 
and  vice  versd,  every  Wed.,  via  Plymouth  and  Cherbourg  on  the  E.  voyage, 
via,  Cherbourg  on  the  W.  voyage.  Cabin  from  92V2  dollars,  second  cabin 
from  42»/2  dollars.  ^Adriatic'  (25,000  tons),  'Oceanic',  'M^estic',  'Teutonic'.  — 
From  Boston  to  Liverpool,  and  vice  versd^  once  or  twice  a  month.  Cabin  from 
72V2  dollars,  second  cabin  from  40  dollars.    'Republic'  (15,400 tons),  ^Cymric'. 

American  Line.  Every  Sat.  from  New  York  to  Southampton  and  vice 
verid^  calling  at  Plymouth  (eastbound  only)  and  Cherbourg  (in  both  direc- 
tions). Cabin  from  92V2  dollars;  second  cabin  from  47  dollars.  *St.  Louis', 
'St.  Paul',  'Philadelphia',  and  *New  York'.  —  From  Philadelphia  to  Liver- 
pool every  Sat.,  returning  every  Wed.  (no  first  cabin;  second  cabin  from 
8/.  10*.  or  42  dollars).    'Haverford',  *Merion',  *Noordland'. 

Dominion  Line.  From  Quebec  and  Uontreal  in  summer,  and  from 
Portland  (calling  at  Halifax  westbound)  in  winter,  to  Liverpool,  and  vice 
versd^  weekly.  Saloon  from  13/.  or  66  dollars;  second  cabin  from  St.  iOs, 
or  42V,dollar3.  'Albany',  'Alberta'  (both  building;  14,000  tons),  'Canada', 

Lepland  Line.  From  Boston  to  Liverpool  and  vice  versd  every  Sat.  (from 
Boston  in  winter  on  Wed.).  Saloon  passengers  only;  fare  from  132.  10*. 
or  67V«  dollars.  'Devonian'  (10,400  tons),  'Winifredian'  (10,400  tons),  'Cana- 
dian', 'Bohemian'. 

Atlantic  Transport  Line.  From  New  York  to  London  and  vice  versd 
every  Sat.  (from  London  in  winter  on  Thurs.).  Saloon  passengers  only; 
fares  from  13/.  12<.  Sd.  or  68  dollars.  'Minnehaha',  'Minneapolis',  *Minne- 
tonka'  (each  13,400  tons). 

North  German  Lloyd  Lint.  From  New  York  to  Plymouth  every  Tues. 
and  Thursday.  From  Southampton  to  New  York  ever]  Wed.  and  Sunday. 
Fares  (New  York  to  London  from  96  dollars,  second  cabin  from  54V4  dol- 
lars) vary  greatly  according  to  season,  steamer,  and  position  of  stateroom. 
London  offices,  2  King  William  Street^  E.G.,  and  32  Cockspur  Street,  W.C. 
At  Southampton  passengers  are  conveyed  to  the  liners  in  steam- tenders. 
'iCronprinzessin  Cecilie'  (20,000  tons),  'Kaiser  Wilhelm  II.'  (19,300  tons), 
'KronprinzWilhelm'  (16,000 tons),  'OeorgeWashington'(27,000tons  ;building). 

BanAurg' American  Line.  From  New  York  to  Plymouth  every  Sat.  in 
summer  (less  often  in  winter).  Saloon  from  80  dollars;  second  cabin  from 
56  dollars.  From  Southampton  to  New  York  every  Frid.  in  summer  (less 
often  in  winter),  and  from  Plymouth  to  New  York  every  Mon.  in  summer 
(less  often  in  winter).  Saloon  from  18/. ;  second  cabin  from  10/.  1*.  London 
offices,  14  Cockspur  Street,  S. W.,  81  Strand,  W.C,  and  78  Gracechurch  Street, 
E.C.  —  'K  dserin  Augusta  Viktorla'  (26,500  tons),  'Amerika'  (22,200  tons). 

Anchor  Line.  Steamers  between  New  York  and  Glasgow  every  Sat.; 
fares  from  10/.  London  Office,  4  St.  Mary  Axe,  E.C.  'Caledonia'  (9200  tons), 
'California',  'Columbia'. 

Canadian  Pacife  Railwatf  CC.  P.  R.^).  Steamers  belonging  to  this  com- 
pany ply  from  Montreal  every  Thurs.  in  summer,  from  St.  John  every  Sat. 
in  winter,  for  Liverpool,  returning  every  Frid.  or  Tuesday.  Saloon-fare 
from  46,  second  cabin  from  37  dollars.  Offices,  62  Charing  Cross,  S.W., 
and  67  King  William  St.,  EC.  'Empress  of  Britain',  'Empress  of  Ireland' 
(each  14,500  tons),  'Lake  Manitoba'. 


Allan  Line.  From  Qael)ee  and  Montreal  in  inmmer,  and  from  St.  John 
and  Halifax  in  winter,  to  Liverpool  and  vice  vendy  almost  weekly.  Cabin 
from  50,  second  cabin  from  37Vs  dollars.  Steamers  also  to  Glasgow  from 
Boston,  from  Montreal  and  Quebec  (from  Portland  in  winter),  and  from 
St.  John's  (Newfoundland)  or  Philadelphia.  London  Offices,  6V3  Pall  Mall, 
S.W.  and  103  Leadenhall  St.,  B.C.  —  'Victorian',  *  Virginian'  (12,000  tons 
each),  'Corsican'  (11,500  tons). 

The  average  duration  of  the  passage  across  the  Atlantic  is  5-9  days. 
The  best  time  for  crossing  is  in  summer.  Passengers  should  pack  cloth- 
ing and  other  necessi^es  for  the  voyage  in  small  flat  boxes  (not  portmanteaus), 
such  as  can  lie  easily  in  the  cabin ,  as  all  bulky  luggage  is  sfowed  away 
in  the  hold.  Stateroom  trunks  should  not  exceed  8  ft.  in  length,  IV2-2  ft. 
in  breadth,  and  15  inches  in  height.  Trunks  not  required  on  board 
should  be  marked  *Hold'  or  *Not  Wanted',  the  others  'Cabin'  or  'Wanted'. 
The  steamship  companies  provide  labels  for  this  purpose.  Dress  for  the 
voyage  should  be  of  a  plain  and  serviceable  description,  and  it  is  ad- 
visable, even  in  midsummer,  to  be  provided  with  warm  clothing.  Ladies 
should  not  forget  a  thick  veil.  A  deck-chair,  which  may  be  purchased 
(from  Q-ls.  upwards)  or  hired  (3-4i.)  at  the  dock  or  on  the  steamer  before 
sailing,  is  a  luxury  that  may  almost  be  called  a  necessary.  Bought  chairs 
should  be  distinctly  marked  with  the  owner's  name  or  initials,  and  may  be 
left  in  charge  of  the  Steamship  Co.'s  agents  until  the  return-journey.  Seats 
at  table,  retained  throughout  the  voyage,  are  usually  assigned  by  Ihe  Saloon 
Steward  immediately  after  starting ;  and  those  who  wish  to  sit  at  a  particular 
table  or  beside  a  particular  person  should  apply  to  him.  It  is  usuaJ  to  give  a 
fee  of  10«.  (2Vs  dollars)  to  the  table-steward  and  to  the  stateroom  steward,  and 
small  gratuities  are  also  expected  by  the  boot-cleaner,  the  bath-steward,  etc. 
The  stateroom  steward  should  not  be  'tipped'  until  he  has  brought  all 
the  passenger's  small  baggage  safely  on  to  the  landing-stage  or  tender. 

On  arriving,  paasengers  usually  remain  on  board  the  steamer  until  all 
the  baggage  has  been  placed  in  the  custom-house  shed.  Here  the  owner 
will  find  his  property  expeditiously  by  looking  for  the  initial  of  his  surname 
on  the  wall.  The  examination  is  generally  soon  over  (comp.  p.  xii).  Porters 
then  convey  the  luggage  to  a  cab  (3d.  for  small  articles,  6d.  for  a  large 
trunk).  —  Baggage  may  now  be  'expressed'  from  New  York  to  any 
city  in  Europe  (among  the  chief  express  companies),  all  in  Broadway,  are : 
Adams  Expraa  Co.^  No.  59;  American  Express  Co.,  No.  66;  United  States 
Express  Co.,  No.  49;  Wells  Fargo  «fr  Co.,  No.  51;  comp.  also  p.  43).  Agents 
of  the  English  railway  -  companies,  etc.,  meet  the  steamers  on  arrival  in 
England  and  undertake  to  'express'  baggage  on  the  American  system  to 
any  address  given  by  the  traveller. 

Fbom  Livbbpool  to  London  there  are  five  diflFerent  railway 
routes  (1921/2-240 M.,  in  4-8  hrs. ;  fares  by  all  trains  29«.,  20a.  8d., 
16s.  6d.;  no  second  class  by  Midland  or  Qreat  Northern  Railways). 

The  Midland  Railway  (to  St.  Pancras  Station)  runs  by  Matlock,  Derby, 
and  Bedford.  The  route  of  the  London  and  Iforth  Western  Railway  (to 
Euston  Station)  goes  vi&  Crewe  and  Bugby.  A  special  service,  for  Atlantic 
passengers  by  the  large  liners,  runs  from  the  Biverside  Station  on  the 
landing-stage  to  Euston  Station  in  S^/i  hrs.  The  Great  Central  Railway  (to 
Marylebone  Station)  runs  via  Sheffield,  Nottingham,  Leicester,  and  Rugby. 
By  tne  Qreat  Western  Railway  (to  Paddington  Station)  we  may  travel  either 
vi&  Chester,  Birmingham,  Warwick,  and  Oxford;  or  via  Hereford  and 
Gloucester ;  or  via  Worcester.  Or,  lastly,  we  may  take  a  train  of  the  Qreat 
Northern  Railway  (to  King's  Cross  Station),  passing  Grantham  and  Peter- 
borough. —  The  following  are  comfortable  hotels  at  Liverpool:  North 
Western  Hotel,  Lime  Street  Station;  Adelphi,  near  Central  Station;  Lanca- 
shire A  Yorkshire,  at  the  Exchange  Station;  8t,  Qeorge,  51  Dale  Street; 
BhafteAury  Temperance  ffotel^  Mount  Pleasant. 

Fbom  Southampton  to  London,  by  South  Western  Railway  to 
Waterloo  Station  (79  M.,  in  13/4-3  V2  ^m.  ;  fares  13a.,  8«.  2<i.,  6». 


6d.}.  Hotels  at  Southampton:  South  Western;  Sa^eifs;  Boyal; 
Dolphin;  Polygon  Houte;  Floweret  Temperance. 

Fbom  Plymouth  to  London,  by  Qreai  Wettem  Railway  to  Pad- 
dington  Station,  oi  by  South  Western  Railway  to  Waterloo  Station 
(227  or  231  M.,  in  41/4-71/4  ^n. ;  fares  37«.  4d.,  23«.  4d.,  iSs.  8d.). 
Hotels  at  Plymonth:  Orand;  Duke  of  Cornwall ;  Royal;  Chubb'»; 
Albion;  Westminster  Temperance, 

For  details  of  these  routes,  see  Baedeker^ s  Great  Britain, 

Boutai  from  London  to  the  Continent. 

The  foUoirlng  summary  of  the  direct  oonnectlons  between  Lon- 
don and  the  Continent  will  be  of  use  to  travellers  in  either  direc- 
tion. In  many  cases  the  direct  steamer  -  route  (e.g.  to  Boulogne, 
St.  Petersburg,  etc.)  is  by  no  means  the  quickest,  though  it  may 
offer  an  agreeable  alternative  to  the  unhurried  traveller. 

To  Anulerdam,  Holland  Steamship  Co.  twice  weekly  from  off  the  Tower 
in  about  30hrs.;  fares  15«.,  10«.,  7«.  6(2. 

To  Antwerp.  Vlft  Harwicb  daily,  except  Sun.,  in  13  hrs.  (sea-pasaage 
10V«hrs.){  fares  26«.,  Ifif. 

To  Bordeaux,  Oeneral  Steam  Navigation  Go.  weekly  from  Irongate 
and  St.  Eatbarine^fl  Wharf  in  ca.  60  hrd.i  fares  3<.  lOi.,  22.  7«.,  incl.  meals. 

To  Boulogne,  a.  Yii  B'olkestone  twice  daily  in  3Vs-5  hrs. ;  fares  37«. 
7d.^  ids.  3d.,  13t.  8d.  —  b.  Bennett  Steamship  Line  thrice  weekly  from 
Chamberlain  Wharf,  Tooley  St.,  B.C.,  in  9  hrs. ;  fare  lOt. 

To  Bremen,  Argo  Go's  steamer  thrice  weekly  from  St.  Katharine  Docks 
in  about  36 hrs.;  fares  S&t.,  28«. 

To  ChtUtiania,  Wilson  line  steamer  fortnightly  in  about  60  hrs.  \  taruB 
il,  lbs.,  31.  &!.,  incl.  meals. 

To  Copenhagen,  a.  Vii  Harwich  and  Esbjerg,  thrice  weekly  in  ca.  36  hrs.  3 
fares  2l.  iSs,  lid.,  21.  lOi.  id,  —  b.  Steamer  of  the  Wilson  or  United 
Steamship  Co.,  occasionally  in  about  36  hrs. ;  fares  31. 18«.  lid.,  21. 10«.  id. 

To  Pushing  yi&  Queenborough  (IV4  hr.  from  London)  twice  daily  in 
63/4-71/8  hrs.  To  Amsterdam  by  this  route,  ISVs  hrs.  (faies  37«.  Id.,  25$.  hd.), 
to  Berlin,  23  hrs.  (4/.  13«.  2d.,  Sf.  3«.  3d.). 

To  Gothenbuvffs  Thule  Line  weekly  from  Hillwall  Docks  in  iO-45  hrs.  \ 
fares  41.,  2l.  i6«. 

To  Hamburg,  a.  "Vii  Harwich  twice  weekly  in  31 V2  hrs. 5  fares  IZ.  17*.  6d.  •, 
II.  be.  9d.  —  b.  Kirsten  Line  steamer  four  times  weekly  in  about  44  hrs. 

To  Hoek  van  Holland  via  Harwich  daily  in  7-7V«hr8.;  fares  29«.,  18«. 
(second-class  passengers  admitted  to  the  first  cabin  for  7«.  extra).  To 
Amsterdam  by  this  route  11  hrs.  (fares  37«.  Id.,  25#.  6d.) ;  to  Berlin  22V«  i>rs. 
(41.  3«.  4d.,  2/.  ib»,  5d.). 

To  Oetend.  a.  Via  Dover  thrice  daily  in  5  hrs.  (SVs  hrs.  sea-passage) ; 
fares  27«.  lid.,  19«.  lOd.  To  Brussels  by  this  route  S-S'/s  hrs.  (fares  38«.  lOd., 
2Se.  id.,  19*,  3d.),  to  Berlin,  31Vs  (^ord  Ezpre8s)-24V3  hrs.  (fares,  Nord 
Express  tl.  8#.  td.,  ordinary  train  W.  3«.  7d.,  31.  St.  id.).  —  b.  General 
Steam  Navigation  Go^s  steamer  (see  above)  twice  weekly  in  ca.  10  hrs. ; 
fares  7*,  6d.,  6«. 

To  Parte,  a.  Vi&  Dover  and  Calais,  thrice  daily  in  7^/4-9  hrs.  (sea- 
•assage  1V4-1V8  hr.);  fares  21.  16«.  «d.,  U.  19*.  8d.,  U.  6*.  9d.  —  b.  Via 
i'olkestone  and  Boulogne,  twice  daily  in  7-7V«  hrs.  (sea-passage  IVrl*/*  hr.)  ^ 
fares  2t,  10*.,  il.  14*.  Sd.*  1/.  3*.  9d.  —  c.  Via  Newhaven  and  Dieppe,  twice 
daily  in  IOV4-IIVS  hrs.  (sea-passage  4-5  hrs.);  fares  38*.  7d.,  S8*.,  18*.  7d. 
—  d.  Via  Southampton  and  Havre  once  daily  in  18Vs  hrs.  (sea-passage  ca. 
8  hrs.) ;  fares  S3*.  lOd.,  24*.  lOd. 

To  Rotterdam,  a.  Vi&  Harwich  and  Hoek  ran  Holland,  daily  in  9V2  hrs.; 
fares  31*.  6d^  20*.  Id.  —  b.  Steamer  of  the  Batavicr  Line  daily,  except 
Sun.,  from  Tilbury  in  ca.  337%  hrs.  \  fares  21*.,  13*. 

xvi  III.    RAILWAYS. 

To  St.  PeUribwrg.  Steamer  of  the  Lassmann  Line  weekly  from  Mill- 
wall  Dock  via  the  Kiel  Canal  in  4V2  days;  fares  6/.  6«.,  il.  15<.,  incl.  meals. 

Steamers  alao  sail  regularly  from  London  to  Spain,  Portugal^  Egypt^ 
etc.    See  the  advertisements  in  Bradahaw^t  Railmay  Ouide  (monthly;  Gd.). 

On  the  longer  voyages  (lOhrs.  and  upwards),  or  when  special  attention 
has  been  required,  the  steward  expects  a  gratuity  of  U.  or  more.  Food 
and  liquors  are  supplied  on  board  all  the  steamboats  at  fixed  charges,  but 
the  viands  are  sometimes  not  very  inviting.  An  official  Interpreter  accom- 
panies the  chief  trains  on  the  more  important  routes. 

III.  Eailways. 

Travellers  accustomed  to  the  formalities  of  Continental  railway^ 
officials  may  perhaps  consider  that  in  England  they  are  too  much 
left  to  themselves.  Tickets  are  not  invariably  checked  at  the  be- 
ginning of  a  journey,  and  travellers  should  therefore  make  sure  that 
they  are  in  the  proper  compartment.  The  names  of  the  stations  are 
not  always  so  conspicuous  as  they  should  be  (especially  at  night); 
and  the  way  in  which  the  porters  call  them  out,  laying  all  the  stress 
on  the  last  syllable,  is  seldom  of  much  assistance.  The  officials, 
however,  are  generally  civil  in  answering  questions  and  giving  in- 
formation. In  winter  foot-warmers  with  hot  water  are  usually  pro- 
vided. It  is  ^good  form'  for  a  passenger  quitting  a  railway  carriage 
where  there  are  other  travellers  to  close  the  door  behind  him,  and 
to  pull  up  the  window  if  he  has  had  to  let  it  down. 

On  all  the  English  lines  the  first-class  passenger  is  entitled  to 
carry  at  least  112f6.  of  luggage  free,  second-class  80^6.,  and  third- 
class  QOlb.  (on  some  lines  the  allowance  is  considerably  more).  The 
companies,  however,  do  not  always  charge  for  overweight  unless 
the  excess  is  exorbitant.  For  bicycles,  etc.,  special  tickets  must  be 
obtained.  On  all  inland  routes  the  traveller  should  see  that  his 
luggage  is  duly  labelled  for  his  destination,  and  put  into  the  right 
van,  as  otherwise  the  railways  are  not  responsible  for  its  transport. 
Travellers  to  the  Continent  require  to  book  their  luggage  and  obtain 
a  ticket  for  it,  after  which  it  gives  them  no  farther  trouble.  Trans- 
atlantic luggage,  see  p.  xiv.  -  Luggage  may  be  left  at  or  sent  to  the 
CloaJc  Room  or  Left  Luggage  Office  at  any  station  (trunk,  2d.  per 
day).  The  railway- porters  are  nominally  forbidden  to  accept  gratu- 
ities, but  it  is  customary  to  give  2d.-6d.  to  the  porter  who  transfers 
the  luggage  from  the  cab  to  the  train  or  vice  versa. 

Smoking  is  forbidden,  under  a  penalty  of  40s.,  in  all  the  car- 
riages except  in  the  compartments  marked  *smoking'. 

Bradshaw's  Railway  Guide  (monthly;  6d.)  is  the  most  complete. 
The  convenient  ABC  Railway  Guide  gives  the  stations  in  alpha- 
betical order,  with  their  connections  to  and  from  London.  Each  of 
the  great  railway-companies  publishes  a  monthly  guide  to  its  own 
system  (price  l-2d.). 


IV.  Outline  of  English  History. 

The  following  brief  table  of  the  chief  events  in  English  history, 
and  the  sacceediug  section  on  the  rise  and  progress  of  London,  are 
intended  as  convenient  reminders  of  the  historic  associations  in 
which  the  metropolis  of  Great  Britain  is  so  rich. 

B.a  55449  ^^^^  p^^^^ 

B.C.  55-54.       Of  Britain  before  its  first  invasion  by  Julias  CsBsar  in 
B.C.  55  there  is  no  authentic  history.    Gsesar  repeats  his 
invasion  in  B.C.  54,  but  makes  no  permanent  settlement. 
43  A. D.       Emp.  Claudius  undertakes  the  subjugation  of  Britain. 
78-85.       Britain,  with  part  of  Caledonia,  is  overrun  by  the  Roman 
general  Agricola,  and  reduced  to  the  form  of  a  province. 
412.       Roman  legions  recalled  from  Britain  by  Honorius. 
449.       The  Britons,   deprived  of  their  Roman  protectors,   are 
unable  to  resist  the  attacks  of  the  Picts,  and  summon  the 
Saxons  J  under  Hengiat  and  Horsa,  to  their  aid. 

449-1066.  Anolo-Saxon  Pbbiod. 

449-585.  The  Saxons,  re-inforced  by  the  Angles^  Juits,  and  other 
Germanic  tribes,  gradually  overcome  Britain  on  their  own  ac- 
count, until  the  whole  country,  with  trifling  exceptions,  is 
divided  into  the  seven  kingdoms  of  the  Saxon  Heptarchy 
(585).  To  this  period  belong  the  semi-mythical  exploits  of 
King  Arthur  and  his  knights. 

Christianity  re-introduced  by  8t.  Auguitint  (597).    The 
Vtntrdblt  Btde  (d.  735).    Caedrmn  (abou^i^SO). 
827.       Egbert  unites  all  England  in  one  kingdom. 
836-871.        Contests  with  the  Danes  and  Normans^   who  repeatedly 

invade  England. 
S71-901.       Alfred  the  Great  defeats  the  Danes,  and  compels  them 
to  make  peace.    Creates  navy,  establishes  militia,  revises 
laws,  reorganizes  institutions,  founds  schools  at  Oxford,  is  a 
patron  of  learning,  and  himself  an  author. 
979-1016.       Ethelred  the  Unready  draws  down   upon  England  the 
vengeance  of  the  Danes  by  a  massacre  of  those  who  had 
settled  in  England. 
1013.       The  Danish  king  Sweyn  conquers  England. 
1017-1035.        Canute  the  Great,  the  son  of  Sweyn,  reigns  over  England. 
1035-1040.       Harold  Harefoot,  illegitimate  son  of  Canute ,  usurps  the 

throne . 
1040-1042.       Hardieanute,  son  of  Canute.  —  The  Saxon  line  is  restored 
in  the  person  of  — 
Baedekbb^s  London.    15th  Edit.  b 













Edward  the  Confessor,  vho  makes  London  the  capital  of 
England,  and  builds  Westminster  Abbey  (see  p.  226).  His 
brother-in-law  and  saccessor  — 

Harold  loses  his  kingdom  and  his  life  at  the  Battle  of 
Hastings ,  where  he  opposed  the  invasion  of  the  Normans, 
under  William  the  Conqueror. 

NoBMAN  Dynasty. 

William  the  Conqueror,  of  Normandy,  establishes  him- 
self as  King  of  the  English.  Introduction  of  Norman  (French) 
language  and  customs. 

William  II.,  surnamed  Rufus ,  after  a  tyrannical  reign, 
is  accidentally  shot  by  Sir  Walter  Tyrrell  while  hunting. 

Henry  I.,  BeaucUrc,  defeats  his  elder  brother  Robert, 
Duke  of  Normandy,  at  the  battle  of  Tenchebrai  (1106),  and 
adds  Normandy  to  the  possessions  of  the  English  crown. 
He  leaves  his  kingdom  to  his  daughter  Matilda,  who, 
however,  is  unable  to  wrest  it  from  — 

Stephen,  ofBlois,  grandson  of  the  Conqueror.  David,  King 
of  the  Scots  and  uncle  of  Matilda,  is  defeated  and  captured 
at  the  Battle  of  the  Standard.  Stephen  appoints  as  his  suc- 
cessor Matilda's  son,  Henry  of  Anjou  or  Plantagenet  (from 
the  planta  genista  or  broom,  the  badge  of  this  family). 

House  of  Plantagenet. 

Henry  n.  Strife  with  Thomas  Becket^  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury,  over  the  respective  spheres  of  the  civil  and 
ecclesiastical  powers.  The  Archbishop  excommunicates  the 
King's  followers,  and  is  murdered  by  four  knights  at  Can- 
terbury. The  E.  part  of  Ireland  is  conquered  by  Strongbow 
and  De  C<flircy.  Robin  Hood,  the  forest  outlaw,  flourishes. 

Bichard  I.,  Coeur  de  Lion,  takes  a  prominent  part  in  the 
Third  Crusade ,  but  is  captured  on  his  way  home,  and  im- 
prisoned in  Qermany  for  upwards  of  a  year.  He  carries  on 
war  with  Philip  II.  of  France. 

John ,  surnamed  Lackland ,  is  defeated  at  Bouvines  by 
Philip  II.  of  France,  and  loses  Normandy.  Magna  Charta, 
the  groundwork  of  the  English  constitution,  is  extorted 
from  him  by  his  Barons. 

Henry  in. ,  by  his  misrule ,  becomes  involved  in  a  war 
with  his  Barons,  headed  by  Simon  de  Montfort,  and  is  de- 
feated at  Lewes.  His  son  Edward  gains  the  battle  of 
Evesham,  where  De  Montfort  is  slain.  Hubert  de  Burgh  de- 
feats the  French  at  sea.    Roger  Bacon,  the  philosopher. 

Edward  I. ,  Longshanks ,  vanquishes  the  Welsh  under 
Llewelyn,  and  completes  the  conquest  of  Wales.  The  heir  ap- 
parent to  the  English  throne  thenoeforwaTd  bears  the  title  o( 






Prince  of  Wales,  Robert  Bruce  and  Johr^  Baliol  struggle  for 
the  orown  of  Scotland.  Edward  espouses  the  cause  of  the  lat- 
ter (who  swears  fealty  to  England),  and  oyerruns  Scotland. 
The  Scots,  led  by  Sir  William  Wallace^  offer  a  determined 
resistance.  Wallace  executed  at  London.  The  Scots  defeated 
at  Falkirk  (1297)  and  Methven  (1306) ,  and  the  country 
subdued.  Establishment  of  the  English  Parliament  in  its 
modern  form. 

Edward  II.  is  signally  defeated  at  Barvnoekhum  by 
the  Scots  under  Robert  Bruce  the  third ,  and  is  forced  to 
retire  to  England.  The  Qneen  and  her  paramour  Morti- 
mer join  with  the  Barons  in  taking  up  arms  against  the 
King,  who  is  deposed,  and  shortly  afterwards  murdered  in 

Edward  m.  defeats  the  Scots  at  Halidon  Hill  and 
Neville's  Cross,  Lays  claim  to  the  throne  of  France,  and 
invades  that  country,  thus  beginning  the  hundred  years' 
war  between  France  and  England.  Victories  of  Sluys 
(naval),  CrScy  (1346),  and  Poitiers  (1356).  John  the  Good 
1364.  of  France,  taken  prisoner  by  the  Black  Prince,  dies  in 
captivity.  After  the  death  of  the  Black  Prince  England 
loses  all  her  French  possessions,  except  Calais  and  Gascony. 
Order  of  the  Garter  founded.  Movement  against  the  preten- 
sions and  corruption  of  the  clergy,  headed  by  the  early 
reformer  John  Wy cliff e.  House  of  Commons  holds  its  meet- 
ings apart  from  the  House  of  Lords. 
1377-1399.  Bichardn.  Rebellion  of  Wat  Tyler,  occasioned  by  in- 
crease of  taxation  (see  p.  100).  Victory  of  the  Scots  at 
Otterburn  or  Chevy  Chase.  Henry  of  Bolingbroke,  Duke  of 
Lancaster,  leads  an  army  against  the  King,  takes  him  captive, 
and  according  to  popular  tradition  starves  him  to  death  in 
Pontefract  Castle.  Geoffrey  Chaucer ,  the  father  of  English 
poetry,  flourishes. 

1399-1461.    .  House  of  Lanoastbb. 

1399-1413.  Henry  IV. ,  Bolingbroke ,  now  secures  his  election  to  the 
crown,  in  right  of  his  descent  from  Henry  HI.  Outbreak  of 
the  nobility,  under  the  Earl  of  Northumberland  and  his  son 
1403.  Henry  (Percy  Hotspur),  is  quelled  by  the  victory  of  Shrews- 
bury, at  which  the  latter  is  slain. 

1413-1422.  Henry  V.  renews  the  claims  of  England  to  the  French 
crown,  wins  the  battle  of  Agincourt,  and  subdues  the  N. 
of  France.  Persecution  ot  the  Lollards,  or  followers  of  Wyc- 

1422-1461.       Henry  VI.  is  proclaimed  King  of  France  at  Paris.    The 

I  Maid  of  Orleans  defeats  the  English  and  recovers  French 
possessions.   Outbreak  of  the  civil  contest  called  the  *  Wars 











of  the  Boaes\  between  the  houses  of  Laneaster  (red  rose) 
and  York  (white  lose).  Henry  becomes  insane.  Richard,  Duke 
of  York  t  great-^andson  of  Edward  III. ,  lays  claim  to  the 
throne,  Joins  himself  with  Warwiekj  the  *King-Maker\  and 
wins  the  battle  of  Northampton,  but  is  defeated  and  slain  at 
Wakefield,  His  son  Edward,  howeyer,  is  appointed  King. 
Rebellion  of  Jack  Cade. 

Ho  USB  OF  York. 

Edward  IV.  wins  the  battles  of  Towton,  Hedgley  Moor, 
and  Hexham.  Warwick  takes  the  part  of  Margaret  of 
Anjou,  wife  of  Henry  YI.,  and  forces  Edward  to  flee  to 
Holland,  whence,  however,  he  soon  returns  and  wins  the 
victories  of  Barnet  and  Tewkesbury.  Henry  YI.  dies  sud- 
denly in  the  Tower.  Edward's  brother,  the  Duke  of  Clarence, 
is  said  to  have  been  drowned  in  a  butt  of  malmsey  (p.  137). 

Edward  V. ,  the  youthful  son  of  Edward  lY. ,  is  declared 
illegitimate,  and  murdered  in  the  Tower,  along  with  his 
brother  (p.  137),  by  his  uncle,  the  Duke  of  Olouceater,  who 
takes  possession  of  the  throne  as  — 

Richard  m. ,  but  is  defeated  and  slain  at  Bosworth  by 
Henry  Tudor,  Earl  of  Richmond,  a  scion  of  the  House  of 


Henry  VII.  marries  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Edward  lY., 
and  so  puts  an  end  to  the  Wars  of  the  Roses.  The  pretenders 
Lambert  Simnel  and  Perkin  Warbeck. 

Henry  Yin.,  married  six  times  (to  Catherine  of  Aragon, 
Anne  Boleyn,  Jane  Seymour,  Anne  of  Clevea,  Catherine 
Howard,  and  Catherine  Parr).  Battles  of  the  Spurs  and 
Flodden.  Separation  of  the  Church  of  England  from  that  of 
Rome.  Dissolution  of  monasteries  and  persecution  of  the 
Papists.  Cardinal  Wolsey  and  Thomas  CromweU,  all-powerful 
ministers.   Whitehall  and  St.  James's  Palace  built. 

Edward  VI.  encourages  the  Reformed  faith. 

Mary  I.  causes  Lady  Jane  Orey ,  whom  Edward  had  ap- 
pointed his  successor ,  to  be  executed,  and  imprisons  her 
own  sister  Elizabeth  (pp.  137,213).  }lsLttiQB  Philip  of  Spain, 
and  restores  Roman  Catholicism.  Persecution  of  the  Pro* 
testants.    Calais  taken  by  the  French. 

Elisabeth.  The  Reformed  faith  re-established.  Flourishing 
state  of  commerce.  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  executed  after  a 
long  confinement  in  England.  Destruction  of  the  Spanish 
*Invincible  Armada'.  Sir  Francis  Drake,  the  celebrated 
circumnavigator.  Foundation  of  the  East  India  Company. 
Golden  age  of  English  literature:  Shakspeare,  Bacon, 
Spenser,  Jonson,  Beaumont,  Fletcher,  Marlowe,  Drayton. 










HousB  07  Sttabt. 

James  I.,  King  of  Soots,  and  son  of  Mary  Stuart,  unites 
by  his  accession  the  two  kingdoms  of  England  and  Scot- 
land. Persecution  of  Puritans  and  Roman  Catholics.  In- 
fluence of  Buckingham.  Gunpowder  Plot.  Execution  of  Sir 
Walter  Raleigh. 

Charles  I.  Imitates  his  father  in  the  arbitrary  nature  of 
his  rule,  quarrels  with  Parliament  on  questions  of  taxation, 
dissolves  it  repeatedly,  and  tyrannically  attempts  to  arrest 
five  leading  members  of  the  House  of  Commons  (J7ampd«n, 
Pym,  etc.).  Rise  of  the  Covenanters  in  Scotland.  Long  Par- 
liament. Outbreak  of  cItII  war  between  the  King  and  his  ad- 
herents (Cavaliers)  on  the  one  side,  and  the  Parliament  and 
its  friends  (Roundheads)  on  the  other.  The  King  defeated  by 
Oliver  Cromwell  at  Marsion  Moor  and  Nasehy.  He  takes  re- 
fuge in  the  Scottish  camp,  but  is  glren  up  to  the  Parliament- 
ary leaders,  tried,  and  executed  at  Whitehall  (p.  213). 

Commonwealth.  The  Scots  rise  in  favour  of  Charles  II., 
but  are  defeated  at  Dunbar  and  Worcester  by  Cromwell. 

Protectorate.  Oliver  Cromwell  now  becomes  Lord  Pro- 
tector of  England,  and  by  his  vigorous  and  wise  government 
makes  England  prosperous  at  home  and  respected  abroad. 
John  Milton,  the  poet,  Thomas  Hohbes,  the  philosopher,  and 
George  Fox,  the  founder  of  the  Quakers,  live  at  this  period. 
On  Cromwell's  death  he  is  succeeded  by  his  son  Biohard, 
who,  however,  soon  resigns,  whereupon  Charles  II.  is  re- 
stored by  General  Monk  or  Monck. 

Charles  II.  General  amnesty  proclaimed,  a  few  of  the 
regicides  only  being  excepted.  Arbitrary  government.  The 
Cabal.  Wars  with  Holland.  Persecution  of  the  Papists 
after  the  pretended  discovery  of  a  Popish  Plot.  Passing  of 
the  Habeas  Corpus  Act.  Wars  with  the  Covenanters. 
Battle  of  Bothwell  Bridge.  Rye  House  Plot.  Charles  a  pen- 
sioner of  France.  Names  Whig  and  Tory  come  into  use. 
Dryden  and  Butler,  the  poets  ;  Locke,  the  philosopher. 

James  n. ,  a  Roman  Catholic ,  soon  alienates  the  people 
by  his  love  for  that  form  of  religion,  is  quite  unable  to 
resist  the  invasion  of  WiUiam  of  Orange ,  and  escapes  to 
France,  where  he  spends  his  last  years  at  St.  Germain. 

William  m.  and  Hary  11.  William  of  Orange ,  with  his 
wife,  the  elder  daughter  of  James  II.,  now  ascends  the 
throne.  The  Declaration  of  Rights.  Battles  of  Killiecrankie 
and  The  Boyne.   Sir  Isaac  Newton. 

Anne,  younger  daughter  of  James  II.,  completes  the 
fusion  of  England  and  Scotland  by  the  union  of  their 
parliaments.  Marlborough's  victories  of  Blenheim,  RamilieSj 



1714  to   the 

present  day. 




1820  1830. 


Oudenardt,  and  Malplaquet^  in  the  Spanish  Wai  of  Succes- 
sion. Capture  of  Oibrcdtar.  The  poets  Poptt  Addison^  Sivift, 
Prior^  and  Allan  Ramsay. 

Hanoybbian  Dynasty. 

George  I.  snoceeds  in  right  of  his  descent  from  James  I. 
Rebellion  in  Scotland  (in  favour  of  the  Pretender)  quelled. 
Sir  Robert  Walpole^  prime  minister.   Daniel  Defoe. 

George  n.  Rehellion  in  favour  of  the  Young  Pretender, 
Charles  Edward  Stuart  ^  crushed  at  CkUloden.  Canada 
taken  from  the  French.  William  Pitt ,  Lord  Chatham^ 
prime  minister;  Richardson,  Fielding,  Smollett ,  Sterne^ 
noYellsts;  Thomson,  Young,  Oray,  Collins,  Oay,  poets; 
Hogarth,  painter. 

George  m.  American  War  of  Independence.  War  with 
France.  Victories  of  Nelson  at  Aboukir  and  Trafalgar,  and 
of  Wellington  in  Spain  and  at  Waterloo,  Tho  younger  Pitt, 
prime  minister;  Shelley,  Keats,  Burths,  poets. 

George  IV.  Roman  Catholic  Emancipation  Bill.  Daniel 
O'Connell.  The  English  aid  the  Greeks  in  the  War  of  In- 
dependence. Victory  of  Navarino.  Byron,  Sir  WcUter  Scott, 
Wordsworth,  Coleridge,  Southey, 

William  IV.  Abolition  of  slavery.   Reform  Bill. 

Victoria,  niece  of  William  IV.  Repeal  of  the  Corn  Laws 
(i846).  Crimean  War(1854).  Indian  Mutiny(1867).  Con- 
federation of  Canada  (1867).  Second  Reform  Bill  (1867). 
War  with  the  Transvaal  (1899-1901).  Darmn's  ^Origin  of 
Species'  (1859).  Peel,  Russell,  Melbourne,  Palmerston, 
Disraeli  ( Beacon^field) ,  Gladstone,  John  Bright,  Cobden, 
statesmen;  Tennyson  tL\id.Browning,-poeU',  Dickens,  Thacke- 
ray, Oeorge  Eliot,  Meredith,  novelists;  Macaulay,  Carlyle, 
Freeman,  historians;  Raskin;  Herbert  Spencer. 

The  present  sovereign  of  Great  Britain  is  — 

King  Edward  Vn.,  born  9th  Nov.,  1841 ;  married,  on  10th  March, 
1863,  to  Alexandra  (b.  Dec.  Ist,  1844),  eldest  daughter  of  King 
Christian  IX.  of  Denmark;  ascended  the  throne  Jan.  22nd,  1901. 

The  children  of  this  marriage  are:  — 

(1)  Albert  Victor,  Dake  of  Clarence,  bom  8th  Jan.,  1864;  died  4th  Jan., 

(2)  George  Frederick,  Prince  of  Wales,  Heir  Apparent  to  the  throne, 
bom  14<h  June,  1865  •,  married  Princess  Victoria  Mary  ofTcck,  6th  July,  1883. 

(3)  Louise,  born  20th  Feb.,  1867;  married  to  the  Duke  of  Fife,  27th  July, 

(4)  Victoria,  bom  6th  July,  1868. 

(5)  Maud,  born  26th  Nov.,  1869;  married  to  Prince  Charles  of  Denmark, 
now  King  Haakon  VII.  of  Norway,  22nd  July,  1896. 

(6)  Alexander,  born  6th  April,  1871;  died  7th  April,  1871. 

V.   Historical  Sketch  of  London. 

The  most  populous  city  in  the  woild  (which  London  un- 
qnestionahly  is)  cannot  fail  to  have  had  an  eventful  history,  in 
all  that  concerns  race,  creed,  institutions,  culture,  and  general 
progress.  At  what  period  the  Britons,  one  branch  of  the  Celtic  race, 
settled  on  this  spot,  there  is  no  authentic  evidence  to  shew.  The 
many  forms  which  the  name  assumes  in  early  records  have  led  to  much 
controversy;  but  it  is  clear  that  'London'  is  derived  from  the  Latin 
Londiniuniy  the  name  given  it  in  Tacitus,  and  that  this  is  only  an 
adaptation  by  the  Romans  of  the  ancient  British  name  Llyn  or  Lm, 
a  pool,  and  din  or  dun,  a  high  place  of  strength,  a  hill-fort,  or  city. 
The  'pool'  was  a  widening  of  the  river  at  this  part,  where  it  makes 
a  bend,  and  offered  a  convenient  place  for  shipping.  Whether  the 
'dun'  or  hill  was  the' high  ground  reached  by  Ludgate  Hill,  and  on 
which  St.  Paul's  now  stands,  or  Gornhill,  near  the  site  of  the  Man- 
sion House,  it  is  difficult  to  decide  t .  Probably  both  these  eleva- 
tions were  on  the  ^pool'.  The  etymology  of  the  first  syllable  of  Lon- 
don is  the  same  as  that  of  'Lin'  in  Lincoln,  which  was  called  by 
Ptolemy  Lindon  (AivSov),  and  by  the  Romans  Lindum,  the  second 
syllable  of  the  modern  form  of  the  name  representing  the  word 
'Colonia'.  The  present  British  or  Welsh  name  of  London  is  Llun- 
dain;  but  it  was  formerly  also  known  to  the  Welsh  as  Caer-ludd, 
the  City  of  Lud ,  a  British  king  said  to  have  ruled  here  just  before 
the  Roman  period,  and  popularly  supposed  to  be  commemorated 
in  Lud  -  gate  tf ,  one  of  the  gates  of  the  old  walled  city,  near  the 
Junction  of  Ludgate  Hill  and  Farringdon  Street. 

London,  in  the  days  of  the  Britons,  was  probably  Jittle  more 
than  a  collection  of  huts,  on  a  dry  spot  in  the  midst  of  a  marsh, 
or  in  a  cleared  space  in  the  midst  of  a  wood,  and  encompassed 
by  an  artificial  earthwork  and  ditch.  That  there  was  much  marsh 
and  forest  in  the  immediate  vicinity  is  proved  by  the  character  of 
the  deep  soil  when  turned  up  in  digging  foundations,  and  by  the 
small  subterranean  streams  which  still  run  into  the  Thames,  as  at 
Dowgate,  foimexly  Dourgate  (*water  gate',  from  Celtic  dwr^  water), 
at  the  Fleet  Ditch,  at  Blackfriars  Bridge,  etc. 

After  the  settlement  of  the  Romans  in  Britain,  quite  early  in 
the  Christian  era,  London  rapidly  grew  in  importance.  In  the  time 
of  the  Emperor  Nero  (62  A.D.),  the  city  had  become  a  resort  of 
merchants  from  various  countries  and  the  centre  of  a  considerable 
maritime  commerce,  the  river  Thames  aflfording  ready  access  for 
shipping.  It  suffered  terribly  during  the  sanguinary  struggle  between 
the  Romans  and  the  British  queen  Boadicea,  and  was  in  later  cen- 
turies  frequently  attacked  and  plundered   by  piratical   bands  of 

t  The  latter  alternative  is  that  of  the  Rev.  W.  J.  Loftie,  one  of  Lon- 
Aon^s  best  historians  (see  p.  xxxiv). 

t+  In  reality  from  the  Anglo-Saxon  Lydgeaat^  a  postern  (T.oftie). 


Franks,  Noisemen,  Danes,  and  Saxons,  who  crossed  the  seas  to  reap 
a  ruthless  harvest  from  a  city  which  douhtless  possessed  much  com- 
mercial wealth  ;  but  it  speedily  recovered  from  the  effects  of  these 
visitations.  As  a  Roman  settlement  London  was  frequently  named 
Auguata,  but  it  was  never  raised  to  the  dimity  of  being  a  muni- 
cipium  like  Verulamium  (p.  418)  or  Eboraeum  (York)  and  was  not 
regarded  as  the  capital  of  Roman  Britain.  It  extended  from  the  site 
of  the  present  Tower  of  London  on  the  E.  to  Newgate  on  the  W., 
and  inland  from  the  Thames  as  far  as  the  marshy  ground  known  in 
later  times  as  Moorflelds.  Relics  are  still  found  almost  annually  of 
the  foundations  of  Roman  buildings  of  a  substantial  and  elegant 
character.    Fragments  of  the  Roman  wall  are  also  discernible. 

This  wall  was  maintained  in  parts  until  modem  times,  but  has  almost 
entirely  disappeared  before  the  alterations  and  improvements  which  taste 
and  the  necessities  of  trade  have  introduced.  The  most  prominent  remain- 
ing piece  of  the  Roman  walls  is  in  London  Wall,  between  Wood  Street 
and  Aldermanbury,  where  an  inscribed  tablet  calls  attention  to  it.  An- 
other fragment  may  be  seen  in  the  adjacent  churchyard  of  St.  Giles,  Crip* 
plegate  (see  p.  96)  ^  while  a  third,  8  ft.  thick,  forms  the  north  boundary 
of  the  General  Post  Office  North  (p.  96)  from  Aldersgate  Street  to  King 
Edward  Street.  The  Roman  wall  seems  to  have  been  9-12  ft.  thick  and 
20  ft.  high  and  to  have  consisted  of  a  core  of  rubble  with  a  facing  of 
stone  and  bonding  courses  of  brick. 

The  gates  of  Roman  London,  whose  walls  are  believed  to  have 
been  first  built  on  such  an  extended  scale  as  to  include  the  above- 
mentioned  limits  by  the  Emperor  Constantine  in  the  fourth  cen- 
tury, were  Newgate,  Bishopsgate,  and  a  gate  on  the  river.  In  after- 
times  we  find  Lud-gate,  Dour-gate,  Billings-gate,  Postern-gate, 
Ale-gate  or  All-gate  (Aldgate),  Bishops-gate,  Moor-gate,  Cripple- 
gate,  Alders-gate,  and  New-gate,  all  of  which  are  still  commemorated 
in  names  of  streets,  etc.,  marking  the  localities.  Roman  London 
from  the  Tower  to  Ludgate  was  about  a  mile  in  length,  and  from  the 
Thames  to  ^London  Wall'  about  half-a-mile  in  breadth.  Its  remains 
at  Cheapside  and  the  Mansion  House  are  found  at  about  18  feet 
below  the  present  surface.  The  Roman  city  as  at  first  enclosed 
must,  however,  have  been  smaller,  as  Roman  sepulchres  have  been 
found  in  Moorgate  Street,  Bishopsgate,  and  Smithfield,  which  must 
then  have  lain  beyond  the  walled  city.  The  Saxons ,  who  seldom 
distinguished  themselves  as  builders ,  contributed  nothing  to  the 
fortification  of  London ;  but  King  Alftred  refounded  the  city  and 
restored  the  walls  (886)  as  a  rampart  against  the  Danes,  who  never 
took  London  afterwards.  The  Normans  also  did  much,  beginning  with 
the  erection  of  the  Tower.  During  the  earlier  ages  of  Saxon  rule 
the  great  works  left  here  by  the  Romans  —  villas,  baths,  bridges, 
roads,  temples,  statuary  —  were  either  destroyed  or  allowed  to  fall 
into  decay,  as  was  the  case,  indeed,  all  over  Britain. 

London  became  the  capital  of  one  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  kingdoms, 
and  continued  to  increase  in  size  and  importance.  The  sites  of  two 
of  modern  London's   most  prominent  buildings  —  Westminster 


Abbey  and  St.  Paul's  Cathedral  —  were  oocapled  as  early  as  the 
beginning  of  the  7th  cent,  by  the  modest  originals  of  these  two 
stately  chnrohes.  Bede,  at  the  beginning  of  the  8th  cent.,  speaks 
of  London  as  a  great  market  frequented  by  foreign  traders,  and  we 
And  it  paying  one-flfth  of  a  contribution  exacted  by  Canute  from 
the  entire  kingdom.  From  William  the  Conqueror  London  received 
a  chartert  in  which  he  engaged  to  maintain  the  rights  of  the  city, 
but  the  same  monarch  erected  the  White  Tower  to  overawe  the 
citizens  in  the  event  of  disaffection.  At  this  time  the  city  prob- 
ably contained  30-40,000  inhabitants.  A  special  promise  is  made 
in  Magna  Charts,  extorted  from  King  John,  to  observe  all  the  ancient 
privileges  of  London;  and  we  may  date  the  present  form  of  its 
Corporation,  consisting  of  Mayor,  Aldermen,  and  Common  Coun- 
cilmeu,  from  a  somewhat  earlier  period  tt.  The  13th  and  14th  centu- 
ries are  marked  in  the  annals  of  London  by  several  lamentable  fires, 
famines,  and  pestilences,  in  which  many  thousands  of  its  inhabitants 
perished.  The  year  1381  witnessed  the  rebellion  of  Wat  Tyler,  who 
was  slain  by  Lord  Mayor  Walworth  at  Smithfleld.  In  this  outbreak, 
and  still  more  in  that  of  Jack  Cade  (1450),  London  suffered  severely, 
through  the  burning  and  pillaging  of  its  houses.  During  the  reigns  of 
Henry  VIII.  (1509-47)  and  his  daughter  Mary  (1552-58),  London 
acquired  a  terrible  familiarity  with  the  fires  lighted  to  consume  un- 
fortunate ^heretics'  at  the  stake,  while  under  the  more  beneficent 
reign  of  Elizabeth  (1558-1603)  the  capitol  showed  its  patriotic 
zeal  by  its  liberal  contributions  of  men,  money,  and  ships,  for  the 
purpose  of  resisting  the  threatened  attack  of  the  Armada. 

A  map  of  London  at  this  time  would  show  the  Tower  standing  on 
the  verge  of  the  City  on  the  K.,  while  on  the  W.  the  much  smaller 
city  of  Westminster  would  still  be  a  considerable  distance  from  London. 
The  Strand,  or  river-side  road  connecting  the  two  cities,  would  appear 
bordered  by  numerous  aristocratic  mansions,  with  gardens  extending  into 
the  fields  or  down  to  the  river.  Throughout  the  l^orman  period,  and 
down  to  the  times  of  the  Plantagenets  and  the  Wars  of  the  Boses ,  the 
commonalty  lived  in  poor  and  mean  wooden  dwellings;  but  there  were 
many  good  houses  for  the  merchants  and  manufacturers,  and  many  im- 
portant religious  houses  and  hospitals,  while  the  Thames  was  provided 
with  numerous  convenient  quays  and  landing-stages.  The  streets,  even 
as  lately  as  the  17th  cent.,  were  narrow,  dirty ^  full  of  ruts  and  holes, 
and  ill-adapted  for  traffic.  Many  improvements,  however,  were  made 
at  the  period  we  have  now  reached  (the  end  of  the  i6th  cent.),  though 
these  still  left  London  very  di£ferent  from  what  we  now  see  it. 

t  The  following  is  the  text  of  this  charter  as  translated  by  Bishop 
Stubbs :  —  ^William  king  greets  William  bishop  and  Gosfrith  portreeve, 
and  all  the  burghers  within  London,  French  and  English,  friendly;  and 
I  do  you  to  wit  that  I  will  that  ye  be  all  lawworthy  that  were  in  King 
Edward's  day.  And  I  will  that  every  child  be  his  father's  heir  after  his 
father's  day  \  and  I  will  not  endure  that  any  man  offer  any  wrong  to  you. 
God  keep  you\ 

ft  A  deed  among  the  archives  of  St.  Paul's  mentions'a  ^Mayor  of  the 
City  of  London'  in  1193. 

Bakdkkkr's  London.    i5th  Edit.  C 


In  the  GiYil  Wan  London,  which  had  been  most  exposed  to  the 
exactions  of  the  Star  Chamber,  natarally  sided  with  the  Round- 
heads. It  witnessed  Charles  I.  beheaded  at  the  Palace  of  Whitehall 
in  1649,  and  Oliver  Cromwell  proclaimed  Lord  Protector  of  England 
In  1653 ;  and  in  1660  it  saw  Charles  II.  placed  on  the  throne  by  the 
^Restoration'.  This  was  a  period  when  England,  and  London  espe- 
cially, underwent  dire  suifering  in  working  out  the  problem  of  civil 
and  religions  liberty,  the  successful  solution  of  which  laid  the  basis 
of  the  empire's  greatness.  In  1664-66  London  was  turned  into 
a  city  of  mourning  and  lamentation  by  the  ravages  of  the  Great 
Plague,  by  which,  it  is  calculated ,  it  lost  the  enormous  number 
of  100,000  citizens.  Closely  treading  on  the  heels  of  one  calamity 
came  another  —  the  Great  Fire  —  which ,  in  September,  1666, 
destroyed  13,000  houses,  converting  a  great  part  of  the  eastern  half 
of  the  city  into  a  scene  of  desolation.  This  disaster,  however,  ulti- 
mately proved  very  beneficial  to  the  city,  for  London  was  rebuilt  in 
a  much  improved  form,  though  not  so  advantageously  as  it  would 
have  been  if  Sir  Christopher  Wren's  plans  had  been  fully  realised. 
Among  the  new  edifices  erected  after  the  fire  was  the  present  St. 
Paul's  Cathedral.  Of  important  buildings  existing  before  the  fire 
Westminster  Abbey  and  Hall,  the  Temple  Church,  the  Tower,  and 
a  few  of  the  City  churches  are  now  almost  the  only  examples. 

Wren  fortunately  had  hia  own  way  in  building  the  fifty  odd  City 
churches,  and  the  visitor  to  London  should  not  fail  to  notice  their  great 
variety  and  the  skill  with  which  they  are  grouped  with  St.  Paul's  —  though 
this  latter  feature  has  been  somewhat  obscured  by  recent  demolitions  and 
erections.  A  good  panorama  of  the  entire  group  is  obtained  from  the  tower 
of  St.  Saviour's,  Southwark ;  the  general  effect  is  also  visible  from  Black- 
friars  Bridge  (p.  127). 

It  was  not,  however,  till  the  reign  of  Queen  Anne  (1702-14) 
that  London  began  to  put  on  anything  like  its  present  appearance. 
In  1703  it  was  visited  by  a  fearful  storm,  by  which  houses  were 
overthrown,  the  ships  in  the  river  driven  on  shore,  churches  un- 
roofed, property  to  the  value  of  at  least  2,000,000^  destroyed,  and 
the  lives  of  several  hundreds  of -persons  sacrificed.  The  winter  of 
1739-40  is  memorable  for  the  Great  Frost,  lasting  from  Christ- 
mas to  St.  Valentine'i  Day,  during  which  a  fair  was  held  on  the 
frozen  Thames.  Houses  were  first  numbered  in  1767.  Great  injuries 
were  infiicted  on  the  city  by  the  Gordon  No-Popery  Riots  of  1780.  The 
prisons  were  destroyed,  the  prisoners  released,  and  mansions  burned 
or  pillaged,  thirty-six  conflagrations  having  been  counted  at  one  time 
in  different  quarters ;  and  the  rioters  were  not  subdued  till  hundreds 
of  them  had  paid  the  penalty  of  their  misdeeds  with  their  lives. 

Many  of  the  handsomest  streets  and  finest  buildings  in  London 
date  from  the  latterhalf  of  the  18th  century.  To  this  period  belong  the 
Mansion  House,  the  Horse  Guards,  Somerset  House,  and  the  Bank. 
During  the  19th  cent,  the  march  of  improvement  was  so  rapid  as 
to  defy  description.  The  Mint,  the  Custom  House,  Waterloo  Bridge, 


London  Bridge ,  Bnokingham  Palace ,  the  Pott  Office ,  the  British 
Muienm ,  the  Athenanm  Club ,  the  York  Column ,  the  National 
Gallery,  the  Houses  of  Parliament,  the  new  Law  Courts,  and 
the  whole  of  Belgrayia  and  the  West  End  beyond,  haye  all  arisen 
during  the  last  90  years.  An  important  event  in  the  domestic 
history  of  the  city  was  the  commencement  of  gas-lighting  in  1807. 
(Before  1716  the  proTisions  for  street-lighting  were  very  imper- 
fect, but  in  that  year  an  act  was  passed  ordering  every  householder 
to  hang  out  a  light  before  his  door  f^om  six  in  the  evening  till 
eleven.)  From  that  time  to  the  present  London  has  been  ac- 
tively engaged,  by  the  laying  out  of  spacious  thoroughfares  and  the 
construction  of  handsome  edifices,  in  making  good  its  claim  to  be 
not  only  the  largest,  but  also  one  of  the  finest  cities  in  the  world. 
During  the  last  ten  or  twelve  years  the  greatest  advance  has  been  in 
the  elaboration  and  improvement  of  the  means  of  communication, 
among  the  most  important  achievements  being  the  construction  of 
the  Tower  Bridge  (p.  140)  and  of  the  Black  wall  and  Rotherhithe 
Tunnels  (pp.  14*2,  143),  the  development  of  the  system  of  under- 
ground *tabe^- railways  (p.  33),  and  the  carrying  through  of  the 
gigantic  'Strand  Improvement'  scheme  (p.  168).  The  completion  of 
the  magnificent  Roman  Catholic  Cathedral  at  Westminster  (p.  250)  in 
1903,  of  the  War  Office  (p.  212)  in  1907,  and  of  the  new  Government 
Offices  (p.  215)  in  1908  deserves  special  mention. 

No  authentic  estimate  of  the  population  of  London  ean  be  traced 
farther  back  than  two  centuries,  l^r  is  it  easy  to  determine  the  area 
covered  by  buildings  at  different  periods.  At  one  time  the  *City  within 
the  Walls'  comprised  all  \  afterwards  was  added  the  'City  without  the 
Walls'  \  then  the  city  and  liberties  of  Westminster ;  then  the  borough  of 
South wark,  S.  of  the  river  i  then  numerous  parishes  between  the  two 
cities;  and  lastly  other  parishes  forming  an  encircling  belt  around  the 
whole.  All  these  component  elements  at  length  came  to  be  embraced 
under  the  name  of  *London\  The  population  was  about  700,000  in  the 
year  1700,  about  900,000  in  1800,  and  1,800,000  in  1821.  Each  subsequent 
decennial  census  included  a  larger  area  than  the  one  that  preceded  it. 
The  original  ^Gity'  of  London,  covering  little  more  than  1  square  mile,  has 
in  this  way  expanded  to  a  great  metropolis  of  fully  120  square  miles,  contain- 
ing, in  1901,  a  population  of  4,5S6,0ra  persons  (see  p.  :^viii).  Extension  of 
commerce  has  accompanied  the  growth  of  population.  Statistics  of  trade 
in  past  centuries  are  wanting :  but  at  the  present  time  London  supplies  half 
the  total  customs-revenue  of  the  kingdom.  The  vessels  entering  and 
clearing  at  the  port  of  London  comprise  one-fifth  of  the  total  tonnage 
of  the  British  and  foreign  vessels  trading  between  the  United  Kingdom 
and  foreign  countries  and  British  colonies. 

VI.   Topography,  Statistics,  and  Administration. 

Topography.  The  city  of  London  is  built  upon  a  tract  of  un- 
dulating clay  soil,  -which  extends  irregularly  along  the  valley  of 
the  Thames  from  a  point  near  Beading  to  Harwich  and  Heme  Bay 
at  the  mouth  of  the  river,  a  distance  of  about  120  miles.  It  is  divided 
into  two  portions  by  the  river  Thames,  which,  rising  in  the  Gotswold 
Hills  in  Gloucestershire,  is  from  its  source  down  to  its  mouth  in 


the  German  Ocean  at  Sheemess  230  M.  in  length,  and  is  nayigable 
by  sea-going  vessels  for  a  distance  of  50  M.  —  The  southern  and 
less  important  part  of  London  (Southwark,  Lambethj  Qreenwichy  etc.] 
lies  in  the  counties  of  Surrey  and  Kent,'  the  northern  and  principal 
portion  in  Middlesex, 

The  name  'London'  is  a  word  of  indeterminate  scope,  and  no 
official  use  of  the  name  corresponds  exactly  to  the  huge  continuous 
mass  of  streets  and  dwellings  that  now  form  the  great  and  con- 
stantly extending  Metropolis  —  a  city  which,  in  the  words  of 
Tacitus  (Ann.  14,  33),  is  still  'copi&  negotlatorum  et  commeaturum 
maxime  celebre'.  The  Administrative  County  of  London^  including 
the  Olty  (p.  xxx)  and  the  districts  more  directly  under  the  juris- 
diction of  the  London  County  Council  (p.  xxxi),  has  an  area  of 
118  sq.  M.  and  a  population  (1901)  of  4,536,541  j  but  its  boundaries 
at  many  points  fall  far  within  the  limits  of  the  inhabited  area. 
*  Orea'er  London\  or  the  district  of  the  Metropolitan  and  City  Police, 
extending  12-15  M.  in  every  direction  from  Charing  Cross,  embrafies 
an  area  of  700  sq.M.,with  a  population  of  6,581,372,  but  it  stretches 
beyond  the  continuous  inhabited  area  and  includes  various  villages 
and  country  districts  which  are  not  yet  engulfed  in  the  Metropolis, 
whatever  may  be  their  ultimate  fate.  The  area  within  the  juris- 
diction of  the  Central  Criminal  Court  (p.  97),  the  Metropolitan  water- 
area  (p.  xxxiij,  and  the  London  postal  district  form  three  other 
'Londons',  all  differing  in  size  and  population.  The  Port  of  London 
Includes  the  Thames  below  Teddington  Lock. 

London  —  the  inhabited  area  —  has  more  than  doubled  in  size 
within  the  last  half-century,  being  now,  from  Stratford  and  Black- 
wall  on  the  E.  to  Kew  Bridge  and  Acton  on  the  W.,  14  M.  in  length, 
and,  from  Streatham  and  the  Crystal  Palace  on  the  S.  to  flomsey 
and  Highgate  on  the  N.,  10  M.  in  breadth,  while  it  covers  an  area  of 
about  130  square  miles.  This  area  is,  at  a  rough  estimate,  occupied 
by  8000  streets,  which  if  laid  end  to  end  would  form  a  line  3000  M. 
long.  The  600,000  buildings  of  this  gigantic  city  include  1600 
churches  of  various  denominations,  7500  public  houses,  1700  coffee- 
houses, and  500  hotels  and  inns.  The  annual  rateable  value  of 
house  property  in  the  County  of  London  (see  above)  in  1907  was 
43,889, 181i.,  in  the  Metropolitan  Police  District  52,911, 670i.  Ac- 
cording to  the  census  of  1901,  the  population  of  the  Administrative 
County  of  London  was  4,536,541,  an  increase  of  308,223  over  that 
of  1891  and  nearly  double  that  of  1851  (2,363,274).  The  number 
of  paupers  was  102,000.  There  are  in  London  more  Scotsmen  than 
in  Aberdeen,  more  Irish  than  in  Dublin,  more  Jews  than  in  Palestine, 
and  more  Roman  Catholics  than  in  Rome.  The  number  of  Americans 
resident  in  London  has  been  estimated  by  a  competent  authority  at 
15,000,  while  perhaps  100,000  pass  through  it  annually.  In  Paris 
the  Americans  number  about  8000. 

Besides  the  official  administrative  districts,  to  be  afterwards 


mentioned,  tliere  are  a  number  of  local  topographical  snbdiylslons 
in  London,  the  names  of  which  are  of  frequent  occurrence.  The 
main  or  central  part  of  the  Metropolis  to  the  N.  of  the  Thames  — 
the  London  of  the  tourist  (excluding  the  N.  and  N.E.  outlying 
districts)  —  is  divided  into  two  great  halves,  known  as  the  City 
and  East  End  and  the  Wtat  End» 

The  City  and  the  Babt  End,  consisting  of  that  part  of  London 
which  lies  to  the  £.  of  the  Temple,  form  the  commercial  and 
money-making  quarter  of  the  Metropolis.  It  embraces  the  Port,  the 
Docks,  the  Custom  House,  the  Bank,  the  Exchange,  the  in- 
numerable counting-houses  of  merchants,  money-changers,  brokers, 
and  underwriters,  the  General  Post  Office,  the  printing  and  publish- 
ing offices  of  The  Times,  the  legal  corporations  of  the  Inns  of  Court, 
and  the  Cathedral  of  St.  Paul's,  towering  above  them  all.  —  The 
following  districts  in  this  portion  of  the  Metropolis  are  distinguished 
by  their  population  and  leading  occupations :  Paternoster  Row^  near 
St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  is  still  an  important  centre  of  the  book-trade, 
though  many  large  firms  have  migrated  to  the  W. ;  Smithfield  is  the 
region  of  markets }  C2erfccnire2^,between  Islington  and Hatton  Garden, 
is  the  district  of  watch-makers  and  metal-workers.  Immediately  to 
the  E.  of  the  City  are  Whitechapely  with  its  Jewish  tailoring  work- 
shops, and  Houndsditch  and  the  Minories^  the  quarters  of  the  Jews. 
BethncU  Green  and  Spitalfields  to  the  N.,  and  part  of  Shoreditch^ 
form  a  manufacturing  district,  once  occupied  to  a  large  extent 
by  silk  -  weavers,  partly  descended  from  the  French  Protestants 
(Huguenots)  who  took  refuge  in  England  after  the  Revocation  of 
the  Edict  of  Nantes  in  1685.  Furniture- making  and  boot-making 
are  now  the  chief  industries.  On  the  left  (N.)  bank  of  the  Thames 
below  the  Tower  stretch  the  districts  of  Wapping,  Shadwell^  Lime- 
Aoiwe,  Poplar,  and  MUlwallj  all  chiefly  composed  of  quays,  wharves, 
storehouses,  and  engine-factories ,  and  inhabited  by  shipwrights, 
lightermen,  sailors,  and  marine  store  dealers.  On  the  W.  verge  of 
the  City  are  Chancery  Lane  and  the  Inns  of  Courtj  the  headquarters 
of  barristers,  solicitors,  and  law-stationers. 

The  Wbst  End,  or  that  part  of  the  town  to  the  "W.  of  the 
Temple,  is  the  quarter  of  London  which  spends  money,  makes  laws, 
and  regulates  the  fashions.  It  contains  the  Palace  of  the  King,  the 
Mansions  of  the  aristocracy,  the  Clubs,  Museums,  Picture  Galleries, 
Theatres,  Barracks,  Government  Offices,  Houses  of  Parliament,  and 
Westminster  Abbey ;  and  it  is  the  special  locality  for  parks,  squares, 
and  gardens,  for  gorgeous  equipages  and  powdered  lackeys.  —  The 
most  fashionable  residential  quarters  in  the  West  End  are  Mayfair 
(p.  325),  the  district  between  Bond  St.  and  Park  Lane,  Belgravia 
(p.  366),  the  district  around  Belgrave  Square,  and  Tyhumia,  bound- 
ing Hyde  Park  on  the  N.  TotheW.  of  Tyburnia  extends  Bai/sii^ater. 
PimlicOy  which  strictly  speaking  includes  Belgravia,  extends  between 
Westminster  and  Chelsea  from  Knightsbridge  to  the  river.  To  the  W. 


of  its  N.  portion  is  Brompton,  witli  the  South  Kensington  Museums. 
Bloonuibury  (p.  272)  lies  between  Tottenham  Court  Road  and  Gray's 
Inn  Road. 

On  the  Right  Bank  of  the  Thames,  immediately  opposite  the 
City,  lies  the  ancient  horough  of  Soutkwark^  or  ^Tke  Borough\  con- 
tinued to  the  W.  by  Lambeth  and  Batterseaj  the  three  forming  a 
busy  industrial  district  eontaining  numerous  potteries,  glass-works, 
machine-factores,  breweries,  and  hop-warehouses.  On  the  river 
below  Southwarlt  stretch  Bermondsey,  famous  for  its  tanneries,  glue- 
factories,  and  wool-warehouses,  Botherhithej  chiefly  inhabited  by 
sailors,  ship-carpenters,  coal-heavers,  and  bargemen,  Depiford^  with 
its  great  cattle-market,  Qreenwich^  and  Woolwich, 

Administrative  Divisions.  The  City  of  London,  i.e.  the  City 
Proper,  is  of  course  the  most  important,  as  it  is  by  far  the  most 
ancient,  administratiye  unit  in  the  mighty  London  of  which  it  was 
the  nucleus.  Occupying  an  area  of  about  1  sq.M.,  It  is  bounded  on 
the  W.  by  the  site  of  Temple  Bar  and  Southampton  Buildings ; 
on  the  N.  by  Holborn,  Smithfleld,  Barbican,  and  Finsbury  Circus ; 
on  the  E.  by  Bishopsgate  Without,  Petticoat  Lane,  Aldgate,  and 
the  Minories ;  and  on  the  S.  by  the  Thames.  Strictly  speaking  it 
forms  a  county  of  itself  and  is  not  included  in  Middlesex. 

The  City  is  divided  into  26  Wards  (or  27,  including  that  of  Bridge 
Without  or  Southwark)  and  112  parishes,  has  a  separate  admini- 
stration and  jurisdiction  of  its  own,  and  is  presided  over  by  the  Lord 
Mayor.  At  the  census  of  1896  it  consisted  of  4568  inhabited  houses 
with  31,083  inhabitants  (43,687  less  than  in  1871).  The  resident 
population  is  steadily  decreasing  on  account  of  the  constant  emi- 
gration to  the  West  End  and  suburbs,  the  ground  and  buildings  being 
80  valuable  for  commercial  purposes  as  to  preclude  their  use  merely 
as  dwellings.  More  than  5000  houses  iare  left  empty  every  night 
under  the  guardianship  of  the  1001  members  of  the  City  police  force. 
The  day  population  of  the  City  in  1891  was  301,381,  and  the  number 
of  houses  or  separate  tenements  in  which  persons  were  actively 
employed  during  the  day  was  25,143.  The  rateable  value  of  property 
in  1907  was  5,373,276^.  Sites  for  building  in  the  City  sometimes 
realise  no  less  than  20-70^  per  square  foot.  The  annual  revenue  of 
the  City  of  London  is  over  l,OOO,000i.  In  1891  an  attempt  was 
made  to  estimate  the  number  of  persons  and  vehicles  entering  the 
City  precincts  within  24  hours.  Enumerators  were  stationed  at  80 
different  inlets,  and  their  returns  showed  the  enormous  totals  of 
1,121,708  persons  and  92,488  vehicles. 

When  London  overflowed  the  old  City  boundaries  the  areas  out- 
side the  limits  of  the  Corporation  (see  p.  xxvii)  were  administered 
under  a  medley  of  some  200  private  Acts.  The  needs  of  traffic  and 
sanitary  reform  produced  the  Metropolis  Management  Act,  1855,  under 
which  (and  some  amending  Acts)  local  government  was  handed 


over  to  42  Yestriei  and  District  Boards.  By  the  London  GoTern- 
meiit  Act,  1899,  these  were  amalgamated  in  1900  into  28  Metropolitan 
Boroughs^  each  with  an  electlye  council  and  a  mayor. 

The  Borough  Councils  haye  as  their  main  datief  the  care  of  the  puhlie 
health,  the  provision  of  local  drainage,  and  the  maintenance  of  the  streets. 
Public  baths,  libraries,  and  electric  lighting  wurks  also  come  within  their 
purview,  as  well  as  (he  clearing  of  unhealthy  areas.  The  total  expenditure 
by  vestries  in  1896-97  was  2,7e2,000<. 

The  chief  metropolitan  borough  is  Westminster ^  to  theW.  of  the 
City,  bounded  on  the  N.  by  Bayswater  Road  and  Oxford  Street,  on 
the  W.  by  Chelsea,  Kensington,  and  Brompton,  and  on  the  S.  by  the 
Thames.  It  comprises  three  of  the  parliamentary  boroughs  (West- 
minster Proper  or  the  Abbey  District,  the  Strand  District,  and  the 
District  of  St.  George^s,  Hanover  Square),  each  returning  one 
member  to  the  House  of  Commons.  It  contains  23,104  houses  and 
193,465  inhabitants.  Though  a  city  constituted  by  royal  charter, 
Westminster  had  no  municipality  until  the  vestries  for  the  three 
districts  were  replaced  by  a  borough  oouncU  under  the  London 
Government  Act  of  1899. 

The  remaining  municipal  boroughs  are  Battersea,  Bermondsey, 
Bethnal  Oreen,  Caniberwell,  Chelsea^  Deptford,  Finsbury,  Fulham, 
Greenwich y  Hackney y  Hammersmith^  Hampsteady  Holbom,  Islington^ 
Kensington,  Lambeth^  Lewishamy  Padding  ton.  Poplar ,  St.  Maryleboney 
8t,  PancraSy  Shoreditch,  Southwarky  Stepney,  Stoke  Newington, 
Wandsworth,  and  Woolwich, 

The  vestries,  etc.,  together  with  the  City  Corporation,  elected  a 
central  authority,  the  Metropolitan  Board  of  Works.  This  body 
lost  public  confidence  and  in  1889  was  superseded  by  the  London 
County  Council,  created  by  the  Local  Government  Act,  1888,  and 
entrusted  with  several  new  powers.  The  ^Administrative  County  of 
London^  includes  the  City  and  parts  of  the  counties  of  Middlesex, 
Surrey,  and  Rent.  There  are  118  Councillors,  two  being  elected 
trlennially  by  the  borough  franchise  for  each  parliamentary  division 
(p.  xxxiii),  and  19  Aldermen  appointed  by  the  Council.  The  office  of 
the  County  Council  is  in  Spring  Gardens,  CharingCross  (PI.  R,  26 ;  /V), 
but  a  site  has  been  secured  and  plans  accepted  for  the  erection  of 
an  imposing  County  Hall,  adjoining  Westminster  Bridge,  on  the 
S.  bank  of  the  Thames.  The  annual  income  of  the  Council  is  about 
4,600,000^.  and  its  debt  46,760,000z. 

The  most  important  work  of  the  Metropolitan  Board  of  Works  was 
the  Main  DrcUntige  8yitem.  begun  in  1859  under  Sir  Joseph  Bazalgette,  and 
carried  out  at  a  cost  or  6,600,000{.  New  works  now  undertaken  by  the 
County  Council  will  cost  ultimately  over  8,000,000;.  Every  year  60,000,000 
tons  of  sewage  are  conveyed  through  SVh  H.  of  main  sewers  to  Barking 
Creek  and  Crossness  at  the  mouth  of  the  Thames,  where  are  works  for 
deodorising  and  precipitating.  The  Thames  Embankment  (described  at  p.  125), 
Queen  Victoria  Street,  8ha/tesburv  Avenue,  and  Charing  (k-osi  Road  are  scarce- 
ly less  important  undertakings  of  the  Board  of  Works,  which  also  freed 
the  bridges  from  tolls  at  a  cost  of  1,500,0001.,  and  established  a  free  ferry 
across  the  Thames  at  Woolwich.  The  County  Council  has  also  carried 
out  large  schemes  for  the  facilitation  of  traffic.    BlacktocAl  Tunnel,  opened 


in  1897,  cost  1,400,000/.,  and  is  6210  ft.  in  length  (12S0  ft.  beneath  the  river) 
and  24  ft.  in  diameter.  Greenwich  Ttamei^  opened  in  1902,  is  1217  ft.  in  length 
and  8  ft.  in  width  ^  it  cost  about  120,000/.  Rotherhithe  Tunnel,  opened  in 
1908,  is  11/4  M.  in  leneth  (1636  ft.  under  the  river)  and  26  ft.  in  width ; 
its  cost  is  about  1,000,000/.  Yauxhall  Bridge  has  been  rebuilt  and  Highgate 
Archway  has  been  reconstructed.  Over  600,000/.  has  been  spent  on  the  approa- 
ches to  the  Tower  Bridge,  and  the  Thames  Embankment  is  to  be  extended  from 
the  Houses  of  Parliament  to  Lambeth  Bridge  at  an  estimated  cost  of  500,000/. 
Of  the  numerous  street-improvements  carried  out  by  the  Council,  the 
gigantic  scheme  for  widening  the  E.  end  of  the  Strand  and  cutting  a 
new  thoroughfare  to  Holborn  is  the  most  important  (p.  168).  This  haa 
cost  about  4,500,000/.,  and  has  entailed  the  building  of  large  blocks  of 
working-class  dwellings  on  the  site  of  the  old  Millbank  pri«on  to  rehouse 
about  4000  persons  displaced.  About  20  per  cent  of  the  population  live  in 
overcrowded  conditions,  and  much  has  been  done,  though  much  remains 
to  do,  to  remedy  this  evil.  Schemes  completed  and  in  progress  for  the 
re-housing  of  persons  displaced  by  the  clearing  of  insanitary  areas  and 
by  street-improvements  involve  nearly  100,000  persons  and  about  5,000,000/. 
In  Boundary  Street,  Bethnal  Oreen,  the  Council  has  cleared  15  acres  of 
slums,  the  largest  municipal  undertaking  of  the  kind,  and  rehoused  in 
handsome  new  dwellings  5500  persons,  at  a  total  cost  of  383,000/.  The 
Council  is  the  authority  for  administering  the  Building  Acts  in  London.  It 
also  controls  in  all  5057  out  of  the  6403  acres  of  royal  parks  and  open  spaces 
in  London  and  has  made  ample  provision  for  games  and  so  forth.  Nine 
asylums  are  maintained  at  an  annual  cost  of  nearly  500,000/.  for  17,000  lunatics. 
The  Council  also  owns  nearly  the  whole  of  the  tramway  mileage  in  London. 
The  Council  controls  the  London  Fire  Brigade,  a  force  of  1836  men 
costing  260,000/.  a  year.  To  deal  with  about  3500  fires  annually  there  are 
93  land  fire-engines  and  6  river  engines.  The  headquarters  are  in  Southwark 
Bridge  Road;  chief  officer,  Capt.  J.  de  C.  Hamilton,  B.N.  —  The  London 
Salvage  Corpt  (63  Watling  Street,  E.  C.)  is  a  body  of  about  100  men  main- 
tained by  the  principal  Fire  Insurance  Companies  to  assist  in  saving  pro- 
perty in  fires. 

In  June,  1904,  the  control  of  the  Water  Supply  of  London  and 
the  neighbouring  districts,  now  including  a  population  of  6,800,000 
persons,  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Metropolitan  Water  Board, 
which  was  established  by  Parliament  in  1902  and  consists  of  re- 
presentatives from  various  local  authorities  interested.  This  board 
a(;quired  by  purchase  (under  arbitration)  the  undertakings  of  the 
eight  private  water-companies  which  previously  held  the  monopoly. 
The  daily  supply  of  water  averages  one  million  tons,  or  36  gallons 
per  head  of  the  population.  Over  50  per  cent  of  the  supply  is 
drawn  from  the  Thames,  22  per  cent  from  the  Lea,  the  rest  from 
wells  and  springs. 

Lighting.  There  are  five  great  Gas  Companies^  which  supply 
over  36,000  million  cubic  feet  of  gas,  from  the  sale  of  which  they 
derive  over  5,300,000^.,  besides  l,800,000i.  from  residual  products. 
—  In  the  introduction  of  Electric  Lighting  London  long  lagged 
behind  most  other  great  cities.  Now  fourteen  of  the  London  boroughs 
manufacture  and  supply  their  own  light,  while  in  the  others  the 
enterprize  is  left  in  private  hands. 

The  Poor  Law  in  London  is  administered  by  32  Boards  of  Guar- 
dians, 4  Boards  of  Managers  of  School  Districts,  and  two  Boards  of 
Managers  for  Sick  Asylum  Districts.  There  is  also  a  central  body, 
the  Metropolitan  Asylums  Board,  partly  elected  by  the  Boards  of 


Guardians  and  partly  nominated  by  the  Local  Government  Board; 
it  maintains  12  fever  hospitals,  2  smallpox  hospitals,  an  ambulance 
service  for  all  London,  5  imbecile  hospitals,  several  homes  for 
children,  and  a  training  ship.  The  total  yearly  expenditure  by  poor 
law  authorities  is  over  3,000,000^,  and  the  number  of  paupers 
relieved  is  about  125,000  daily. 

Education.  The  County  Council  has  been  the  local  education 
authority  fox  the  County  of  London  since  1904,  and  its  educational 
work  is  carried  on  by  the  Education  Committee  (office,  see  p.  127 ), 
which  consists  of  38  members  of  the  Council  and  5  ladies  appointed 
by  the  Council.  Previously,  elementary  education  (free  since  1891) 
was  mainly  attended  to  by  the  Lond  u  School  Board,  consisting 
of  55  members,  elected  by  the  City  and  the  ten  other  districts  into 
which  London  was  divided  for  the  educational  franchise;  while 
technical  and  secondary  education  was  attended  to  by  the  Technical 
Education  Board,  consisting  of  20  members  of  the  County  Council 
and  15  from  other  bodies.  —  The  532  elementary  schools  managed 
by  the  Council  in  1906  accommodated  599,400  children,  while 
435  voluntary  schools  accommodated  150,868,  the  estimated  number 
of  children  of  school-age  in  London  (5-14)  being  769,690.  The 
Council  possessed  also  388  evening  schools,  344  domestic  economy 
centres,  and  205  manual  training  centres,  besides  various  schools  for 
physically  and  mentally  defective  children.  The  number  of  teachers 
under  the  Council  was  12,750,  besides  about  2000  pupil-teachers. 

In  providing  the  means  of  secondary  education  for  the  children 
of  the  poorer  classes,  the  Council  has  proceeded  mainly  upon  the 
policy  of  granting  scholarships  entitling  the  holders  to  free  edu- 
cation in  existing  schools  and  institutions,  some  of  which  it  assists 
by  grants  of  money.  It  maintains,  however,  about  a  dozen  secondary 
schools  of  its  own,  and  is  developing  a  scheme  which  will  raise  this 
number  to  30,  accommodating  10,000  pupils.  —  In  the  domain  of 
technical  education,  the  Council  maintains  a  Central  School  of  Arts 
and  Crafts,  in  a  handsome  building  at  the  corner  of  Southampton 
Row  and  Theobald's  Road,  but  its  main  activity  is  directed  towards 
developing  existing  polytechnics  and  technical  schools  by  grants 
for  technical  classes  and  by  providing  annual  scholarships  for  pupils 
from  elementary  schools. 

A  visit  to  any  of  the  following  will  be  of  interest  to  the  edu- 
cationist (previous  arrangement  with  the  secretary  desirable):  Nor- 
thampton Institute  (p.  104),  City  of  London  College  (White  St., 
Moorflelds),  Birkbeck  Institution  (p.  150 ;  these  three  constitute  the 
City  Polytechnicy,  People's  Palace  (p.  145);  Regent  Street  Polytechnic 
(p.  269).  Several  of  the  polytechnics  have  social  and  recreative,  as 
well  as  educational  sides.  There  are  also  many  special  technical 
and  art  schools  in  London. 

In  the  City  technical  education  is  chiefly  managed  by  the  City 
and  Guilds  of  London  Institute  (Gresham  College,  p.  Ill),  with 


which  are  connected  the  Guilds  Central  Technical  College  (p.  342), 
Finsbury  Technical  College  (Leonard  St.,  E.  C),  the  Technical  Art 
School  (122  Kennington  Park  Road),  and  the  Leather  Trades  School 
(42  Bethnal  Green  Road).  Several  of  the  great  City  Guilds  (p.  72) 
have  found  a  worthy  outlet  for  some  of  their  wealth  in  the  deve- 
lopment of  technical  education. 

Farliamentaxy  Divisions.  By  the  Redistrihution  Bill  of  1885 
London  is  divided  for  parliamentary  purposes  into  the  City  Proper, 
returning  two  members  of  parliament,  and  27  metropolitan  divisions 
comprising  57  single  member  districts.  London  University  also 
returns  one  member. 

The  following  are  the  parliamentary  divisions,  which  are  rarely 
coterminous  vnth  the  municipal  boroughs  (p.  xxxi),  even  when  the 
names  are  the  same:  Battersea,  Bermondsey^  Bethnal  Green  (N.E. 
and  S,  WJ,  Bow  and  BromUy^  Camberwell,  Chelsea,  City  of  London, 
Clapham,  Deptford,  I>ulwich,  Finsbury  (Central  and  EJ,  Fulham, 
Greenwich^  Hackney  (Central,  N.,  and  S.),  Hampstead,  Hammer' 
smithy  Holborn,  Islington  (E.,  2V.,  S,,  and  W.),  Kensington  (N,  and 
S,),  Lambeth  (Brixton,  Kennington,  N.  Lambeth,  and  Nonoood), 
Lewisham,  Limehouse,  Marylebone  (E,  and  W.),  Mile  End,  Newing- 
tonj  Paddington(N. and SJ,  Peckham,  Poplar,  Rotherhithe, St.George's, 
Hanover  Square,  St.  George's  in  the  East,  St.  Pancras  (N.,  8.,  E., 
and  W.),  Shoreditch  (Haggerston  and  Hoxton),  Stepney,  Southwark, 
Strand,  Walworth,  Wandsworth,  Westminster,  Whitechapel,  and 

VII.  Books  relating  to  London. 

The  following  are  some  of  the  best  and  latest  works  on  London 
and  its  neighboaihood. 

London  Past  and  Present,  by  Henry  B.  Whtatlev  (based  upon  Peter 
Curmingham't  Handbook  of  London);  3  vols.;  1891  (an  invaluable  store- 
house of  information,  arranged  in  alphabetical  order). 

The  Story  of  London  (MediGeyal  Towns  Series),  by  Eenrv  B.  Wheailep;  1901. 

London  and  the  Kingdom,  by  Reginald  R.  Sharpe;  1894. 

llodern  History  of  the  City  of  London,  by  Charles  Welchf  1896. 

London  (Uiatorie  Towns  Series),  by  TT.  J.  LofHe/  1897. 

A  History  of  London,  by  W.  J.  Lo/tieg  3  vols.,  illus.;  2nd  ed.,  1884. 

The  Survey  of  London,  published  by  the  London  County  Council  and 
edited  by  C.  R,  Athbee;  Vol.  I,  ICOl  (an  enormous  undertaking  still  in  its 
earliest  stsges). 

Memorials  of  London  and  London  Life  in  the  18th,  14th,  and  16th  Cen- 
turies, by  S.  T.  Riley s  1868  (a  series  of  extracts  from  early  chronicles). 

John  Stow*t  Survey  of  London  (1598);  best  editions  by  John  Strype 
(1720  and  1754):  cheap  abridgement,  edited  by  JYo/.  Henry  Morley^  in  the 
'Carisbrooke  Library*  (Boutledge;  1890). 

London  City,  by  W.  J.  Loftie;  illustrated;  1891. 

London  Afternoons,  by  W.  J,  Loftie;  illustrated;  1901. 

Walks  in  London,  by  Aug.  /.  0.  Hare;  2  vols.,  illus.*,  7th  ed.,  1901. 

London,  by  Sir  WalUr  Besant;  illustrated;  1888. 

Westminster,  by  8ir  WaUer  Betani;  illustrated;  1895. 

South  London,  by  Sir  Walter  Besant;  illustrated;  1896;  new  ed.,  1901. 

East  London,  by  Sir  Walter  Besant;  illustrated;  1901. 

Northern  Heights  of  London,  by  Wm.  Howitt;  illustrated;  1869. 

The  Environs  of  London,  by  Lysonei  5  vols.,  1792-96  and  1811. 

Thome's  Handbook  to  the  Environs  of  London;  2  vols.,  1877. 

Imperial  London,  by  Arthur  H.  Beavan;  1901. 

Casselfs  Old  and  New  London,  by  W.  Thornbury  and  E,  Walford; 
6  vols.,  illustrated;  new  ed.,  1898. 

CasselVs  Greater  London  (16  miles),  by  E.  Walford f  2  vols.,  illustrated; 
new  ed.,  1893-96. 

CasselPs  Living  London,  edited  by  George  R.  Sims;  illustrated;  1902. 

London,  vanished  and  vanishing,  by  Philip  Norman;  illustrated;  1905. 

The  Fascination  of  London,  a  series  of  small  books  on  the  different 
parts  of  London  (Holbom  A  Bloomsbury;  Hammersmith.  Fulham  &  Putney; 
Westminster;  Chelsea,  etc.);  by  various  authors,  1903-4. 

London  Films,  by  W.  D.  Howells;  1907. 

London  in  theBeign  of  Victoria  (1837-1897),  by  C.  Laurence  Gomme;  1898. 

London  Churches:  ancient  and  modern,  by  T,  F.  Bumpus;  2  vols,  1906. 

Shakespeare's  London,  by  T.  Fairman  Ordish;  new  ed.,  1904. 

Dickens's  London,  by  T.  E.  Pemberton;  1876. 

Thackeray's  London,  by  W.  H.  Rideing;  1885. 

In  the  Footprints  of  Charles  Lamb,  by  B.  E.  Martin;  ill.;  1891. 

Old  London  Street  Cries  and  the  Cries  of  To-day,  by  A.  W.  Tuer, 
illustrated;  1886. 

Literary  Landmarks  of  London,  by  Laurence  Hutton;  8th  ed.,  1892. 

The  Highway  of  Letters  (Fleet  Street),  by  Thomas  Archer;  ill.;  1893. 

Memorable  London  Houses,  by  Wibnot  Harrison;  3rd  ed.,  1890. 

Literary  London,  by  W.  P.  Ryan ;  1898. 

Stories  of  the  Streets  of  London,  by  H.  Barton  Baker;  1899. 

Curiosities  of  London,  by  J.  Timbs;  1876. 

Clubs  and  Club  Life  in  London,  by  J.  Timbs;  illustrated;  1872. 

The  City  Companies  of  London,  by  P.  H.  Bitchfield;  1904. 

Early  London  Theatres,  by  T.  Fairman  Ordish ;  1899. 

The  Town,  by  Leigh  Huntf  illustrated;  last  ed.,  1893. 

The  Old  Court  Suburb  (Kensington),  by  Leigh  Hunt;  1860;  new  'Edition 
4e  luxe*,  edited  by  Austin  Dobson,  1902. 


Saunter  through  the  West  End,  by  Leigh  Huntf  1861. 

BelcourU  London  in  my  Pocket  and  MasseyU  Streeta  of  London  (each  is,) 
are  intended  to  help  in  ascertaining  the  position  of  any  street  in  London. 

The  London  Manual  (is.  6d.  annually)  explains  the  functions  of  the  public 
bodies  of  the  Metropolis. 

WTtitaker'a  Almanack  (1«.  and  2s.  Qd.)  and  Hazelts  Annual  (3«.  6d.) 
give  a  large  amount  of  useful  information  in  a  condensed  form. 

The  most  detailed  plan  of  London  is  that  of  the  Ordnance  Survey^  on 
a  scale  of  5  ft.  per  mile  (in  coarse  of  publication ;  seyeral  hundred  sheets 
at  2«.  6d.  each;  index  map  4d.;  Edward  Stanford,  13  Long  Acre,  W.G.).  — 
Stanford's  New  Map  of  the  County  of  London  consists  of  30  sheets  (4  inches 
to  a  mile)  at  is.  each  (complete,  in  portfolio,  16«.). 



1.  Arrival  in  London. 

A  list  of  the  great  Terminal  Railway  Stations  in  London  is  given 
at  p.  25,  and  travellers  are  recommended  to  ascertain  beforehand 
for  which  of  these  their  train  is  bound.  Cabs  (see  p.  18)  are  in 
waiting  at  all  these  railway-stations,  and  the  traveller  should  hand 
his  small  baggage  to  a  porter,  telling  him  whether  a  'hansom'  or  a 
*f our- wheeler'  (p.  18)  is  required.  The  porter  will  then  engage  a 
cab  and  afterwards  aid  the  traveller  in  claiming  his  heavier  luggage 
as  it  is  unloaded  from  the  luggage- van.  The  stranger  had  better  let 
the  porter  at  his  hotel  pay  the  cab-fare  in  order  to  prevent  an  over- 
charge. At  the  more  important  stations  Railway  Omnibuses,  holding 
6-10  persons,  may  be  procured  on  previous  application  to  the  sta- 
tion master  (fare  is,  per  mile,  with  two  horses  is,  Qd,-28,,  minimum 
charge  3-4«.). 

Those  who  arrive  in  London  by  water  have  sometimes  to  land 
in  small  boats.  The  tariff  is  Qd,  for  each  person,  and  3d.  for  each 
trunk.  The  traveller  should  take  care  to  select  one  of  the  watermen 
who  wear  a  badge,  as  they  alone  are  bound  by  the  tariff.  Cabs  will 
be  found  at  the  landing-stages. 

2.  Hotels.  Boarding  Houses.  Private  Lodgings. 

Hotels.  The  standard  of  comfort,  or  at  least  of  magnificence,  in 
London  hotels  has  risen  in  recent  years,  and  the  large  first-class 
houses  are  fully  equipped  with  modern  luxuries  and  comforts,  such 
as  electric  light,- lifts,  central  heating,  ample  bath-accommodation, 
telephones  in  the  bedrooms,  and,  in  several  cases,  private  orchestras. 
Even  in  the  older  and  smaller  hotels  most  of  the  rooms  are  fairly 
well-furnished,  while  the  beds  are  clean  and  comfortable.  Numerous 
as  the  London  hotels  are,  it  is  often  difficult  to  procure  rooms  in  the 
height  of  the  Season,  and  it  is  therefore  advisable  to  apply  in  ad- 
vance by  letter  or  telegram. 

Private  Hotels  have  no  license  to  supply  intoxicating  liquors,  but 
in  other  respects  are  often  as  comfortably  and  handsomely  fitted  up 
as  first-class  licensed  houses.  In  many  cases,  however,  the  name 
has  been  appropriated  by  establishments  that  are  practically  nothing 
but  boarding-houses.  —  Temperance  Hotels  are  less  pretentious  and 

Baedbksb's  London.    i6th  Edit.  1 

2  2.   HOTELS. 

have  lower  tariffs  than  the  private  hotels  proper.  Though  as  a 
general  rule  their  cuisine  and  fitting  up  do  not  entitle  them  to  rank 
higher  than  second-class,  many  of  them  (e.g,  in  Bloomsbury)  may 
he  safely  recommended  to  the  traveller  of  moderate  requirements. — 
The  so-called  Residential  Hotels  are  usually  large  blocks  (^Mansions*) 
of  separate  suites  or  flats,  let  furnished  with  attendance,  and  fre- 
quently have  restaurants  for  the  convenience  of  tenants. 

Charges  for  rooms  vary  according  to  the  floor ;  and  it  is  advisable 
to  make  enquiry  as  to  prices  on  or  soon  after  arrival.  When  a  pro- 
longed stay  is  contemplated,  the  bill  should  be  called  for  every  two 
or  three  days,  in  order  that  errors,  whether  accidental  or  designed, 
may  be  detected.  In  some  hotels  the  day  of  departure  is  charged 
for,  unless  the  rooms  are  given  up  by  noon.  Many  hotels  receive 
visitors  en  pension^  at  rates  depending  on  whether  it  is  or  is  not  the 
Season.  The  prices  of  rooms  are  raised  at  many  of  the  West  End  hotels 
during  the  Season  (p.  i).  —  The  charges  for  'attendance'  and  *light' 
are  almost  invariably  included  in  the  price  of  the  room,  but  flres  in 
bedrooms  or  private  sitting-rooms  are  an  extra.  It  is  usual  to  give 
the  'boots'  (i.e.  boot-cleaner  and  errand  man)  a  small  fee  on  leav- 
ing, and  the  waiter  who  has  specially  attended  to  the  traveller  also 
expects  a  shilling  or  two.  The  excellent  American  custom  of  paying 
the  bill  at  the  office  instead  of  through  a  waiter  has  not  yet  become 
usual  in  London.  —  Smoking  is  prohibited  except  in  the  Lounge, 
the  Smoking  Room,  and  the  Billiard  Room.  Refreshments  ordered 
in  either  of  the  two  last  are  generally  paid  for  on  the  spot.  —  In 
the  more  old-fashioned  houses  the  dining-room  is  called  the  Coffee 
Room.  —  Wine  is  generally  expensive  at  London  hotels;  but  the 
expectation  that  guests  should  order  it  'for  the  good  of  the  house' 
has  fallen  largely  into  abeyance.  —  Attendance  at  table-d'h6te  is 
not  obligatory.  —  English  newspapers  are  provided  at  every  hotel, 
but  foreign  journals  are  rarely  met  with. 

The  ordinary  charges  at  London  hotels  vary  from  about  S$.  a  day  in 
the  least  pretentious  houses  up  to  20«.  and  upwards  in  the  most  expensive. 
The  prices  given  below  will  enable  the  traveller  to  form  an  approximate 
idea  of  the  expense  at  the  hotel  he  selects.  The  charge  for  room  is  that 
for  an  ordinary  room  occupied  by  a  single  person.  The  charge  for  two 
persons  occupying  the  same  room  is  often  proportionately-much  less,  while 
that  for  the  best  bedrooms  may  be  much  higher.  Private  sitting-rooms 
and  suites  of  rooms  are  usually  expensive.  The  ordinary  charge  for  a  hot 
bath  is  i«.,  for  a  cold  sponge-bath  in  bedroom  6(2. ;  in  some  instances  baths 
are  now  included  in  the  charge  for  bedrooms  or  for  pension.  The  servants 
of  visitors  are  accommodated  at  cheaper  rates.  Many  hotels  refuse  to 
receive  dogs,  but  provide  for  their  keep  in  suitable  quarters  for  1«.  Bd.- 
Ss.  per  day.  The  prices  here  given  for  breakfast,  luncheon,  and  dinner 
generally  refer  to  table- d'hote  meals.  The  average  d  la  carte  charges  for 
breakfast  are  2j.-3<.  6d.,  for  luncheon  2i.  6d.-5«.,  for  dinner  from  3<.  upwards. 
An  extra  charge  is  made  for  all  meals  served  in  bedrooms.  Tension'  as 
used  in  this  Handbook  includes  board,  lodging,  and  attendance,  while  ^room' 
(R.)  includes  attendance. 

The  following  attempt  to  arrange  the  hotels  of  London  in  geo- 
graphical groups  is  necessarily  based  on  somewhat  arbitrary  distinc- 

2.   HOTELS.  o 

tions,  but  will,  it  is  hoped,  nevertheless  prove  useful  to  the  visitor. 
Within  each  group  the  arrangement  is  made  as  far  as  possible  accord- 
ing to  tarifT.  The  most  expensive  houses  are  naturally  those  in  the 
fashionable  quarters  of  the  West  End,  while  those  in  such  districts 
as  Bloomsbury  and  the  City  are  considerably  cheaper. 

Almost  all  the  great  terminal  railway-stations  of  London  are 
provided  with  large  hotels,  often  belonging  to  the  railway-companies. 
These  hotels,  which  are  specially  convenient  for  passing  travellers, 
are  noted  in  their  proper  places  in  the  following  lists. 

a.  Hotels  in  or  near  Fiecadilly. 

The  hotels  in  tills  group  are  conyenient  for  those  who  wish  to  be 
near  St.  James's  Park,  the  Green  Park,  Hyde  Park  (B.  end),  the  principal 
clubs,  St.  James's  Palace,  Marlborough  House,  Burlington  House  (Royal 
Academy),  and  the  most  fashionable  shops.  They  include  some  of  the 
most  aristocratic  and  expensive  hostelries  in  London. 

*RU%  Hotel  (PI.  R,  22;  /F),  at  the  corner  of  Piccadilly  and  Ar- 
lington St.,  with  view  of  the  Green  Park,  a  sumptuous  establish- 
ment with  winter- garden  and  restaurant,  180  R.  from  10«.  6d.  (incl. 
bath),  B.  2«.,  It  la  carte  luncheon  6^.,  other  meals  served  in  the 
restaurant  or  private  apartments.  — -  ^Claridge^s  (PI.  R,  19;  /), 
Brook  St.,  Grosvenor  Square,  long  the  leading  West  End  hotel, 
rebuilt  in  1898  and  luxuriously  fitted  up,  with  restaurant,  R.  (incl. 
bath)  from  10«.  6d.,  L.  5«.,  D.  8a.  6d.  —  PtecadiUy^  another  luxu- 
rious establishment  (opened  in  1908),  with  entrances  from  Picca- 
dilly and  Regent  St.,  R.  from  Ss.  6d.  (incl.  bath),  B.  2s.-38.  6d., 
other  meals  in  the  restaurant  (p.  12)  or  private  rooms.  —  Berkeley^ 
77  Piccadilly,  at  the  comer  of  Berkeley  St.,  with  a  frequented  restau- 
rant, R.  from  8«.  6<i.,  B.  2-4«.,  L.  4-6«.,  D.  10a.  —  *Carlton  (PJ.  R, 
26;  /F),  at  the  comer  of  the  Haymarket  and  Pall  Mall,  another 
handsome  establishment  belonging  to  the  Ritz  Co.,  with  restaurant 
(p.  12),  R.  from  7a.  6d.,  L.  5a.,  D.  7a.  6d.,  S.  5*. 

To  the  N.  of  Piccadilly:  —  Cohurgj  CarlosPlace,  Grosvenor  Place, 
R.  from  6a.,  D.  7a.  6d. ;  Long's  Hotel,  16  New  Bond  St.,  R.  from  6a., 
D.  7a.  6d;  BtLckland^Sj  43  Brook  St.,  a  long-established  family  hotel, 
R.  from  6a.,  B.  from  2a.,  L.  from  3a.,  D.  5-7a.;  SackvilU  Hotel, 
28  Sackville  St.,  near  Regent  St.,  R.  from  4a.  6d.,  L.  3a. 6d.,  D.  5s.  6d.  5 
Burlington,  19  Cork  St.,  R.  from  4a.  Qd.,  D.  6a.,  pens.  16a.  (more  in 
the  Season).  —  Almondts,  6  Clifford  St.  —  ^Browns  ^  8t,  George's 
Hotel,  Albemarle  St.  and  Dover  St.,  quiet,  good  cuisine,  R.  from 
6a.,  D.  6a.;  Carter's,  14  Albemarle  St.,  R.  from  3a.,  D.  5-7a.;  York 
^  Brunswick,  9  Albemarle  St.,  R.  from  5a.,  D.  48.  6d.  —  Fleming's 
Hotel,  41  Clarges  St.  (no  public  rooms),  suite  of  rooms  for  1-3  pers. 
from  15a.  per  day,  in  the  Season  from  30a.;  Hdtel  Curnon,  Curzon  St., 
Mayfair,  R.  (incl.  bath)  from  6a.,  D.  5a.  6d,  pens,  from  12a.  6d. 

To  the  S.  of  Piccadilly:  —  In  Jermyn  Street,  parallel  to  Picca- 
dilly: ♦PWncea*  Hotel  (No.  36),  a  high-class  family  hotel,  R.  from  6a., 


4  2.  HOTELS. 

L.  49.  Qd,y  D.  Is,  6(2.  or  10«.  6d.  (restaurant,  see  p.  12);  Jules 
(No.  86),  R.  from  6».  6(i.,  with  restaurant  (p.  12) ;  Cavendish  (No.  81), 
family  hotel,  well  spoken  of,  R.  from  5«.  6d.,  D.  from  5s.,  cheaper 
in  winter;  MorleTa  (No.  102),  R.  from  3«.  6d.,  D.  3«.  6d.,  pens,  from 
10«.  6d.,  with  restaurant;  BritUh  (No.  82),  Cox's  (No.  66),  for  single 
gentlemen.  —  Hdtel  DUudonmS^  11  Ryder  St.,  St.  James's  (French), 
R.  flfom  6».  6d.,  L.3«.  6d.,  D.  6-8«. 

Pbivatb  HoTBLS.  8helvey\  6  Olarges  St.,  B.2«.6d.,  L.3«.6d., 
D.  5«.,  sitting-room,  bedroom,  and  dressing-room  from  7^  7«.  a 
week.  —  Payne's,  12  Park  Place,  R.  6».,  B.  2«.,  L.  3«.,  D.  5».  (L.  &  D. 
served  only  to  visitors  with  private  sitting  room) ;  Earle's  Hotelj 
Grosvenor  St. ;  Otiery  House,  10  Bolton  St.,  suites  8-15  guineas  per 
week,  meals  in  apartments  as  ordered. 

b.  Hotels  in  or  near  Charing  Cross  and  the  Strand. 

The  objects  of  interest  in  this  district  include  the  National  Gallery, 
the  National  Portrait  Gallery,  and  most  of  the  theatres. 

*H6UI  Cecil  (PI.  R,  30 ;  //),  an  enormous  house  overlooking  the 
Victoria  Embankment  and  the  Thames,  entered  from  the  Strand 
(Nob.  76-88),  with  over  1000  bedrooms,  200  private  sitting  rooms, 
large  ball  and  concert  rooms,  restaurant  (p.  12),  terrace,  railway,  type- 
writing, and  theatre  offices,  etc. ;  R.  from  6«.,  B.  from  2«.,  L.  3s.  6d., 
D.  6«.  —  *8avoy  Hotel,  another  large  hotel  on  the  Embankment,  ad- 
joining the  Cecil,  entered  from  Savoy  Court,  Strand;  R.  (incl. 
bath)  from  9«.  6d.,  B.  from  2«.,  L.  5«.,  D.  7«.  6c{.;  restaurant,  see 
p.  12.  —  Waldorf  (FL  R,  31;  //),  Aldwych,  Strand,  a  new  palatial 
edifice,  with  400  bedrooms,  176  bath-rooms,  a  palm-court,  restaur- 
ant, and  grill-room  (p.  13),  R.  from  4s.  Qd.,  B.  25.-3s.  6d.,  luncheon 
Ss,  6d.,  D.  5s.  —  Hdtel  MStropole  (650  bedrooms),  H6UI  Victoria 
(500  beds ;  orchestra  during  meals),  and  Orand  Hdtel  (500  beds ; 
facing  Trafalgar  Square;  restaurant,  p.  13),  three  large  and  hand- 
somely furnished  hotels  in  Northumberland  Avenue,  belonging  to 
the  same  company,  and  with  equipments  similar  to  those  of  the 
Hdtel  Cecil  (see  above);  R.  from  ba.  or  65.,  B.  28.-3«.  6d.,  L.  3«.  6d., 
D.  5-68. 

Charing  Cross  HoteL  at  Charing  Cross  Railway  Station,  with  350 
rooms,  restaurant  (p.  13),  and  lifts ;  R.  from  As.  6d.,  B.  2«.  6d.  -  3«.  6d., 
D.  from  5«.  —  *Morley8  Hotel,  Trafalgar  Square,  a  comfortable 
family  hotel  with  100  beds ;  R.  from  4«.  Sd,,  D.  from  38.  6d.,  pension 
from  138.,  without  luncheon  lis.  6d.  —  Oolden  Cross  Hotel,  352 
Strand,  opposite  Charing  Cross  Station,  R.  6s.,  B.  38.  6(2.,  D.  58. 

The  streets  leading  from  the  Strand  to  the  Thames  (PI.  R,  31 ;  IT) 
contain  a  number  of  quiet  and  comfortable  hotels  with  reasonable 
charges.  Among  these  are  the  following :  —  Arundel  Hotel,  8  Arun- 
del St.,  on  the  Embankment,  R.  &  B.  from  68.,  D.  38.,  pens,  from 
108. ;  Howard  (100  beds),  Norfolk  St.,  R.  &  B.  from  68. 6rf.,  D.  38. 6d., 
pens,  from  108.  6d.,  well  spoken  of;  Loudon,  24  Surrey  St.,  R.  &  B. 

2.  HOTELS.  5 

from  Gs.,  D.  3«.  6d.,  pens,  from  9j.  6d.;  Norfolk^  30  Suney  St., 
R.  &  B.  from  6«.,  pens,  from  9a.  6d.;  Ade^^  John  St.,  R.  from 
3i.  Gd.,  pens,  from  32.  3«.  per  week. 

In  Govent  Garden,  to  the  N.  of  the  Strand :  ^  Tavistock  (200 
heds),  Piazza,  Govent  Oarden,  for  gentlemen  only,  R.  &  B.  Is.  6d., 
L.  from  2«.  6(i.,  D.  from  3«.,  good  wines;  Hummuma^  R.  &  B.  5«.  Gd., 
also  in  the  Piazza;  Covent  Oarden^  at  the  comer  of  Sonthampton  St., 
R.  from  6«.,  D.  Ss,  6d.,  pens,  from  10s. 

In  or  near  Leicester  Sqnare,  a  little  to  the  N.  of  Gharing  Gross, 
a  quarter  much  frequented  by  French  visitors:  —  Queen's  Hotel, 
Leicester  Square,  R.  from  6s.,  L.  3s.  6d.,  D.  5s.  (with  band);  Hdtel 
Suisse  (Swiss  Hotel),  53  Old  Gompton  St.,  unpretending,  well  spoken 
of,  R.  from  2t.  6(i.,  B.  from  la. 

Tbucpbbanoe  Hotbl.  Buckinghamy  28  Buckingham  St,  leading 
from  the  Strand,  R.  A  B.  from  5s.,  pens,  from  9s.  Qd, 

The  stranger  is  cautioned  against  going  to  any  unrecomm ended  house 
near  Leicester  Square,  as  there  are  several  houses  of  doubtful  reputation 
in  this  locality. 

0,  Hotels  in  or  near  Westminster. 

Convenient  for  the  Houses  of  Parliament,  the  Ministerial  Offices,  West- 
minster Abbey,  the  Tate  Gallery,  St.  James's  Park,  Lambeth  Palace  (across  the 
river),  Victoria  Station,  the  United  States  Embassy,  and  the  offices  of  the  High 
Commissioner  of  Canada  and  the  Agents  General  of  the  chief  British  Colonies. 

Westminster  Palace  Hotel  (PI.  R,  25,  IV;  see  p.  248),  Victoria 
St.,  opposite  Westminster  Abbey,  with  300  beds,  much  frequented 
by  members  of  parliament,  R.  from  3s.  6(2.,  B.  3s.  6c{.,  L.  3s.  6<2., 
D.  5s.,  pens,  from  12s.  6d.;  *H6Ul  Windsor  (PI.  R,  25;  IV),  also  in 
Victoria  St.,  with  212  beds,  R.  from  4s.  6d.,  D.  5s.,  pens,  from  12s. 

—  Buckingham  Palace  Hotel  (PI.  R,  21;  IV),  Buckingham  Gate,  a 
large  hotel,  R.  from  5«.  6d.,  L.  3s.  6d.,  D.  6«.,  pens,  from  13s.  6d.  — 
*Orosvenor  Hotel  (PI.  R,  21 ;  IF),  at  Victoria  Station,  a  large  and 
handsomely  equipped  house,  R.  from  bs.  6d.,  B.  3^.  Qd.,  L.  4^.,  D.  Qs, 

—  St,  Ermin's  Hotd,  Caxton  St.,  R.  from  5s.,  L.  3s.,  D.  4s.,  pens, 
from  10s.  6d.  —  WUion  Hotel,  Vauxhall  Bridge  Road  (entrance 
32  Wilton  Road),  R.  from  3s.  U.,  D.  3s. 

d.  Hotels  in  Kensington  and  Neighbourhood. 

The  objects  of  interest  in  this  district  include  Hyde  Park  (W.  end), 
Kensington  Gardens  and  Palace,  the  Albert  Hall,  South  Kensington  Museum, 
the  Natural  History  Museum,  and  the  Imperial  Institute. 

Hyde  Park  Hotel,  Albert  Gate  (PI.  R,  17,  18),  with  view  of  the 
Park  from  the  rear,  R.  (incl.  bath)  from  5s.  6d.,  B.  3s.  6d.,  L.  3s.  6d., 
D.  6s.  —  *Hans  Crescent  Hotel,  Hans  Grescent,  Sloane  St.  (PI.  R,  13), 
R.  from  6s.,  D.  6s.,  pens.  16s.  —  *Cadogan  Hotel,  75  Sloane  St., 
R.  (incl.  bath)  from  5s.,  B.  3s.,  L.  3s.  6(2.,  D.  6s.;  Alexandra  HoUl, 
16-21  St.  George's  Place,  Hyde  Park  Gomer  (PI.  R,  17),  R.  from  9s., 
L.  3s.  6d.,  D.  6s.  6d.  —  South  Kensington  Hotel,  Queen's  Gate  Terrace 

6  2.   HOTELS. 

(PI.  R,  5),  200  bediooms,  B.  from  5s.,  D.  5«.,  pens,  from  12a.,  in  the 
Season  from  15«.  —  *  Royal  Palace  Hotel  (350  beds),  Kensington 
High  St.,  overlooking  the  grounds  of  Kensington  Palace  (PI.  R,  6) ; 
R.  from  4«.  6rf.,  B.  2-3».,  L.  3a.,  D.  5«.  —  De  Vert  HoUl,  De  Vere 
Gardens  (PI.  R,  5),  R.  from  6a.  6d.,  L.  3a.,  D.  5a.,  pens,  from  12a.  j 
PHnee  of  Wales  Hotel,  same  street,  No.  16,  R.  from  6a.  6d.,  L.  2a. 
Gd.,  D.  5a.,  pens,  from  10a.  6d. 

Great  Western  Hotel,  Paddington  Station  (PI.  R,  11),  a  railway 
terminal  hotel,  R.  from  4a.,  B.  3a.,  D.  5a.  —  Norfolk  Square  Hotel, 
25  London  St.,  opposite  Paddington  Station,  R.  &  B.  from  6a.,  D.4a. 

♦Battei/'a  Hotel,  opposite  Gloucester  Road  Station  (PI.  G,  5),  with 
about  250  beds,  R.  from  5a.,  B.  3a.,  D.  5a.,  pens,  from  12a.  —  Norfolk, 
Harrington  Road  (Pi.  G,  5),  R.  from  5a.,  D.  3a.  6d.,  pens,  from  9a.  — 
*Norri$'8  Hotel,  48-53  Russell  Road,  Kensington,  facing  Addison 
Road  Station  (beyond  PI.  G,  1),  a  family  hotel,  R.  from  3a.  6d.,  D.  3a., 
pens,  from  2i.  12a.  6d.  per  week.  —  Bolton  Mansions,  11  Bolton 
Gardens  West  (PI.  G,  5),  R.  &  B.  5a.  6d.,  L.  2a.  6d.,  D.  3a.  6d.,  pens, 
from  7a.  —  Barkston  Gardens  Hotel,  40  Barkston  Gardens,  South 
Kensington.  —  Hotel  Vandyke,  51  Cromwell  Road. 

Pbivatb  Hotels.  Broadwalk,  9-13  De  Vere  Gardens,  R.  from 
48.  6d.,  L.  2a.  6d.,  D.  4a.,  pens,  from  10a.  6d.;  Hdtel  ImpSrial, 
121  Queen's  Gate,  R.  from  4a.,  L.  2a.,  D.  3a.  6d.,  pens,  from  45a.  6d. 
per  week ;  Private  Residential  Hotel,  37  Queen's  Gate  Gardens,  pens.  6a.; 
Worcester  House,  corner  of  Cromwell  Road  and  Courtfleld  Gardens. 

e.  Hotels  between  Oxford  Street  and  Regent's  Park. 

The  Wallace  Gallery  is  in  this  district. 

*H6tel  Great  Central,  Marylebone  Station  (PI.  II,  16),  railway 
hotel  (700  beds),  with  winter-garden;  R.  from  4a.  6d.,  B.  2a.-3a. 
6rf.,  L.  3s.  6d.,  D.  5a.,  pens,  by  arrangement.  —  ^Langham  Hotel 
(PI.  R,  24;  i),  Portland  Place,  a  large  and  centrally  situated  house, 
with  450  beds,  electric  light,  lifts,  etc.;  R.  from  4a.  6d.,  B.  3a., 
L.  2a.  6d.-4a.,  D.  5a.,  pens.  15a.  —  Portland  Hotel,  Great  Portland 
St.,  with  lift  and  electric  light,  R.  from  4a.,  B.  from  la.  6rf.,  L.  from 
2a.,  D.  3a.  6d.,  pens,  from  10a.  6d.  —  Marshall  Thompson's  Hotel, 
28  Cavendish  Square.  —  Ford's  Hotel,  14  Manchester  St.,  Manchester 
Square  (PI.  R,  19 ;  /),  R.  from  5a.,  L.  2a.  6d.,  D.  4a.  6d.,  an  old  house 
and  well  spoken  of.  —  Durrant's  Hotel,  Manchester  Square.  — 
Hdtel  York,  Berners  St.,  well  spoken  of.  —  Portman  Hotel,  26  Port- 
man  St.,  pens.  6a.  6d.-10s.  6d.  —  Clifton  Hotel,  Welbeck  St.,  pens. 
10a.  6d.  —  Tudor  Hotel,  87  Oxford  St.,  R.  from  4a.  Qd.,  B.  2a.' 
6rf.,  L.  2a.  6rf.,  D.  3a.  6d.,  pens,  from  10a.  6d. 

Pbivatb  Hotels.  Dysart  Hotel,  Henrietta  St.,  Cavendish  Square, 
R.  (incl.  bath)  from  5a.,  B.  2a.  6d.,  L.  3a.,  D.  5s.,  pens,  from  10a. 
6d.;  Henrietta  Mansions,  same  street,  R.  from  3s.  6d.,  B.  or  L.  28., 
D.  3a.  6d. 

2.   HOTELS.  7 

f.  Hotels  in  Bloomsbnry  and  Neighbourhood. 
This  district  includes  the  l&rge  terminal  hotels  of  the  northern  railways 
and  an  immense  number  of  small  unpretending  hotels  and  boarding-houses 
at  moderate  prices.    Its  centre  of  interest  is  the  British  Museum. 

*H6tel  Bussell,  Rassell  Square,  corner  of  Qailford  St. ,  a  hnge 
and  elaborately  equipped  house,  with  500  rooms,  restaurant  (p.  14), 
a  winter-garden,  an  orchestra,  railway,  type-writing,  and  theatre 
offices,  etc.;  R.  from  4*.  6d.,  B.  from  2«.,  L.  3«.  6d.,  D.  6a.  —  ♦JtfW- 
land  Grand  HoUl,  St.  Pancras  Station  (PI.  B,  28),  a  handsome  Gothic 
building  by  Sir  G.  G.  Scott  and  one  of  the  best  of  the  large  terminal 
hotels,  with  400  beds;  R.  from  4«.,  B.  3«.,  D.  6«.,  pens,  from  12».  — 
Euston  Hotel,  Euston  Station  (PI.  B,  24,  28),  with  300  rooms,  R. 
from  58.,  B.  3a.,  L.  3a.,  D.  5a.  —  Oreat  Northern  Railway  Hotel, 
King's  Cross  Station  (PI.  B,  31,  32),  R.  from  4a.,  D.  from  3a.  — 
Imperialy  Russell  Square,  with  350  rooms  and  winter-garden,  new, 
R.  &  B.  from  5s.,  L.  2a.,  D.  3s.;  *Bedford  Hotel,  93  Southampton 
Row,  R.  from  3a.,  L.  2a.,  D.  3a.,  pens.  8a. 

In  High  Holborn  (PI.  R,  32;  II):  Fir$t  Avenue  Hotel,  a  large 
hotel  (300  beds),  R.  from  5a.,  B.  3a.,  L.  2a.  6d.,  D.  in  the  griU-room 
2s.  6d.,  in  the  dining-room  5a.,  well  spoken  of;  Inn»  of  Court  Hotel, 
another  large  house,  with  a  second  entrance  in  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields, 
R.  from  4a.,  B.  3s.,  L.  2a.  6d.,  D.  3a.  6rf.  and  5a.,  pens,  from  10a.  6d. 

In  Tottenham  Court  Road  (PI.  R,  28):  The  Horseshoe  (No.  264; 
R.  from  3a.,  L.  2a.,  D.  2a.  U.)  and  the  Bedford  Head  (No.  235; 
R.  &  B.  5,  D.  3a.),  two  commercial  houses,  suited  for  gentlemen. 

Pmvatb  Hotels.  AvondaU  House,  1  Tavistock  Place,  R.  from 
4s.  6d.,  D.  2s.  6d.,  pens,  from  1L  2a.  per  week;  Woodstock  House, 

8  Euston  Square,  R.  &B.  from  4s.,  D.  2s.  6d.,  pens,  from  6s.  6d., 
well  spoken  of. 

Temperance  Hotels.  West  Central  Hotel,  75-81  and  97-105 
Southampton  Row  (PI.  R,  32;  //),  an  excellent  temperance  hotel, 
R.  from  2a.  6rf.,  B.  2s.,  D.  38.,  pens.  8a.;  KingsUy  Hotel,  36  Hart  St., 
Bloomsbury  Square,  R.  3s.-5s.  6d.,  pens.  8s.  6d.-108.  6d.,  Thackeray 
HoUl,  Great  Russell  St.,  R.  3s.  6d.-4a.,  B.  2a.,  L.  2a.,  D.  3s.,  pens, 
(without  luncheon)  from  8s.  6d.,  two  comfortable  hotels  belonging 
to  the  same  proprietor.  —  University  Hotel,  Endsleigh  Gardens, 
new;  Ivanhoe  Hotel,  Bloomsbury  St.,  KeyUworth  Hotel,  Great 
Russell  St.,  two  new  and  well -equipped  houses;    Cobum  Hotel, 

9  Endsleigh  Gardens,  R.  from  3s.,  B.  2s.,  D.  2a.  6d.,  pens,  from 
7a.  6d.;  Wobum  House  Hotel,  12  Upper  Woburn  Place,  R.  &  B.  from 
6a.,  L.  la.  6rf.,  D.  2a.  6d.,  pens,  from  7s.  (luncheon  extra);  Blooms- 
bury Hotel,  31  Queen  Square,  R.  from  2,  pens,  from  8s.;  Wild's  Hotel, 
70  Euston  Square,  R.  from  2a.  6d.,  B.  2a.  —  Mamis  Hotel,  48  Tor- 
rington  Square  (PI.  R,  28),  largely  patronized  by  vegetarians,  R.  &  B. 
from  3a.  6rf.  —  Morton  HoUl,  2  Woburn  Place,  R.  from  3s.,  D.  2s.  6d., 
pens,  from  8s.  —  Suttie's  Temperance  Hotel,  24-27  Bedford  Place, 
Russell  Square,  R.  from  2s.  6d.,  B.  2s.,  D.  2a.  Qd.,  pens,  from  6s. 


g.  Hotels  in  the  City. 

These  hotels  are  convenient  for  those  visiting  London  on  business,  while 
the  City  also  contains  numerous  objects  of  wider  interest  such  as  8t.  Paurs 
Cathedral,  the  Guildhall,  the  Tower,  St.  Bartholomew's,  and  the  Charter- 
house. The  Fleet  Street  hotels  are  near  the  Inns  of  Court  and  the  Law  Courts. 

*De  Keyicr's  Royal  Hotel  (Pi.  R,  35;  ii),  weU  sitnated  on  the 
Victoria  Embankment,  Blackfriars,  and  largely  patronized  by  Ger- 
mans, Frenchmen,  and  other  foreigners;  400  rooms,  large  marble 
hall  and  lounge;  pens.  12«.  6c{.-25s.  per  day. 

Cannon  Street  HoUl  (Pi.  R,  39;  Ul).  —  ^Holbom  Viaduct  Hotel 
(PI.  R,  36;  ii),  R.  from  5«.,  B.  3».,  L.  3«.  6rf.,  D.  6*.,  pens,  from  12«. 
—  *Oreat  Eastern  HoUl  (PI.  R,  44;  ///),  R.  from  As.  6d.,  B.  3»., 
L.  3s.  6d.,  D.  5<.   These  are  large  railway  hotels. 

Manchester  Hotely  186-145  Aldersgate  St,  R.  &  B.  from  5«.  6d., 
L.  2«.  6d.,  D.  3«.  6d.  —  KUMs  HoUl,  38  Finsbury  Square,  R.  from  28., 
D.  3«.  6d.,  frequented  by  Germans,  well  spoken  of;  Backer's  Hotel, 
26  Finabury  Square,  R.  3-4«.,  B.  2s.,  D.  3s.,  a  favourite  foreign 
hotel;  Bohn's,  6  Circus,  Minories,  unpretending. 

In  or  near  Flbbt  Stbbbt:  —  Anderton's  Hotel,  162  Fleet 
St.,  a  favourite  resort  of  many  dining  clubs  and  masonic  lodges, 
R.  &  B.  from  5«.  6d.,  L.  2s.,  D.  3«.  6d.,  pens,  from  10s.  6d.;  Peele's 
HoUl,  177  Fleet  St.,  R.  3«.  6d.,  R.  &  B.  5«.;  *8alisbury  Hotel, 
Salisbury  Square,  Fleet  St.,  R.  from  4«.,  B.  3s.,  L.  3s.,  D.  3«.  6d. 

In  Aldgatb  :  Three  Nuns  HoUl,  R.  3s.  6d. 

In  Chabtbrhodsb  SauAEB  (Pi.  R,  40;  //),  quietly  situated: 
CharUrhouse  Hotel,  R.  from  3s.  6d.,  incl.  bath,  L.  Is.  6d.,  D.  2«.  6d. 

Tbmpebancb  Hotels.  Devonshire  House,  12  Bishopsgate  With- 
out, near  Liverpool  Street  Station  (PL  R,  44;  III),  R.  from  3s.  6d., 
B.  2s.  6d.,  L.  2s.  6d.,  D.  3s.  —  WUd^s,  30-40  Ludgate  Hill  (PL  R, 
35;  1/),  R.  from2«.6d.,  B.  2s. 

h.  Hotels  to  the  South  of  the  Thames. 

There  are  few  hotels  of  importance  on  this  side  of  the  river,  and 
neither  London  Bridge  Station  nor  Waterloo  Station  is  provided  with  a 
terminal  hotel.  Fair  accommodation  may  be  obtained  at  the  houses  men- 
tioned below. 

Bridge  House  Hotel,  4  Borough  High  St.,  London  Bridge  (PL  R, 
42;  III),  R.  from  4«.  6d.,  B.  2«.-38.  6d.,  D.  2s.  6d.-5s.  —  Yorh 
Hotel,  comer  of  Waterloo  Road  and  York  Road,  close  to  Waterloo 
Station  (PL  R,  30),  R.  from  3s.  6d.,  R.  &  B.  from  4».  6d. ;  Waterloo 
HoUl,  2-16  York  Road,  Waterloo,  R.  from  3«.  6d.  —  George  Inn  Hotel, 
77  Borough  High  St.,  an  old  coaching  Inn,  quite  unpretending, 
R.  2s.  9d.,  B.  ls.-2s.  —  ^Queen's  HoUl,  Upper  Norwood,  pleasantly 
situated  near  the  Crystal  Palace,  with  large  gardens,  R.  from  4s.  6d., 
D.  5s.,  pens,  from  9s.  In  winter  and  10s.  6d.  in  summer. 

Boarding  Houses.  The  visitor  will  generally  find  It  more 
economical  to  live  In  a  Boarding  House  than  at  a  hotel.  For  a  sum 
of  30-40s.  per  week  or  upwards  he  will  receive  lodging,  breakfast. 


luncheon,  dinner,  and  tea,  taking  his  meals  and  sharing  the  sitting 
rooms  with  the  other  guests.  Lights,  fires,  boot-cleaning,  baths,  and 
luncheon  are  frequently  'extras'  and  should  be  arranged  for.  It  is 
somewhat  more  difficult  to  give  a  trustworthy  selection  of  boarding- 
houses  than  of  hotels,  but  the  Editor  has  reason  to  belioTe  that  those 
noted  below  are  at  present  (1908)  fairly  comfortable. 

In  Kensington  and  Barl's  Court:  Mitt  Edwards^  44  Longridge  Bead, 
1/.  7*.  to  21.  2*.  per  week;  Rutland  Private  Hotels  29  De  Vere  Gardens,  from 
7*.  e<l.  per  day  or  42«.  per  week  \  Mrt.  MeDovoell^  6  Templeton  Place,  from 
It.  6d.  per  day  or  86«.  per  week ;  Mrt.  Blakty  5  Philbeach  Gardens,  from 
90*.  per  week-,  Lo/iut,  21  Fopstone  Boad,  Qt.  Qd.-iOs.  per  day,  11/2*272  guineas 
per  week;  Mrt.  Jordan,  11  Fopstone  Boad,  from  21«.  per  week;  Mitt 
Hayward^  47  Warwick  Road,  from  %t.  per  day;  Mrt.  AtpinalL  253  Cromwell 
Boad;  Knaretborough Eoute.Go]hixgha.m  Place,  Cromwell  Road;  Mrt.  OerUng^ 
92  Belgrave  Road,  from  dOt.  per  week:  Mrt.  Brown,  4  Glazbury  Road, 
W.  Kensington,  from  it.  Qd.  per  day  or  26«.  per  week. 

In  Bayswater  and  Kottinq  Hill:  Mrt.  Daviet,  6  Lancaster  St.,  6«.  6d.- 
12«.  6<2.  per  day,  from  S6«.  per  week;  Mrt.  Oreenley,  68  Oxford  Terrace, 
from  It.  Qd.  per  day  or  42<.  per  week;  Mrt.  OratUmy  8  Talbot  Boad,  from 
bt.  6d.  per  day  or  25t.  per  week;  Mrt.  Uther,  51  Blenheim  Crescent,  Lad- 
broke  Grove;  Jlcfiester  Mantiont,  1-6  Ilchester  Gardens;  Mrt.  Jetley^  Mitt 
Walker,  4  and  12  Kensington  Gardens  Square;  Jaeoht,  41  Linden  Gardens, 
from  S0«.  per  week;  Mitt  Oreyy  40  Colville  Terrace,  from  bt.  per  day  or 
31«.  6d.  per  week;  Mitt  FiOden,  16  Prince's  Sauare;  Mrt.  Band,  71  Elgin 
Crescent,  28«.-35«.  per  week;  Beavfort  Hottte,  61  Elgin  Crescent,  from  6*. 
per  day  or  31».  6d.  per  week. 

Between  Oxford  St.  and  Reobnt's  Park:  Mrt.  Battle,  32  Kottingbam 
Place,  from  63«.  per  week;  Sedcole,  10  Duchess  St.,  7-9*.  per  day,  21.  2t.- 
31.  13*.  6d.  per  week;  Mrt.  Davey,  18  Granville  Place,  from  42*.;  Mrt. 
Henderton,  21  Granville  Place,  from  35*. ;  Mitt  Robertton,  82  Dorset  Square, 
6-10*.  per  day;  Lurrant,  1  Cornwall  Terrace;  Otnaburgh Boute,  Osnaburgh 
St.,  BegenVs  Park,  7*.  6d.  per  day. 

Near  tbe  British  Musedm:  Mrt.  Ivent  Blue,  30  Queen  Square,  from 
30*.  per  week;  Mrt.  BoutteU,  11  Gordon  St.,  30-42*.  per  week.  In  Upper 
Woburn  Place:  No.  16.  Mittet  Wright,  6-8*.  per  day;  No.  16.  OUn  Devon, 
from  80*.  per  week;  No.  24.  MittJonet;  No.  7.  Mrt.  Bowen,  6-8*.;  No.  11.  Ray. 
In  Woburn  Place:  No.  11.  Mitt  Lott,  from  6*.  Qd.  per  day;  No.  8.  Mrs. 
Nesbm.  In  Upper  Bedford  Place:  Iso.i.  Mrt.Eenning;  No.  63.  Manhattan, 
5-10*.  per  day;  No.  52.  Thirlmere,  7-9*.  per  day.  In  Bedford  Place:  No.  10. 
Carlton  Mantion;  No.  30.  Mitt  Smith;  No.  21.  Mrt.  Snett,  6*.-7*.  6d.  per  day, 
42<.-52*.  Qd.  per  week ;  No.  36.  Mitt  Sparshatt,  from  6*.  Qd.  per  day,  31*.  6d.-63*. 
per  week;  No.  8.  Mrt.  Clark.  Mrt.  Waterton,  9  Montague  St.,  from  5*.  per 
day;  Bantha,  2  Upper  Montague  St.,  31*.  6d.-42*.  per  week;  Mrs.  Cory,  Mrt. 
Jamet,  23  and  67  Torrington  Square.  In  Gower  Street :  No.  36.  C.  Parkinton, 
from  35*.  per  week;  No.  80.  Mrs.  Mason,  from  6*.  6e;.  per  day  or  35*.  per 
week;  No.  78.  Mrs.  Salmon;  Nos.  158-32.  Mrt.  MUls,  30*.  per  week.  In 
Guilford  Street :  No.  38.  Mitt  Tantley,  26*.-35*.  per  week ;  No.  88.  Mitt  Graham, 
from  25*.  per  week ;  No.  57.  Mrt.  Toung,  from  6*.  per  day  or  30*.  per  week  ; 
No.  63.  Mrt.  Johntton;  No.  66.  Kent  Boute,  from  5*.  per  day;  No.  68.  Andrewt. 

Private  ApartmentSf  which  may  be  hired  by  the  week  in  any 
part  of  London,  admit  of  greater  Independence  on  the  part  of  the 
visitor  bent  on  seeing  the  sights.  Notices  of  ^Apartments',  or 
*  Furnished  Apartments\  are  generally  placed  in  the  windows  of 
houses  where  there  are  rooms  to  be  let  in  this  manner,  but  it  is 
safer  to  apply  to  the  nearest  house-agent.  Rooms  in  the  house  of 
a  respectable  private  family  may  often  be  obtained  by  advertise- 
ment or  otherwise,  and  are  generally  much  more  comfortable  than 


the  professed  lodging-houses.  The  dearest  apartments,  like  the 
dearest  hotels,  are  at  the  West  End,  where  the  eharges  vary  from 
21.  to  152.  a  week.  The  best  are  in  the  streets  leading  from  Pic- 
cadilly (Dover  Street,  Half  Moon  Street,  Glarges  Street,  Duke  Street, 
and  Sackyille  Street),  and  in  those  leading  out  of  St.  James's  Street, 
such  as  Jermyn  Street,  Bury  Street,  and  King  Street.  Good,  hut  less 
expensive  lodgings  may  also  be  obtained  in  the  less  central  parts  of 
the  West  End,  and  in  the  streets  diverging  from  Oxford  Street  and 
the  Strand.  In  Bloomsbury  (near  the  British  Museum)  the  average 
charge  for  one  room  is  15-219.  per  week,  and  breakfast  is  provided 
for  1«.  a  day.  Fire  and  light  are  usually  extras,  sometimes  also  boot- 
cleaning  and  washing  of  bed-linen.  It  is  advisable  to  have  a  clear 
understanding  on  all  these  points.  Still  cheaper  apartments,  vary- 
ing in  rent,  according  to  the  amenity  of  their  situation  and  their 
distance  from  the  centres  of  business  and  pleasure,  may  be  obtained 
in  the  suburbs.  The  traveller  who  desires  to  be  very  moderate  in  his 
expenditure  may  even  procure  a  bedroom  and  the  use  of  a  breakfast 
parlour  for  10«.  a  week.  The  preparation  of  plain  meals  is  generally 
understood  to  be  included  in  the  charge  for  lodgings,  but  the  sight- 
seer will  probably  require  nothing  but  breakfast  and  tea  in  his 
rooms,  taking  luncheon  and  dinner  at  one  of  the  pastrycooks'  shops, 
oyster-rooms,  or  restaurants  with  which  London  abounds. 

Though  attendance  is  generally  included  in  the  weekly  charge 
for  board  and  lodging,  the  servants  expect  a  small  weekly  gra- 
tuity, proportionate  to  the  trouble  given  them. 

Money  and  valuablea  should  be  securely  locked  up  in  the  visitor^s  own 
trunk,  as  the  drawers  and  cupboards  of  hotels  and  boarding-houses  are 
not  always  inviolable  receptacles.  Large  sums  of  money  and  objects  of 
great  value,  however,  had  better  be  entrusted  to  the  keeping  of  the  landlord 
of  the  house,  if  a  person  of  known  respectability,  or  to  a  banker  in  ex- 
change for  a  receipt.  It  is  hardly  necessary  to  point  out  that  it  would  be 
unwise  to  make  such  a  deposit  with  the  landlord  of  private  apartments  or 
boarding-houses  that  have  not  been  specially  recommended. 

3.  Eestaurants.  Dining  Booms.  Oyster  Shops. 

English  cookery,  which  is  as  inordinately  praised  by  some  epi- 
cures and  bon-vivants  as  it  is  abused  by  others,  has  at  least  the 
merit  of  simplicity,  so  that  the  quality  of  the  food  one  is  eating 
is  not  so  apt  to  be  disguised  as  it  is  on  the  Continent.  Meat  and 
fish  of  every  kind  are  generally  excellent  in  quality  at  all  the  better 
restaurants,  but  the  visitor  accustomed  to  Continental  fare  may 
discern  a  falling  off  in  the  soups,  vegetables,  and  sweet  dishes.  At 
the  first-class  restaurants  the  cuisine  is  generally  French;  the 
charges  are  high,  but  everything  is  sure  to  be  good  of  its  kind. 

The  dinner  hour  at  the  best  restaurants  is  6-9  p.m.  At  less  pretentious 
establishments  dinner  'from  the  joint'  is  obtainable  from  12  or  1  to  5  or 
6  p.m.  Beer,  on  draught  or  in  bottle,  is  supplied  at  almost  all  the 
restaurants,  and  is  the  beverage  most  frequently  drunk.  The  Orill  Rooms 
are  devoted   to  chops,   steaks,   and  other  dishes  cooked  on  a  gridiron. 

3.   RESTAURANTS.  11 

Dinner  from  (he  Joint  is  a  plain  meal  of  meat,  potatoes,  vegetables,  and 
cheese.  At  many  of  the  following  restaurants,  particularly  those  in  the 
City,  there  are  luncheon-bars,  Where  firom  11  to  3  a  chop  or  small  plate 
of  hot  meat  with  bread  and  vegetables  may  be  obtained  for  6-8<l.  Customers 
usually  take  these  ^snacks*  standing  at  the  bar.  In  dining  A  la  carte  at 
any  of  the  foreign  restaurants,  one  portion  will  often  be  found  sufficient 
for  two  persons.  In  ordering  'suppers  after  the  theatre'  it  should  be  re- 
membered that  restaurants  close  not  later  than  12.90  a.m.  (on  Bat.  at 
midnight;  on  Sun.  at  11  p.m.).  A  small  fee  for  attendance  is  often  made; 
and  at  the  more  fashionable  restaurants  a  charge  of  from  Sd.  to  is,  for 
Hable-money^  or  the  'oouvert'  must  generally  be  added  to  the  prices  as 
given  below. 

Waiters  in  restaurants  expect  a  gratuity  of  about  Id.  for  every  shilling 
of  the  bill,  but  6d.  per  person  is  the  most  that  need  ever  be  given.  If  a 
charge  is  made  in  the  bill  for  attendance,  the  visitor  is  not  bound  to  give 
anything  additional,  though  even  in  this  case  it  is  customary  to  give  the 
waiter  a  trifle  for  himself. 

Many  of  the  larger  drapery  and  outfitting  establishments  (p.  67)  have 
Luncheon  and  Tea  Rooms,  which  are  convenient  for  ladies  while  shopping. 
The  bill-of-fare  is  usually  excellent  and  the  charges  moderate.  Similar 
refreshment  rooms  are  found  at  the  Civil  Service  and  Armp  A  Naxjf  Stores 
(p.  64).  Light  luncheons  are  to  be  had  in  the  caf^s  mentioned  on  p.  16,  as 
well  as  at  most  of  the  tea-rooms  (p.  16). 

Good  wine  in  England  is  expensive.  Claret  (Bordeaux)  and  Champagne 
are  most  frequently  drunk,  but  Fort^  Sherry^  and  Bock  (a  corruption  of 
Hochheimer,  used  as  a  generic  term  for  Bhenish  wines)  may  also  be 
obtained  at  most  of  the  restaurants.  Some  of  the  Italian  restaurants  have 
good  Italian  wines. 

The  traveller's  thirst  can  at  all  times  be  conveniently  quenched  at' a 
Public  House,  where  a  glass  of  bitter  beer,  ale,  stout,  or  ^half-and-half 
(i.  e.  ale  or  beer,  and  stout  or  porter,  mixed)  is  to  be  had  for  V/9-2d. 
(6<l.  or  Sd.  per  quart).  Good  German  Lager  Bier  (3-6d.  per  glass)  is  now  very 
generally  obtainable  at  the  larger  restaurants,  in  some  of  which  it  has 
almost  entirely  supplanted  the  heavier  English  ales.  Genuine  JHunich  Beer 
and  Bohemian  Beer  from  the  cask  may  be  obtained  at  the  German  restaurants 
mentioned  at  pp.  13  and  15 ;  also  German  sausages,  smoked  eel,  and  similar 
'whets'.  A  good  glass  of  wine  may  be  obtained  for  3-6d.,  a  pint  of  hock 
or  claret  for  8d.-l«.  6d.,  and  so  on  at  the  wine-stnres  of  the  Bodega  Co. 
(42  Glasshouse  St.,  Regent  St. ;  2  Bedford  St.,  Strand ;  5  Mill  St.,  Hanover 
Square;  15  Fleet  St.;  and  several  addresses  in  the  City).  A  few  taverns 
have  also  acquired  a  special  reputation  for  their  wines  (such  as  ShorVt, 
333  Strand,  809  High  Holborn,  48  St.  Paul's  Churchyard,  etc. ;  and  Benekey's, 
22  High  Holborn  and  35i  Strand),  but  as  a  rule  public  house  wine  cannot 
be  recommended. 

The  distinguishing  features  of  many  of  the  chief  restaurants  of  London 
are  described  in  'Dinners  and  Diners',  by  Lieut.-Col.  Newnham-Davit  (Grant 
Richards;  new  and  enlarged  edition,  1901). 

Eestaorants  of  the  Highest  Class. 

Most  of  the  fashionable  restaurants  serve  meals  at  fixed  prices 
but  in  all  cases  the  visitor  may,  if  he  prefer  it,  lunch,  dine,  or  sup 
ct  la  carte.  In  the  latter  case  the  portions  are  generally  so  ample 
that  one  portion  suffices  for  two  persons,  or  two  portions  for  three. 
The  waiter  is  ready  to  give  information  on  this  point.  At  these 
restaurants  evening  dress  is  usual.  In  the  Season  it  is  sometimes 
necessary  to  engage  a  table  beforehand. 

*H6Ul  Ritz  Restaurant  (p.  3),  Piccadilly,  L.  6s.,  D.  k  la  carte 
from  about  10«.  6d.;   *  Carlton  Hotel  (p.  3),  with  winter  garden, 


S.  after  the  theatre  5«.;  Piceadilly  Hotel  (p.  3),  with  restaurant  (entr. 
Regent  St),  L.  bs,  6  d.,  S.  5«.,  grill-toom  (entr.  Piccadilly),  L.  4«., 
S.  3s.  6c{.,  and  open-air  terrace  (afternoon  tea);  *Claridgi^8  Hotel 
(p.  3),  orchestra  from  4  to  6  p.m  (afternoon  tea)  in  the  central  court 
and  from  7  to  9.30  p.m.  in  the  restaurant ;  *H6tel  Cecil  (p.  4),  L.  5»., 
D.  10«.  6d.,  S.  5«.,  with  orchestra;  *8avoy  Hotel  (p.  4),  L.  or  S.  6*., 
D.  Is,  6c{.,  both  with  open-air  terraces  and  yiews  of  the  river; 
*Princef  Restaurant,  190  Piccadilly,  L.  4a.  6d.,  D.  10«.  6d.,  S.  5s. 
(good  orchestra),  also  grill-room ;  *Berkeley  Hotel  (p.  3),  77  Picca- 
dilly, with  good  French  cuisine,  L.  4-5s.,  D.  10s.  6d.,  no  suppers 
served;  *DieudonnS,  11  Ryder  St.,  St.  James's,  L.  4s.,  D.  7s.  6d.- 
lOs.,  S.  4s.6d. 

Other  Restaurants  at  the  West  End. 

The  following  list  Includes  several  restaurants  nearly  if  not 
quite  as  good  as  some  of  those  ahove-mentioned.  In  most  cases 
meals  may  be  obtained  also  ^  la  caite  if  preferred.  Most  of  the 
large  hotels  admit  non-residents  to  their  tables-d'hdte. 

In  Piccadilly,  Regent  Street,  and  Vicinity.  *TrocaderOf 
at  the  comer  of  Great  Windmill  St.  and  Shaftesbury  Avenue,  L. 
or  S.  3s.  6d.,  D.  5s.,  7s.  6d.,  or  10s.  6d.;  'wine  table  d'hote'  (i.e. 
glasses  of  various  kinds  of  wine  to  accompany  dinner,  selected  by 
the  restaurant)  3s.  6d.,  5s.  6d.,  or  7s.  6d.  —  The  Criterion,  Pic- 
cadilly Circus,  adorned  with  decorative  paintings  by  eminent  artists, 
D.  in  the  Marble  Hall  (fine  mosaic  ceiling)  3s.  6d.  or  5s.,  L.  2s. 
6d.,  S.  2s.  6d.  or  3s.  6d.;  D.  in  the  East  Room,  10s.  6d.  or  a  la  carte; 
D.  from  the  joint  in  the  grill-room  2s.  Gd. ;  also  American  restaur- 
ant, caf^,  and  smoking-room  (p.  16;  entrance  in  Jermyn  St.).  — 
The  MonicOy  19  Shaftesbury  Avenue,  with  restaurant  on  the  first 
floor  (L.  3s.,  D.  5s.  and  7s.  6d.),  grill-room  (D.  2s.  6d.)  on  the 
ground-floor,  and  lager  beer  saloon  in  the  basement  (entrance  in 
Piccadilly  Circus). 

Hatchetfs,  67a  Piccadilly,  L.  2s.  6d.  or  4s.,  D.  7«.  6d.  or  10s.  6d.; 
H6tel  Curzon  Restaurant,  23  Bolton  St.,  L.  3s.  6d.,  D.  5«.  6d.; 
*Orand  CafS  Royal,  68  Regent  St.,  L.  2s.  6d.  (cafe^  and  4s. 
(restaurant),  other  meals  cl  lacarte ;  *Imperial,  60  Regent  St. ;  ♦  Verrey, 
229  Regent  St.,  French  cuisine  (bouillabaisse  to  order),  open  on 
Sun.  evenings;  Kiihn,  31  Hanover  St.,  Regent  St. ;  Old  Blue  Posts, 
13  Cork  St.,  L.  Is.  3d.-2s.,  D.  2«.  Qd.  and  3s. ;  Stewart,  50  Old  Bond 
St.;  Quadrant  (Ital.),  109  Regent  St.,  L.  or  S.  Is.  6d.,  D.  2s.  6d. 

The  Popular  Cafe,  201  Piccadilly,  L.  Is.  6d.  &  2s.  6d.,  D.  2s.  6d. 
&  3s.  6d.,  S.  Is.  6d.  (no  fees),  with  tea-room.  —  Blenheim  Cafe, 
94  New  Bond  St.,  similar  prices. 

Ye  Olde  Odmhrinus  Restaurant,  56  Regent  St.,  is  a  German 
resort  decorated  in  the  Nuremberg  style  (Bavarian  and  Bohemian 
beer),  not  to  be  confounded  with  the  Oambrinus  Lager  Beer  Saloon 


(L.  If.  6d.,  D.  2s.  6(2.),  at  7Rupert  St.  Qerman  beer  is  seived  also  in 
the  Piccadilly  Spaten  Restaurant,  Piccadilly  Circus,  L.  2«.,  D.S«.  6d. 

To  THE  South  of  Piccadilly.  In  Jennyn  Street:  No.  86.  *JuU8, 
L.  4«.,  D.  7«.  6d.,  theatre  dinnei*  5«.  6d. ;  No.  '27.  L««  LauH^rs, 
L.2».6d.,  ^playgoers'  dinner'  3*.6d.  j  No.  102.  itfor^c'* (p. 4) ;  No.  82. 
British  Hotel,  L.  2«.  6(2.,  D.  d«.  Gd.  —  PoZ/  Mall  Restaurant,  9  Hay- 
market,  with  grill-room,  D.  3«.;  half-portions  serred. 

Chabiko  Cboss,  thb  Strand,  and  Fleet  Street.  The  Vietoria, 
Mitropole,  and  Grand  Hotels  (see  p.  4)  admit  non-residents  to  their 
tabloB-d'hdte.  The  Grand  also  has  a  buffet  and  an  excellent  grill- 
room (entr.  in  the  Strand;  L.  2^.  6(2.).  —  Oaiety  Restaurant,  next 
the  Gaiety  Theatre,  Aldwych,  L.  2s,  6(2.,  D.  3«.  or  5«.  6(2.,  S.  2a.  6(2., 
with  orchestra;  Wa2£2orf  J7ofe2  (p.  4),  Aldwych,  new,  with  restaurant, 
grill-room,  and  palm  court  (afternoon  tea,  1«.).  —  Romano,  399 
Strand,  L.  3«.  6(2.,  D.  5s.  6(2.  and  7s.  6(2.,  S.  Os,  (groundfloor  re- 
served for  meals  H  la  carte") ;  Adelphi  Restaurant^  at  the  Adelphi 
Theatre,  410  Strand,  L.  2s,  6(2. ,  D.  3«.  6(2. ,  S.  3«. ;  *Oatti's  Restaurant 
and  CafS,  436  Sirand,  with  entrances  also  in  Adelaide  St.  and 
King  William  St.,  moderate;  Colonrkade,  166  Strand,  L.  2s.,  D.  3«., 
k  la  carte  on  the  groundfloor.  —  Charing  Cross  Station  Restaurant, 
L.  3«.,  D.  3*.  6(2.  —  *8impson'8  Tavern,  100-102  Strand,  D.  from 
the  joint  In  the  English  style  28.  9(2.,  fish-dinner  38.  6(2.;  ladies' 
room  upstairs,  caf^  in  the  basement.  —  Tavistock  Hotel  Restaurant, 
Piazzas,  Covent  Garden.  —  Ship,  45  Charing  Cross,  unpretending, 
L.  28.,  D.  2*.  6(2.-38.,  S.  28. 

In  Lbiobsteb  Squabb  and  Soho.  In  Leicester  Square:  Queens 
Hotel  (p.  6),  li.  38.  6(i,  D.  58. ;  Nos.  10-15.  Grand  H6tel  de  I'Europe, 
with  oaf^  and  brasserie  on  the  ground-floor,  L.  38.,  D.  58.;  No.  2. 
Monte  Carlo  Restaurant,  h  la  ca/rte;  No.  20.  Cavour,  D.  38.  — 
*Kettner's,  French  house,  28-31  Church  St.,  L.  38.  6(2.,  D.  68.  and 
78.  6(2.;  *H6tel  de  Florence,  Italian  house,  57  Rupert  St.,  L.  l8.  6(2. 
and  28.  6(2.,  D.  38.  and  58.,  S.  28.  and  38.;  Previtali,  Arundell  St., 
Coventry  St.,  L.  28.  6(2.,  D.  38.  6J.  or  68.;  *ViUa  ViUa,  37  Gerrard 
St.  (once  occupied  by  Edmund  Burke),  L.  Is.  6(2.,  D.  28.  6(2.,  S.28.  — 
Scott's,  18  Coventry  St.  (also  fish  dinners;  p.  15);  Appenrodt^s, 
1  Coventry  St.,  L.  l8.  6(2.,  D.  2*.  6(2. ;  Globe,  3  Coventry  St.,  L.  28., 
D.  38. ;  West  End,  Arundell  St.,  D.  28.  6(2.;  Garrick,  11  Green  St. ; 
Hotel  d' Italic  (Molinari),  62  Old  Compton  St.,  Italian,  D.  28.  6(2.; 
Pinoli,  17  Wardour  St.,  Italian,  D.  28.;  *Roche,  16  Old  Compton 
St.,  French,  L.  or  D.  l8.  6(2. ;  Restaurant  des  Gourmets^  6  Lisle  St., 
Waidour  St.,  French,  quite  unpretending.  There  are  many  other 
cheap  foreign  restaurants  in  Soho. 

In  Holeobn,  Oxfobd  Stbbbt,  and  the  Vicinity.  Holborn 
Restaurant,  218  High  Holborn,  at  the  corner  of  Kingsway,  an  ex- 
tensive and  elaborately  adorned  establishment  with  grill-room, 
luncheon-buffets,  etc.,  D.  in  the  Grand  Salon  from  6  to  9 p.m.,  with 
music  38.,  L.  28.  6(2.,  'grilled  dinner'  in  the  'Ladies'  Grill  Room', 


2«.  6d.  —  Inns  of  Court  Restaurant,  Lincolns  Inn  Fields  (N.  side) ; 
First  Avenue  Hotel  (p.  7),  table  -  d*h6te  D.  5^.,  also  restaurant, 
grill-room,  and  luncheon  buffet j  Spiers  ^  Pond's  Buffet,  Holborn 
Viaduct  Station;  Vienna  Cafi  (p.  16),  near  the  British  Museum, 
a  la  carte  (open  on^TSwr:^  —  Midland  Orand  Hottl,  at  St.  Pancras 
Station  (p.  7).  —  *Fagani,  42  Great  Portland  St.,  with  the  inter- 
esting Artists'  Room  upstairs,  containing  drawings  and  autographs 
by  artists,  opera-singers,  and  actors  (reserved  for  private  parties). 
*H6Ul  RusseU  Restaurant  (p.  7),  Russell  Square,  D.  6«.  (table- 
d'h6te  open  also  to  non-residents) ;  Imperial  Hotel  (p.  7).  Frascati, 
26-32  Oxford  St.,  a  large  and  handsome  establishment  with  winter- 
garden,  cafe,  and  grill-room,  L.  2«.  6(2.,  D.  5«.;  The  Horseshoe 
(p.  7),  264-267  Tottenham  Court  Road,  with  luncheon-bar  and 
grill-room,  D.  2».  6d.;  arcus  Restaurant,  213  Oxford  St.;  Star 
^  Garter,  98  New  Oxford  St.,  L.  la.  6d.,  D.  2«.  — *Bus%afd  (pastry- 
cook), 197  Oxford  St.  (recommended  for  ladies;  not  open  in  the 
evening).  —  *Wharnecliffe  Restaurant,  In  connection  with  the 
Hotel  Great  Central  (p.  6),  with  grill-room,  entered  from  Hare- 
wood  Avenue  (table-d'h6te  in  hotel  open  also  to  non-residents). 

In  Wbstminstbr.  Westminster  Palace  Hotel  Restaurant,  Tothill 
St.;  CaxtonHouse,T:oihillSt.—*VictoriaStationRestaurant,J),Ss., 
L.  or  S.  28.  —  Overton,  4  Victoria  Buildings,  opposite  Victoria 
Station  (fish  dinners);  Continental,  7  Wilton  Road,  Victoria  Station. 

In  Kensington.  Hyde  Park  Hotel  (p.  6),  Albert  Gate,  with 
grill-room;  Hans  Crescent  Hotel  (;p.  5),  with  winter-garden;  BoUon 
Mansions  Hotel  (p.  6) ;  Bailey's  Hotel  (p.  6),  music  at  dinner  on 
Tues.,  Thurs.,  &  Sun.;  and  other  hotels  mentioned  on  p.  6.  — 
Restaurant  at  the  South  Kensington  Museum  (p.  346).  —  Antonelli, 
Kensington  High  Street. 

Bestanrants  in  the  City. 

In  Flbbt  Stbbbt  :  *Old  Cheshire  Cheese,  16  Wine  Office  Court 
(comp.  p.  148),  Fleet  St.  (steak  and  chop  house;  beefsteak 
pudding  on  Wednesdays,  2«.).  —  The  Cock,  22  Fleet  St.  (chops, 
steaks,  kidneys ;  good  stout) ;  with  the  fittings  of  the  Old  Cock 
Tavern,  pulled  down  in  1886,  and  various  interesting  relics.  — 
*The  Rainbow,  15  Fleet  St.;  dinner  from  the  joint,  chops, 
steaks,  etc. 

Near  St.  Paul's  :  *De  Keyset's  Royal  Hotel  (p.  8),  Blackfriars ; 
Spiers  and  Pond^s  Restaurant,  Ludgate  Hill  Station ;  Shannon^s,  a 
chop-house  in  Maidenhead  Court,  Aldersgate  Street. 

In  Cheapsidb  and  Vicinity.  In  Cheapside:  Read^s  (No.  94), 
moderate  charges;  Queen  Anne  (No.  27),  D.  %.  6d.;  Sweeting's 
(No.  158;  fish);  Ti/y!n  (No.  66).  —  City  Restaurant,  34  Milk  St., 
D.  (12-3)  la.  3d. ;  Ouildhall  Tavern,  81-83  Gresham  St.,  D.  2«.  6d. ; 
Ruttermann,  41-42  London  Wall,  D.  2a.  6d. 


Neab  the  Bank:  The  Pdlmerston,  34  Old  Broad  St.;  Auction 
Martf  Tokenhous©  Yard,  Lothbury;  Charley's  Fish  Shop  f snacks  of 
flsh),  20  Coleman  St. ;  *Pimm%  42  Threadneedle  St.,  8  Poultry, 
and  29  Bucklersbury.  —  Throgmorton  Restaurant,  Throgmorton  St. 
—  The  Bay  Tree,  33  St  Swithin's  Lane.  —  Windmill,  151  Cannon 
Sti  —  Birch's  (Ring  ^Brymer),  15  Comhill,  the  principal  purveyors 
to  civic  feasts,  a  noted  house  for  tuitle  soup;  Baker's,  1  Change 
Alley,  a  well-known  chop-house. 

To  THE  East  of  the  Bank.  In  Qracechurch  Street :  The  Grass- 
hopper (No.  13),  D.  is.  6d. ;  Appenrodi's  German  Restaurant  (No.  16), 
opposite  Leadenhall  Market;  Lbvcenhrdu  Restaurant  (No.  57; 
Munich  beer). 

Ship  and  Turtle,  129  Leadenhall  St.,  noted  for  its  turtle  soup 
(live  turtles  on  view  in  the  aquarium) ;  fine  Masonic  Hall,  willingly 
shown  to  Free  Masons  of  any  nationality.  —  London  Tavern^  form- 
erly King's  Head,  53  Fenchurch  Street.  Queen  Elizabeth  here  took 
her  first  meal  after  her  liberation  from  the  Tower.  —  The  Palmerston, 
Nos.  82  and  93  Bishopsgate  Street  Within ;  *Great  Eastern  HoUl 
Restaurant,  at  the  comer  of  Liverpool  St.  and  Bishopsgate  Without, 
with  grill-room  and  buffet.  —  Three  Nuns,  10  Aldgate  High  St., 
adjoining  Aldgate  Metropolitan  Station. 

George  Inn  Hotel  (p.  8),  77  Borough  High  St.,  unpretending. 

Visitors  to  London  are  sometimes  interested  by  a  visit  to  the  huge 
Alexandra  Trust  Befreshment  Rooms,  132-144  City  Road,  where  a  substantial 
dinner  is  provided  for  by^a.,  and  other  refreshments  at  corresponding  prices. 

Vegetarian  Bee taur ants. 
Eustace  Miles  Restaurant,  41  Chandos  St.,  L.  is,  6d. ;  St,  George's 
Cafe,  37  St.  Martin's  Lane,  D.  is,  6d. ;  The  Arcadian,  100  Bishops- 
gate Within;  Central,  16  St.  Bride's  St.,  Ludgate  Circus;  Alpha, 
23  Oxford  St ;  CaHle's,  392  Oxford  St.  and  73  Chiswell  St.,  Finsbury 
Pavement;  Ceres,  16  Newgate  St.;  HighHolhom,  278 High  Holbom; 
Food  Reform,  4  Furnival  St.,  Holborn;  Apple  Tree,  34  London 
Wall ;  Shearn's  Fruit  Luncheon  Saloon,  231  Tottenham  Court  Road. 

Oyster  Shops. 

*Scott  (Edwin),  18  Coventry  St.,  exactly  opposite  the  Hay- 
market  (also  steaks);  Blue  Posts,  14Rupert  St.  (American  specialties, 
clams,  etc.;  also  grill);  *Driver^  46  Glasshouse  St.,  Regent  St.; 
Pimm,  3  Poultry,  City;  *Sweeting,  158  Cheapside,  70  Fleet  St.,  and 
39  Queen  Victoria  St.,  City;   Rule's,  35  Maiden  Lane,  W.C. 

The  charge  for  a  dozen  oysters  is  nsually  from  2s.  to  Is.  Qd.,  accord- 
ing to  the  season  and  the  rank  of  the  house.  Small  lobster  U.  Qd.; 
larger  lobster  2s.  6d.  and  upwards.  Snacks  of  fish  2-6d.  Oysters,  like 
pork,  are  supposed  to  be  out  of  season  in  the  months  that  have  no  B  in 
their  name,  i.e.  those  of  summer. 


4.  Catts.    Tea  Booms.    Confectioners. 


Caf^B  in  London  are  merely  a  species  of  restaurant  (sometimes 
unlicensed)  in  -which  lighter  repasts  are  served  than  in  ordinary 
restaurants.  The  name  has  been  appropriated  also  by  many  small 
establishments  differing  little  from  tea-rooms  or  pastrycooks'  shops. 
Some  of  the  restaurants  mentioned  above  include  caftf-rooms  or 
act  as  caf^s  in  the  afternoon.  The  caf^s  in  the  city  (smoking  usually 
permitted)  are  more  strictly  coffee-houses. 

At  thb  West  End.  *€h'and  Cafi  Roydl^  68  Regent  St.  (also  a 
restaurant,  p.  12);  Verreyy  corner  of  Regent  St.  and  Hanover  St., 
noted  for  ices  (restaurant,  p.  12);  Oatti's  Cafi^  436  Strand,  good 
ices  (restaurant,  p.  13);  Carlo  Gatti,  Villiers  St.,  Strand;  Qttnter^ 

15  Lowndes  St.  and  7  Berkeley  Square ;  CafS  and  Smoking  Room, 
Criterion  (p.  12),  entered  from  Jermyn  St.;  Monieo,  19  Shaftes- 
bury Avenue  (p.  12);  Frascati,  32  Oxford  St.  (restaurant,  p.  14); 
^Vienna  Cafij  corner  of  Oxford  St.  and  Hart  St.,  near  the  British 
Museum  (restaurant,  p.  13);  BrcMerie  de  V Europe,  Leicester  Square 
(p.  13) ;  AppenrodVs  Vienna  Cafe,  1  Coventry  St.,  Leicester  Square. 

In  thb  City.    Peele'8,  177  Fleet  St.;  *Oroom's  Coffee  House, 

16  Fleet  St.,  unpretending,  for  men  only;  CafS  Nero,  Wool  Ex- 
change, Coleman  St.;  and  the  shops  of  the  London  Cafd  Co.  and 
Ye  Mecca  Company. 

Tea  Booms. 

Afternoon  tea  is  obtainable  everywhere  in  London:  in  the 
sumptuous  lounges  or  winter-gardens  of  the  large  hotels  (l-2s.  per 
head),  at  the  above-mentioned  caf^s,  at  confectioners,  in  the  tea- 
rooms of  the  large  outfitting  establishments  (see  p.  67),  and  at 
special  establishments  of  all  grades,  including  the  numerous  shops 
(often  crowded)  of  Lyons  ^  Co,,  Slater,  and  the  Aerated  Bread  Co, 
Ices,  pastry,  and  similar  light  refreshments  may  be  obtained  at  all. 
Among  the  best  tea-rooms  are  the  following. 

*Bumpelmayer,  at  the  corner  of  St.  James's  St.  and  King  St.,  a 
fashionable  resort  with  charges  to  correspond;  *Stewart,  corner  of 
Old  Bond  St.  and  Piccadilly;  Criterion  (p.  12);  *  Bustard  (p.  14), 
197  Oxford  St.;  Simpson  ^  Thomas,  Marlborough  Tea  Rooms,  Old 
Oak  Tea  House,  Nos.  161,  143,  and  37  New  Bond  St. ;  Bungalow, 
21  Conduit  St.,  W.;  Callard,  74  Regent  St.;  FuUer's,  368  Strand 
and  31  Kensington  High  St. 

In  summer  tea  may  be  had  al  fresco  in  Kensington  Gardens, 
Battersea  Park,  and  Kew  Gardens.  —  Most  of  the  great  public 
collections  (British  Museum,  South  Kensington  Museum,  Tate 
Gallery,  etc.)  are  provided  with  refreshment -rooms,  but  at  the 
National  Gallery,  National  Portrait  Gallery,  and  Wallace  Collection 
no  refreshments  of  any  kind  are  obtainable. 

5.  BATHS.  17 


Rumpelmayer^  see  p.  16;  Charbonnel  ^  Walker^  173  New  Bond 
St. ;  Duclo8,  2  Royal  Arcade,  Old  Bond  St. ;  Blatchley,  167.  Bu^sard, 
197,  both  in  Oxford  St.;  FuUer,  206  Regent  St.,  368  Strand, 
3  Conduit  St.,  31  Kensington  High  St.,  68a.  St.  Paul's  Churchyard, 
113  yictoiia  St.,  S.W.,  and  131  Queen's  Road,  Bayswater  (American 
confectionery) ;  Beadell^  8  Vere  St. ;  Ounter  ^  Co,,  7  Berkeley  Square 
(ices);  De  Bry,  64  New  Oxford  St. 

5.  Baths. 

(Those  marked  f  are  or  include  Turkish  baths;  those  marked  §  have 
swimming  basins.) 

Hot  and  cold  baths  of  various  kinds  may  be  obtained  at  the  baths 
mentioned  below  at  charges  varying  from  6(2.  upwards.  The  usual 
charge  for  a  Turkish  bath  is  28.  6(2.  to  3«.  6d.;  some  establishments 
have  reduced  charges  in  the  evening.  The  Public  Baths,  which  are 
plainly  but  comfortably  fitted  up,  were  instituted  chiefly  for  the 
working  classes,  who  can  obtain  cold  baths  here  for  as  low  a  price 
as  Id.,  from  which  the  charges  rise  to  6c{.  or  8(2.  They  are  now  to 
be  found  in  every  quarter  of  London,  and  many  of  them  include 
swimming  baths.  Many  of  the  private  baths  have  most  elegant 

t  AidgaU  TurJsith  Baths,  U  Whitechapel  Street. 

+  Bartholomew's  Tvrkish  Baths^  23  Leicester  Square,  W.C. 

%Bloomshurjf  and  St.  Oiles  Baths  (public),  Endell  Street. 

f  Broad  Street  Turkish  BathSy  Xew  Broad  Street. 

fCharinff  Cross  Baths^  Northumberland  Ayenue.    For  ladies,  in  Korth* 
nmberland  Passage,  Graven  Street.    Adm.  3s.  6<l.,  7-9  p.m.  2«. 
Chelsea  Bafhs^  171  King's  Bead,  Chelsea. 
City  of  WeetminMter  Baths  (public),  U-18  Marshall  Street,  Golden  Square. 

%  Crown  Swimminff  Baths,  Eennington  OvaU  9d. 

fJgarPs  Court  Baths^  26a  EarPB  Court  Gardens.  S.W. 

iEdgware  Road  Turkish  Baths,  16  Harrow  Road. 

i Electropathie  and  Turkish  Baths,  24 Railway  Approach,  London  Bridge,  S.E. 
Faulkner^s  Baths,  26  Villiers  Street,  by  Charing  Cross  Station  %  at  Fen- 
church  Street  Station.   These  establishments,  with  lavatories,  hair-cutting 
rooms,  etc.,  are  convenient  for  travellers  arriving  by  railway. 

iHaleyU,  182  and  184  Euston  Road. 

§  Kensington  Baths  (public),  Lancaster  Road,  W. 

fKing^s  Cross  Turkish  Baths,  9  Caledonian  Road,  King's  (}ross. 

f  London  and  Provincial  Turkish  Baths  (*The  Hammam'),  76  Jermyn  Street, 
bath  is. 

t  London  Bridge  Turkish  Baths,  7  Railway  Approach,  London  Bridge. 

f  Royal  Fork  Baths,  64  York  Terrace,  Regent's  Park. 

%St.  George's  Baths  (public),  8  Davies  Street,  Berkeley  Square,  and  85 
Buckingham  Palace  Road. 

St.  Martinis  Baths  (public).  Orange  Street,  Leicester  Square. 

%St.  Maryld>one  Baths  (public),  181  Marylebone  Road. 

S  Westminster  Baths  (public),  22  Great  Smith  Stre^  Westminster. 

t  Wool  Exchange  Turkish  Baths,  Coleman  Street  and  Basinghall  Street. 

Babdbxsb's  London.    15th  Edit.  2 


6.   Cabs.  Omnibuses.  Tramways.  Coaches. 

Cabs.  Taximeter  motor  cabs  have  recently  been  introduced  Into 
London  and  are  gradually  displacing  the  older  vehicles,  but  the  com- 
monest cab  is  still  the  two-wheeled  horse-drawn  hansom  cab,  while 
the  four-wheeled  horse-drawn  cab  still  plies  in  undiminished  num- 
bers, mainly  at  the  railway  stations.  —  The  ^Hansomti'  (so-called 
after  their  inventor)  are  two-wheeled  vehicles  with  seats  for  two 
persons  only  (though  often  used  by  three) ;  they  drive  at  a  much 
quicker  rate  than  the  other  horse-drawn  cabs,  but  cannot  accom- 
modate much  luggage.  The  driver's  seat  is  at  the  back,  so  that  he 
drives  over  the  heads  of  the  passengers  sitting  inside.  Orders  are 
communicated  to  him  through  a  small  trap-door  in  the  roof.  —  On 
request  he  will  let  down  the  window  in  front.  —  The  four-wheeled  . 
horse-drawn  cabs  C Four- Wheelers'  or,  more  colloquially,  ^Orowlera')y 
which  are  convenient  for  the  conveyance  of  luggage,  hold  four 
persons  inside,  while  a  fifth  can  be  accommodated  beside  the  driver. 
They  are  usually  less  well -horsed  than  the  hansoms.  —  Some 
hansoms  and  four-wheelers  have  been  fitted  with  taximeters ;  the 
latter  are  convenient  for  shopping.  —  The  Taximeter  Motor  Cabs 
CTaxicdbt'  or*  Taxis';  are  four-wheeled  vehicles  with  seats  for  two, 
three,  or  four.  The  taximeter  is  placed  to  the  left  of  the  driver  and 
its  dial  is  visible  from  the  Inside  of  the  cab.  Except  when  hindered 
by  dense  traffic,  these  cabs  travel  much  faster  than  hansoms. 

The  following  regulations  apply  to  all  classes  of  cabs.  —  Faucb  are 
reckoned  by  distance,  unless  the  cab  is  expressly  hired  by  time.  For 
each  person  above  two,  6<l.  additional  is  charged  for  the  whole  hiring. 
Two  children  under  10  years  of  age  are  reckoned  as  one  adult.  For  each 
bicycle  or  perambulator  carried  6(1.  is  charged,  for  each  other  article  of 
luggage  carried  outside  2(1.  Luggage  on  the  footboard  of  a  hansom  or 
similar  cab  preventing  the  doors  from  closing  over  it  is  deemed  to  be  out- 
side. The  cabman  is  not  bound  to  drive  more  than  6  miles  or  for  a  longer 
period  than  one  hour.  The  driver  is  bound  to  deposit  any  articles  left 
in  the  cab  at  a  police  station  within  twenty-four  hours,  to  be  claimed 
by  the  owner  at  the  Head  Police  Office,  Kew  Scotland  Yard  (p.  216). 

Tariff  for  Oabs  with  Taximeters. 

a.  Motor  Cabs  toitk  Taximeters.  For  the  first  mile  or  the  first  10  min. 
or  less,  8d. ;  for  each  addit.  V4  ^-  or  21/2  min.  or  less,  2d. 

b.  Horse  drawn  Cabs  with  Taximeters.  For  the  first  mile  or  the  first 
12  min.  or  less,  6d.  \  each  addit.  V2  M.  or  6  min.  or  less,  '6d. 

The  cab-radius  has  no  application  to  taximete'-cabs. 

Tariff  for  Cabs  without  Taximeters, 
a.  Bp  Distance.  When  the  cab  is  hired  and  discharged  within  the  4-mile 
radius  (cab-radius)  from  Charing  Cross  the  charge  for  a  drive  of  2  M.  or 
less  is  is.y  for  each  additional  mile  or  part  of  a  mile  6d.  •—  If  hired  within 
but  discharged  without  the  radius:  not  exceeding  1  M.,  1«.,  each  addit.  mile 
completed  within  the  circle  6d.,  each  addit.  mile  or  part  of  a  mile  ending 
outside  the  radius  1*.  —  If  hired  without  the  radius  (wherever  discharged)  \ 
each  mile  or  part  of  %  mile  is.  —  The  charge  for  waiting  is  Qd.  for  each 
completed  Vi  ^'-  ^^^  four-wheelers  and  8<l.  for  hansoms. 

6.  CABS. 


b.  Bv  Time.  'So  matter  where  hired  or  discharged  the  charge  for  a 
hansom  for  1  hr.  or  less  is  2«.  6d. ;  above  one. hour,  for  each  V4  br.  of  the 
tohoU  Hme^  or  for  any  less  period,  8d.  —  The  charge  for  a  four-wheeler 
hired  and  dischai^ed  within  the  radius  is  %.  per  hr. ;  beyond  one  hour,  6<i. 
for  each  1/4  hr.  of  the  whole  time,  or  any  less  period.  In  all  other  cases  the 
charge  is  the  same  as  for  a  hansom. 

Horse-Gab  Furei 

from  the 

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Bank  of  England 

Bond  Street,  Piccadilly.  . 

British  Museum 

Covent  Garden 

Grosyeaor  Square    .... 
Hyde  Park  Corner  .... 

Leicester  Square 

London  Bridge 

Ludgate  Hill 

Marble  Arch 

Oxford  Circus 

Piccadilly,  Haymarket  .   . 

Post  Office 

Regent  Street,  Piccadilly. 

St.  Paul's 

South  Kensington  Museum 
Strand  (Wellington  Street) 

Temple  Bar 


Trafalgar  Square 

Westminster  Palace  .   .   . 
Zoological  Gardens.  .  .  . 


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Whether  the  hirer  knows  the  proper  fare  or  not,  he  is  recommended 
to  come  to  an  agreement  with  the  driver  before  starting. 

The  trayeller  should  resist  all  attempts  at  overcharging,  and  should, 
in  case  of  peirsistency,  demand  the  cabman's  number,  or  order  him  to 
drive  to  the  nearest  police  court  or  station. 

The  Fly  is  a  yehicle  of  a  saperior  description  and  is  admitted 
to  the  parks  more  freely  than  the  cabs.  Flys  must  be  specially  ordered 
from  a  liyery  stable  keeper,  and  the  charges  are  of  coarse  higher. 
The  tariff  of  the  CoupS  Brougham  Company  (14  Regent  St.,  S.W.) 
is  as  follows:  coup^  with  one  horse,  7«.  6d.  first  2hr8.,  Bs.  6d. 
each  additional  hr.;  to  and  from  theatre  9«.  6d.;  coupe  with  two 
horses,  not  quite  double  these  rates,  with  minimum  of  15^. 

Omnibnsef  y  of  which  there  are  upwards  of  200  lines,  cross  the 
Metropolis  in  eyery  direction  from  about  7.30  a.m.  till  midnight. 
The  majority  are  still  horse-drawn,  but  the  number  of  motor- omni- 
buses (in  1908  about  1000)  is  steidily  on  the  increase.  The  regu- 
lations are  the  same  for  both  kinds.  The  destination  of  each  yehicle 
(familiarly  known  as  a  ^bus),  and  the  names  of  some  of  the  principal 


20  6.  OMNIBUSES. 

streets  thiough  which  it  passes,  are  usually  painted  on  the  outside. 
As  omnibuses  keep  to  the  left  in  driying  along  the  street,  the  in- 
tending passenger  should  walk  on  that  side  for  the  purpose  of  hail- 
ing one.  To  prerent  mistakes  he  had  better  mention  his  destina- 
tion to  the  conductor  before  entering.  The  fares  vary  from  id.  to 
6d.  or  7(i.,  and  those  who  travel  by  omnibus  should  keep  themselves 
provided  with  small  change  to  avoid  delay  and  mistakes.  The  ticket 
given  by  the  conductor  on  payment  of  the  fare  should  be  retained 
until  the  end  of  the  journey.  A  table  of  the  legal  fares  is  placed  in 
the  inside  of  each  omnibus.  The  'garden  seats'  on  the  top  (same 
fares  as  inside)  are  pleasant  enough  in  fine  weather  and  are  freely 
patronized  by  ladies.  —  The  so-called  Pullman  Cars  are  omnibases 
of  a  superior  description  that  have  recently  begun  to  ply  in  some 
of  the  leading  streets  of  the  West  End  (fare  Gd.  for  any  distance). 
The  first  omnibuses  plying  in  London  were  started  by  Mr.  Oeorge 
Shilibeer  in  1829.  They  were  drawn  by  three  horses  yoked  abreast,  and 
were  much  heavier  and  clumsier  than  those  now  in  use.  At  first  they 
were  furnished  with  a  supply  of  books  for  the  use  of  the  passengers. 

The  principal  points  of  intersection  of  the  omnibus  lines  are  (on 
the  N.  of  the  Thames)  the  Bank,  Oharing  Gross,  Piccadilly  Oircus, 
Oxford  Oircus,  the  Marble  Arch,  Hyde  Park  Oomer,  the  junction  of 
Tottenham  Court  Road  and  Oxford  Street  (PI.  R,  27}  i),  and  the  Angel, 
Islington  (Pi.  B,  85).  The  chief  point  in  Southwark  is  the  hostelry 
called  the  Elephant  and  Castle  (PI.  G,  33),  to  which  omnibus-lines 
converge  from*  Westminster  Bridge,  Waterloo  Bridge,  Blaekfriars 
Bridge,  and  London  Bridge. 

A  special  service  of  small  omnibuses,  owned  and  managed  by  the 
railway  companies,  connects  the  chief  stations  on  the  N.  side  (Enston, 
etc.)  with  the  chief  stations  on  the  S.  side  (Charing  Gross,  Waterloo,  etc.). 
These  buses,  which  meet  the  mail  trains,  start  from  inside  the  stations 
and  carry  luggage  on  the  roof.  Fare  Sd. ;  each  article  of  luggage  carried 
outside  Id.  Passengers  with  through -tickets  to  points  in  the  south  are 
conveyed  free  (reasonable  luggage  included). 

The  omnibus-lines  are  so  multifarious,  and  the  disturbing  ele- 
ments introduced  into  the  omnibus-system  by  the  new  tube-rail- 
ways (p.  33)  and  by  the  gradual  substitution  of  motor-vehicles  for 
horse-drawn  buses  are  so  far-reaching,  that  no  compendious  and 
practically  useful  list  of  omnibus-routes  can  at  present  be  drawn  up 
for  the  guidance  of  travellers.  Practically  every  point  in  the  Metro- 
polis may  be  reached  from  every  other  by  omnibus,  and  all  the  main 
thoroughfares  are  traversed  from  end  to  end  by  these  vehicles,  some- 
times at  intervals  of  two  minutes  or  less.  The  visitor  to  London  is 
advised  to  acquaint  himself  by  enquiry  with  the  omnibus  -  lines 
that  pass  near  his  hotel  or  lodgings.  If  he  contemplate  an  expedition 
beyond  the  routes  of  any  of  these,  he  should  make  special  enquiry, 
or  apply  to  the  omniscient  policeman  at  any  of  the  above-mentioned 
points  of  intersection. 

Tramways.  London  contains  about  130miles  of  tramways,  nearly 
all  of  which  are  owned  by  the  County  Council.   Electric  traction 

6.  TRAMWAYS.  21 

was  introdnoed  in  1903  and  has  been  extended  to  practically  the 
entire  system.  None  of  the  lines  pass  through  the  City  proper  or 
the  West  End  —  the  chief  resorts  of  the  tourist  —  hnt  radiating  as 
they  do  from  the  limits  of  the  bnsy  central  portion  of  the  metropolis 
in  all  directions  hut  the  W.,  they  are  convenient  for  visiting  the  out- 
lying districts  on  the  N.,  E.,  and  S.  The  can  are  comfortable  and 
run  every  few  minutes  from  early  in  the  morning  till  about  mid- 
night (fares  Y2^.-4(f.).  The  stopping-places  are  indicated  by  pla- 
cards on  lamp-posts  or  trolley-posts. — Though  lines  now  crossVaux- 
hall  Bridge  and  Westminster  Bridge,  the  river  practically  divides  the 
tramways  into  two  distinct  systems,  the  only  connecting-link  between 
Mhich  is  a  tunnel  from  the  Embankment  near  Waterloo  Bridge  to 
Kingsway .  The  chief  points  of  intersection  on  the  N.  of  the  Thames 
are  Kirifrs  Cross  (PL  B,  82)  and  the  'Angd'  in  Islington  (PI.  B,  36). 
On  the  S.  side  the  main  foci  of  tramway- traffic  are  the  ^Elephant  ^ 
CastW  (PI.  G,  33)  and  8L  Qtorgts  Circus  (PL  R,  33),  where  roads 
from  the  five  principal  bridges  in  London  converge. 

The  excellent  service  of  suburban  electric  tramways  (p.  24), 
starting  in  most  cases  from  the  termini  of  the  County  Council  lines 
or  of  the  tube-railways  (p.  33),  render  a  wide  area  conveniently  ac- 
cessible.   Several  new  tramways  are  under  construction. 

In  the  following  list  cars  of  which  the  colour  is  mentioned  are 
horse-drawn ;  the  others  are  electric  unless  otherwise  described.  On 
many  of  the  lines  the  services  during  the  busy  hours  in  the  morn- 
ing and  evening  are  more  frequent  than  is  given  below. 


From  EoBton  Boad  (PI.  B,  24)  via  Hampstead  Bead.  1.  To  Haupstkad 
Beats  Station  (^f»  M.),  every  7  min.  via  Chalk  Farm  and  Maiden  Road 
(PI.  B,  IT) ;  yellow  cars,  fnre2(f.  —  2.  To  Htghgatb  (Archway  Tavern;  3  M.)» 
every  6»^  min.  viH  Camden  Town  Station  (PI.  B,  22),  and  Kentish  Town 
Road;  red  cars,  Qd.  —  3.  To  Fimsbuet  Pabk  (3'/2  M.),  every  6  min.  via 
Camden  Boad  (Pl.  B, 22, 25),  and  Seven  Sisters  Road*,  gi«en  cars,  2d. 

From  Aldwyeh  (PI,.  B,  31).  4.  To  Highbubt  Station  (PI.  B.  38,  34; 
2V4  tf  •))  every  6  min.  \ik  Kingsvray  (shallow  subway),  Theobald  s  Road, 
Rosebery  Avenue,  'Anger,  Islington  (PI.  B,  35),  and  Upper  St.  \  2d.  —  4a.  To 
TowEB  Bbidob  (PI.  R,  46 :  3*^  M.)  via  tunnel  to  the  Embankment  and 
thence  over  Westminster  Bridge  as  in  Ko.  35;  3Vs<2. 

From  Theobalds  Boad  (PI.  B,  32).  5.  To  Lea  Bbidge  Road,  Clapton 
(47g  M.),  every  4  min.  via  Old  St.,  Hackney  Road,  and  Mare  St.  (PI.  B, 
50,  49);  2d..  —  6.  To  Poplab  (PI.  R,  63;  53/b  M.),  every  4  min.  via  Old  St., 
£ishopsgate  Station  (PI.  R,  48),  Commercial  St.,  and  Commercial  Road  East. 

From  ClerkenweU.  7.  From  Clerienwell  Road  (PI.  R,  36)  to  Highoatb 
and  FiNSBiniT  Pabk  (88/4  M.),  every  6  min.  via  Gray's  Inn  Road,  King's 
Cross  (PI.  B,  82),  Caledonian  Road  (PI.  B,  31,  30, 29),  and  HoUoway  Road; 
pink  cars,  2d.  —  8.  From  St.  John  Street  (PI.  R,  36)  to  Mabe  Stbeet  (PI. 
B,49;  3V2M.).  every  3  min.  via  'Angel*  (PI.  B,  35),  Upper  St.,  Essex  Road, 
Dalston  Junction  (PI.  B,  45,  46),  and  Graham  Road;  green  ears,  2d. 

From  Holbom  (PI.  R,  36)  vift  Gray's  Inn  Road.  9.  To  Hampstead 
Heath  Station  (3»/4  M.),  every  7  min.  via  King's  Cross,  St.  Pancras  Road, 
Camden  Town  Station  (PI.  B,  22),  Prince  of  Wales  Road,  and  Maiden  Road 
(PI.  B,  17);  2d.  —  10.  To  Highqate  (Swcin't  Lane;  38/4  M.)  every  7  min.  vi& 
King's  Cross  (PI.  B,  32),  Camden  Town  Station  (PI.  B,  22),  Kentish  Town 

22  6.  TRAMWAYS. 

Road,  and  Highgate  Road  (PI.  B,  21);  2d.  —  11.  To  Hiohgatk  {Archway 
Tavern;  3»/8  M.),  every  6  min.  via  Rosebery  Avenue  (PI.  B,  36),  'AngeP  (PI. 
B,  35),  Upper  St.,  Highbury  Station  (PI.  B,  33,  34),  and  Holloway  Road  (PI. 
B,  38,  29);  2d.  —  12.  To  Fissburt  Park  (3»/4  M.),  eve-v  6  min.  vift  King's 
Cross  (PI.  B,  32),  Caledonian  Road  (PI.  B,  31,  30,  29),  and  Seven  Sisters  Road. 

—  13.  To  Stamford  Hill  (5V2  H.),  every  6  min.  via  Clerkenwell  Road, 
Old  St.,  and  Kingsland  Road  (PI.  B,4845);  2d. 

From  Aldersgate  (PI.  R,  40).  14.  To  Highgate  iArchtoav  Tavern;  3»/4  M.), 
every  6  min.  via  Goswell  Road,  \Angel'  (PI.  B,  35),  and  thence  as  in  No.  11;  2d. 

From  Hoorgate  (PI.  B,  44;  II J).  15.  To  Highgate  {Archvav  Tavern: 
4V4  M.),  every  4  min.  via  City  Road,  'AngeP  (PI.  B,  35),  and  thence  as  in 
No.  11;  2d.  —  16.  To  FiNSBUKY  Park  (4Y4  M.),  every  4  min.,  by  No.  15, 
chansing  at  Seven  Sisters  Road;  2d.  —  17.  To  Higuburt  Station  (PI.  B, 
33,  b4;  2V8  M.),  every  6  min.  via  City  Road,  New  North  Road  (PI.  R,  43,  39), 
and  Canonbury  Road;  brown  cars,  Id,  —  18.  To  Manor  Park  (d*/4  M.), 
every  5  min.  via  City  Road,  East  Road,  Southgate  Road  (PI.  B,  48,  42), 
Mildmay  Park  (PI.  B,  41),  and  Green  Lanes ;  green  cars,  2d.  —  19.  To  Stam- 
ford Hill  (P/g  H.),  vi&  City  Road  to  Old  St.  and  thence  as  in  No.  13;  2d. 

—  20.  To  King's  Cross  (PI.  B,  32 ;  2V8  M.)  via  City  Road,  *Anger  (PI.  B, 
35),  and  Pentonville  Road;  IVzd. 

From  Norton  Folgatc  (PI.  R,  44),  Bishopsgatc.  21.  To  Stamford  Hill 
(S^/g  M.),  eve  y  i^J-z  min.  in  the  morning  and  evening  only,  via  Shoreditcb 
High  St.  and  Kingsland  Road  (PI.  B,  48-45);  2d. 

^  From  Aldgate  (PI.  B,47 ;///).  22.  To  Stamford  Hi ll  (5  M.),  every  5  min. 
via 'Whitechapel  Road,  Cambridge  Road  (Bethnal  Oreen  Museum,  PI.  B,  52), 
Mare  St.,  and  Clapton  Road  (PI.  B,  63) ;  white  cars,  2d.  —  23.  To  How  Bridge 
(PI.  B,  68;  3M.),  every  4  min.  via  Whitechapel  Road,  Mile  End  Road  (PL 
R.  56, 60),  and  Bow  Road  (PI.  B,  64) ;  blue  cars,  2d.  —  24.  To  Poplar  (PI.  R,  71 ; 
2V8  M.),  every  4  min.  vii  Commercial  Road  East  (PI.  R,  51,  55,  69) ;  IVad. 

From  London  Docks  (PI.  R,  46).  25.  To  Stamford  Hill  (4^8  M.),  every 
6  min.  via  Leman  St.,  Commercial  St.  (PI.  R.  47,  48),  Shoreditch  Hi^h  St. 
(PI.  R,  B,  44),  and  Kingsland  Road  (PI.  B,  48-45) ;  2d. 

From  West  India  Docks  (PI.  B,  62).  26.  To  Cassland  Road  (PI.  B,  54; 
2V8  M.),  every  6V2  min.  via  Burdett  Road  (PI.  R,  63,  60),  Grove  Road,  and 
Victoria  Park  (PI.  B,  55,  59) ;  yellow  cars,  2d. 

From  Bow  Bridge  (PI.  B,  68).  27.  To  Lettonstone,  via  Stratford  High 
St.,  Maryland  Station,  and  Leytonstone  Road;  blue  cars,  2d.  —  28.  To 
Manor  Park,  via  Stratford  High  St.  and  Romford  Road;  green  cars,  2d. 

The  outlying  tramways  of  the  Weet  Ham  Corporation  and  the  WaUhamttoto 
District  Council  to  the  E.  and  N.E.  of  London  are  of  no  practical  import- 
ance for  the  tourist,  and  are  sufficiently  indicated  in  our  Railway  and  Tram- 
way Plan  in  the  Appendix. 

The  Highgate  Cable  Tramway  from  the  Archway  Tavern  (p.  373)  to  the 
top  of  Highgate  Hill  (fare  Id.),  opened  in  1884,  was  the  first  of  the  kind  in 

South  Side  of  the  Thames. 

From  Victoria  Station  (PL  G,  21)  via  Vauxhall  Bridge  Road  and  over 
Vauxhall  Bridge  (PI.  G,  26).  —  29.  To  Catford  (8  M.),  every  6  min.  via 
Kennington  Oval  (PI.  G,  80),  Camberwell  New  Road.  Camberwell  Green 
(PL  G,  39),  Peckham  Road,  Queen's  Road  (PL  G,  51,  56),  New  Cross  Station 
(PI.  G,  59),  and  Lewisham  High  Road  (PL  G,  59,  64);  4d.  —  30.  To  Dulwich 
and  Peckham  Rye  (6  M.)  every  12  min.  (every  6  min.  to  Goose  Green),  as 
above  to  CamberweU  Green  (PL  G,  39),  thea  via  Denmark  Hill  (PL  G,  40), 
Grove  Lane,  and  Goose  Green  (E.  Uulwich),  to  Stuart  Road  (Peckham  Rye); 
2d.  to  Dulwich.  2V2d.  to  Stuart  Road. 

From  Vauxhall  Bridge  (PL  G,  26).  31.  To  Wandsworth  (Fatt  Hill; 
31/2  M.)  via  Wandsworth  Road  (PL  G,  26,27,  24)  and  Lavender  Hill;  every 
6  min.,  2d.  —  From  Chelsea  Bridge  (PL  G,  18).  32.  To  Lavender  Hill 
(3/4  M.)  via  Queen's  Road  (PL  G,  19,  20;  Battersea  Park);  every  10  min., 
Vad.     These  two  are  horse-car  lines. 

From  Victoria  Embankment  (Charing  Crou  BtaHon;  PL  R,  30)  and  over 
Westminster  Bridge  (PL  R,  29).    33.  To  Streatham  {Telford  Avenue;  5  M.), 

6.  TRAMWAYS.  23 

every  6  min.  via  Kennington  Road  (PL  G,  33,  34),  Brixton  Road  (PI.  G, 
31,  32),  and  Brixton  Hill;  2Vad.  —  34.  To  Rye  Lane  (4Vb  M.),  everj  8  min. 
in  the  morning  and  evening  only  viSk  Westminster  Bridge  Road,  ^Rlepliant 
&  Castle*  (PL  G,  33,  37),  Walworth  Road  (PI.  G,  37,  38),  Camberwell  Green 
(PL  G.  39),  and  Peckham  Road^  2d.  --  35.  To  Tower  Bridge  (PL  R,  46 j 
2'/8  M.),  every  9  min.  via  Westminster  Bridge  Road,  'Elephant  &  Castle 
(PL  G,  33),  New  Kent  Road,  and  Tower  Bridge  Roadj  V/^. 

From  Victoria  Embankment  ( fTateWoo  Bridge^  PL  a,  3l0  and  over  West- 
minster Bridge  (PL  R,  S9).  36.  To  Blackwall  Tunnel  (PL  R,  70;  8V4  M.), 
every  9  min.  vial  Westminster  Bridge  Road,  'Elephant  &  Castle'  (PL  G,  33), 
New  Kent  Road,  Old  Kent  Road  (PL  G,  46),  New  Cross  Road,  Green- 
wich Road  (PL  G,  67),  and  East  Greenwich;  3V2d.  —  37.  To  Blackwall 
(Tunnel  Avenue,  PL  R,  70;  8V2  M.),  every  6  min.  viS  Westminster  Bridge 
Road,  Kennington  Road  (PL  G,  33,  34),  Camberwell  Green  (PL  G,  39), 
Peckham  Road,  Queen's  Road,  end  Kew  Cross  Road  (PL  G,  55)  and  thence 
as  in  No.  86 ;  31/2^. 

From  Victoria  Embankment  (/oAn  Carpenter  St. ;  PL  R,  35)  and  over 
Westminster  Bridge  (PL  R,  39).  38.  To  Clapham  Junction  (beyond  PL  G, 
16;  5V2  M.),  every  6  min.  viai  Lambeth  Palace  Road,  Albert  Embankment 
(PL  G,  29),  Nine  Elms  Lane  (PL  G,  26),  Battersea  Park  Road  (PL  G,  23, 19, 
16),  and  Falcon  Road  (PI.  G,  12) ;  2V2(«.  —  39.  To  Tooting  (7V2  M.),  every 
6  min.  via  Westminster  Bridge  Road,  Kennington  Road  (PI.  G,  33,  34), 
Clapham  Road  (PL  G,  31,  32),  Clapham  Rise  (PL  G,  28).  and  Balham ;  iJi/zci. 

—  40.  To  Stbeatham  (Telford  Avenue;  6V2  M.),  every  6  min.  as  in  No.  33; 
31/2^.  —  41.  To  DuLwicH  and  Peckham  Rye  (6  M.),  every  12  min.  (every 
6  min.  to  Goose  Green)  via  Westminster  Bridge  Road,  'Elephant  &  Castle' 
(PL  G,  33),  Walworth  Road,  Camberwell  Green  (PL  G,  39),  and  thence  as 
in  No.  30. 

From  Waterloo  Station  (PL  R,  30).  42.  To  Tooting  (6V4  M.),  via 
St.  George's  Circus  (PL  R,  33),  'Elephant  &  Castle*  (PL  G,  33),  Kenning- 
ton Park  Road,  Clapham  Road  (PL  G,  31.  32),  and  thence  as  in  No.  39;  3d. 

—  43.  To  New  Ceoss  Gate  (PL  G,  50;  872  M.),  via  'Elephant  &  Castle'  (a& 
above)  and  thence  as  in  Ko.36.  —  44.  To  Lee  Green  (7V4  M.),  every  6  min. 
vi4  'Elephant  &  Castle'  (as  above),  then  vi3l  Walworth  Road  to  Camber- 
well Green  (PL  G,  39),  and  thence  as  in  No.  29. 

From  Blaekfriars  Bridge  (PL  R,  34).  45.  To  Merton  (7  M.),  every  6  min. 
via  Black  friars  Road  and  St.  Georges  Circus  (PL  R,  33)  to  'Elephant  & 
Castle'  (PL  G,  H3),  and  thence  as  in  No.  42  to  Tooting  and  on  to  Mer- 
ton; S^/2d.  —  46.  To  Strbatham  (Telford  Avenue;  5V2  M.),  every  6  min.  via 
'Elephant  A  Castle'  (as  above),  Kennington  Park  Road,  Brixton  Road  (PL 
G,  31,  82),  and  Brixton  Hill;  'dd.  -  47.  To  New  Cross  Gate  (PL  G,  50; 
472  M),  every  6  min.  vi^  *Elephant  &  Castle'  (as  above)  and  thence  as  in 
No.  36;  2<?.  —  48.  To  Black  wall  (Tunnel  Avenue,  PL  R,  70;  6V4  M.)  every 
9  min.  vi&  'Elephant  A  Castle'  (as  above)  and  thence  as  in  No.  36;  li^/td. 

From  Sonthwark  Bridge  (PL  R,  38).  49.  To  Clapham  (Nightingale  Lane; 
4V2  M.),  every  4  min.  in  the  morning  and  evening  only  via  Southwark 
Biidge  Road,  'Elephant  &  Castle'  (PL  G,  33),  Kennington  Park  Road,  and 
Clapham  Road  (PL  G,  31,  28);  2<f.  —  50.  To  Streatham  (Telford  Avenue; 
672  M.),  every  5  or  6  min.  in  the  morning  and  evening  only  via  Kenning- 
ton Park  Road  (as  above)  and  Brixton  Road  (PL  G,  31,  32);  Sd.  —  51.  To 
Ddlwich  (Lordehip  Lane;  4V2  M.),  every  6  min.  in  the  morning  and  even- 
ing only  via  'Elephant  &  Castle'  (as  above)  and  thence  as  in  No.  41.  —  62. 
To  Catfoed  (6V2  M.),  every  6  min.  (every  2  min.  to  Asylum  Road,  PL  G,  51) 
via  Marshalsea  St ,  St.  George's  Church  (PL  R,  37),  Great  Dover  St.,  Old 
Kent  Road  (PL  G,  41,  46),  New  Cross  Station  (PL  G,  59),  and  thence  as  in 
No.  29;  3(1. 

From  St  George's  Ohuroh  (Borough;  PL  R,  37).  63.  To  Streatham 
(Telford  Avenue;  b^/^  M.),  every  6  min.  via  Borough  High  St.  to  'Elephant 
A  Castle'  (PL  G,83)  and  thence  as  in  No.  46;  3d.  —  54.  To  Camberwell 
Green  (PL  G,  39;  2  M.),  every  8  min.  via  'Elephant  &  Castle'  (as  above) 
and  thence  as  in  No.  34. 

From  London  Bridge  (Hop  Exchange,  PL  R,  38).  55.  To  Tooting 
Junction  (9V4  M.),  every  6  min.  via  Sonthwark  St.,  Southwark  Bridge  Road, 

24  6.  TRAMWAYS. 

St.  George's  Circus  (PI.  B,  33),  Lambeth  Boad,  Albert  Embankment  (PI. 
G,  29),  Battersea  Park  Boad  (PI.  G,  23. 19, 16),  York  Boad  (PI.  G,  12),  High 
St.,  Wandsworth,  and  Garratt  Lane;  4Varf. 

The  following  are  horse-car  lines.  --  56.  From  Tooley  St.  (PI.  B,  42) 
to  Deptfobd  (Evelyn  Street,  PI.  G,  62-,  31/4  M.),  every  AVa  ™iii-  ▼!»  Jamaica 
Boad  (PI,  B,  46,  49)  and  Deptford  Lower  Boad  (PI,  G.  53,  58);  id.  —  57. 
From  Bricklayers'  Arms  (PI.  G,  41)  to  Both£Bhithb  (2  M.),  every  9  min. 
viH  Southwark  Park  Boad;  Id.  —  58.  From  Blaokwall  (Tunnel  Avenue; 
PI.  B,  70)  to  Beresford  Square,  Woolwich  (V/2  M.),  every  6  m'n.  via  Wool- 
wich Lower  Boad;  IVjk*. 

59.  From  Brixton  Boad  (beyond  PI.  G,  32)  to  Norwood  (3  M.),  every 
10  min.  via  Gresham  Boa(3,  Loughborough  Junction  (PI.  G.  86),  Milkwood 
Boad,  and  Norwood  Boad ;  2d.  —  60.  From  Oamberwell  Ghreen  (PI.  G,  39) 
to  Loughborough  Junction  (PI.  G,  36;  8/4  M.),  every  10  min.  via  Coldharbour 
Lane  (PI.  G,40);  ^M 

Suburban  Elbctbic  Taamwats. 
The  service  Is  maintained  from  about  7.30  a.m.  (9  or  9.30  on 
Sun.)  tin  after  midnight  on  most  of  the  routes ;  but  after  9  oi  10 
the  cars  ply  less  frequently  than  is  Indicated  below. 

London  United  Tbamwats  Co. 

From  Shepherd's  Bush.  60.  To  Southall  via  Acton,  Ealing,  and  Hanwell, 
every  10  min.  in  50  min.  (fare  3d.).  There  is  also  a  service  every 
3  min.  to  Hanwell  (40  min.;  2d.).  —  61.  To  Hounslow  Heath  via 
Chitteick  High  Road,  Keie  Bridge,  Brentford,  and  Itleworth,  every  12  min. 
in  1  hr.  (4d.).  To  Kew  Bridge  (23  min.)  every  81/2  min.  (2d.).  —  62.  To 
Hampton  Court  via  Jsleworth,  Twickenham,  and  Hampton,  every  V4  hr. 
in  11/3  hr   (6d.). 

From  Hammersmith.  63.  To  Uxbeidgb  vi^  Southall  (No.  60)  and  Hapet, 
every  V4  hr.  in  IV2  hr.  (6d.).  To  Hanwell  PA  hr.)  every  7V2  min.  (2d.).  — 
64.  To  Hounslow  Heath  as  in  No.  61,  every  12  min.  in  55  min.  (4d.). 
To  Kew  Bridge  (20  m"n.)  every  31/2  min.  (2d.).  —  65.  To  Hampton  Court 
every  1/4  hr.  in  I74  hr. ;  route  and  fares  as  Ko.  62. 

From  Tooting.  66.  To  Richmond  Bbtdgb  viH  Winibledon  (branch  to 
Summerstown),  New  Maiden,  Norhiton^  Kingtton,  Hampton  Wick,  Tedding- 
ton,  and  Twickenham,  every  10  min.  in  I72  hr.  (6d.).  —  67.  To  Hampton 
Court  via  Kingston  (as  above)  and  to  the  S.  of  Bushy  Park,  every 
10  min.  in  1  hr.  8  min.  (4d  ). 

From  Richmond  Park  Gates  (Kingston).  68.  To  Tolworth  via  Kingston 
and  Surbiton,  every  10  min.  in  ^/z  hr.  (Id.).  —  From  Ham  Boundary. 
69.  To  Long  Ditton  ( Window''8  Bridge)  via  Kingston  and  Surbiton,  every 
10  min.  in  1/2  ^^»  (id.).  —  From  Kingston  Hill.  70.  To  Surbiton 
Station  via  Kingston,  every  10  min.  in  25  min.  (Id). 

From  Richmond  to  Kew  and  to  Hampton  Court,  see  p.  411. 

Metropolitan  Electbio  Tbamways  Co. 
From  lock  Bridge  (PI.  R,  4).    71.  To  Iron  Bridge,  Wembley  (fare  2d.),  vi^ 

Harlesden.  —  72.  To  Willksden  Green  Station  (4d.),  via  Harlesden. 
From  Willesden  Junction.    73.  To   Hendon  Station  (3d.),  via  Willesden 

Green  Station  and  Criclclewood. 
From  Willesden  Green  Station.     74.  To  Edgware  (Canon''s  Park;  4d.)  via 

Cricklewood  and  Hendon. 
From  Highgate  (Archway  Tavern).  75.  To  Barnet  (fare4d.)  via  East  Finchley. 
From  Finsbury  Park.    76.  To  Muswell  Hill  (2d.)  via  Turnpike  Lane.  — 

77.  To  Alexandra  Palacb  (2d.)  via  Wood  Green  Station  (i^hd.).  — 

78.  To  New  Southgatb  (2d.)  via  Wood  Green.  —  79.  To  Winchmoee 
Hill  (3d.)  via  Wood  Green.  —  80.  To  Bruce  Grove  (2d.)  visl  Wood 
Green.  —  81.  To  Edmonton  (Tramway  Avinue;  3d.)  via  Amhurst  Park 
and  Snell's  Park, 


From  Stamford  Hill.   82.  To  Edmomom  (3d.)  via  South  Tottenham  Station 

and  Bruce  Grove. 
From  Edmonton.    83.  To  Countt  Boundaet  (Id.)  at  Waltham  Cross. 

South  Mbtkopolitan  Elbcteic  Tbamways  Co. 

From  Tooting  Junction.    84.  To  Sotton  vift  Mitcham,  Croydon^  WalUnglonj 

and  CarthaltoiK  every  4-8  min.  (IO1/4  M. ;  fare  4d.). 
From  the  CrvBtal  Palace.   85.  To  Cbotdon  vift  PengSy  AnerUy^  and  Norwood, 

every  4-8  min.  (5  M. }  2V2d.). 

Coachei.  During  the  summer-months  well-appointed  stage 
coaches  run  from  London  to  various  places  In  the  vicinity,u8nally  start- 
ing from  Northumherland  A-venue  between  10.80  a.m.  and  12  noou. 
The  fares  Tary  from  5«.  6d.  to  15*.  j  return-fares  one-half  or  two-thirds 
more ;  box-seats  usually  2«.6c{.  extra  each  way.  Some  of  these  coaches 
are  driven  by  the  gentlemen  who  own  them.  They  afford  better 
opportunities  in  many  respects  for  viewing  the  scenery  than  railway- 
trains,  and  may  be  recommended  in  fine  weather.  On  the  more 
popular  routes  seats  have  often  to  be  booked  seyeral  days  in  ad- 
yance.  The  whole  coach  may  generally  be  engaged  for  seven  to  ten 
guineas.  Particulars  may  be  obtained  on  application  at  Cook's  Rail- 
way &  Steamship  Office,  in  the  H6tel  Victoria,  Northumberland 

Among  the  places  to-  which  coaches  usually  run  are  Brighton  (53  M. ; 
fare  15<.),  Hampton  Court  (16  M. ;  return-fare  10».  6d.),  and  Windtor  (30  M.  \ 
12«.  6d.,  return  17«.  6d.).  —  The  coaches  to  Atcot  (30  M.),  Bfuhty  (16  M.), 
Ociham  (32  M.),  8t,  Albans  (25  M.),  Dorking  (26  M.),  Guildford  (28  M.),  Box 
Hill  (27  M.),  and  Virginia  Water  (29  M.)  do  not  run  every  season.  Coaches 
run  also  to  the  principal  race-meetings  held  near  London. 

7.  Eailway  Termini  and  Suburban  Trains. 

The  following  are  the  chief  Terminal  Railway  Stations  in  Lon- 
don, besides  which  there  are  about  380  small  stations  for  local  and 
suburban  traffic  within  'Greater  London',  without  reckoning  the  un- 
derground stations. 

I.  Euston  Station  (PI.  B,  24,  28),  the  terminus  of  the  London 
AND  NoBTH  Western  Railway,  Euston  Square,  near  Euston  Road 
and  Tottenham  Court  Road.  Trains  for  Rugby^  Crewe,  Chester, 
Bangor,  Holyhead  (whence  steamers  to  Ireland)-,  Birmingham, 
Shrewsbury,  Stafford,  Leicester,  Derby,  Nottingham,  Lincoln,  Leeds, 
Hull;  Liverpool,  Manchester;  Carlisle,  Glasgow,  Edinburgh,  etc.  — 
SuBXTABAN  TRAINS  to  Chalk  Farm,  Loudoun  Road,  KUbum  ^  Maida 
VaXe,  Queen's  Park,Willesden  Junction,  Sudbury ^^Wewi)ley,  Harrow, 
Stanmore,  Pinner,  Bushey,  Watford,  Rickmansworih,  and  St.  Albans. 

U.  St.  Pancrae  Station  (PL  B,  28),  Euston  Road,  to  the  W.  of 
King's  Cross  Station,  the  terminus  of  the  Midland  Railway. 
Trains  for  Bedford,  Leicester,  Nottingham,  Derby,  Manchester, 
Liverpool,  Blackburn,  Chesterfield,  Sheffield,  Hull,  York,  Leeds, 
Bradford,   Newcastle;    Glasgow,    Edinburgh,    etc.  —   Sububbak 


Trains  for  Camden  Road^  Kentish  Tovm^  Haverstodt  Hill^  Finchley 
Roadf  West  Hampstead,  Crieklewoodj  and  Hendon;  Highgate  Rocid, 
Junction  Boad,  Upper  Holloway,  Homsey  Road,  Crouch  Hill^  Har- 
ringay  Park^  St.  Ann*8,  South  Tottenham;  Walthamstow,  Leytonstone^ 
East  Hamj  Barking,  Upminster;  Southend^  etc. 

III.  Xing'"  Croat  Station  (PI.  B,  31,  32),  Enston  Road,  ter- 
minus  of  the  Gbbat  Nobthebn  Railway.  Trains  for  the  N.  and 
N.E. :  York,  Newcastle,  Edinburgh;  Hull,  Leeds,  Sheffield,  Man- 
chester, Liverpool ;  Cambridge,  Luton,  Hertford,  Lir^oln.  —  Sub- 
urban Trains  to  Holloway,  Finsbury  Park,  Stroud  Qreen,  Crouch 
End,  Highgate  (branch  to  Muswell  Hill  and  Alexandra  Palace), 
Finchley,  Mill  Hill,  and  Edgware ;  Harringay,  Homsey,  Wood  Green 
(branch  to  New  Barnet  and  Hatfield),  etc. 

IV.  Marylebone  Station  (Pi.  R,  16),  the  London  terminus  of 
the  Great  Central  Railway,  for  the  N.,  N.W.,  &  N.E.  of  England 
and  for  Scotland  (trains  start  from  the  W.  side  of  the  station). 
Trains  to  Brackley,  Rugby,  Lutterworth,  Leicester,  Loughborough, 
Nottingham,  Chesterfield,  Sheffield,  Doncaster,  Rotherham,  Bamsley, 
Huddersfield,  Halifax,  Bradford,  York,  Darlington,  Newcastle, 
Scarborough,  Wor'csop,  Gainsborough,  Lincoln,  Retford,  Grimsby, 
Cleetliorpes ,  Hull,  Manchester,  Warrington,  Liverpool,  Stockport, 
Oldham,  Ashton ' under 'Lyne,  Staleybridge ,  St.  Helens,  Wigan, 
Chester,  Southport,  Glasgow,  and  Edinburgh,  -^  Suburban  Trains 
for  Wenibley  Hill,  Sudbury,  and  South  Harrow,  Ruislip  ^  Jckehham, 
Denham,  Beaconsfield,  and  High  Wycombe;  for  Harrow,  Pinner, 
Northwood,  etc.  (see  pp.  420,  421),  and  Aylesbury. 

v.  Paddinsrton  Station  (PI.  R,  11,  12),  terminus  of  the  Great 
Western  Railway  for  the  W.  and  S.W.  of  England  (trains  start 
from  the  W.  side  of  the  station).  Trains  to  Cheltenham,  Glou- 
cester, Bath,  Bristol,  Exeter;  Plymouth,  Falmouth;  Newport,  Car- 
diff, Swanseay  Fishguard  (whence  steamers  to  Ireland);  Oxford, 
Leamington,  Warwick,  Strat ford-on- Avon ,  Birmingham,  Chester, 
Liverpool,  Mancfiester,  etc.  —  Suburban  Trains  to  Westboume 
Park,  Acton,  Ealing,  HanweU  ^  Elthome,  Southall,  Brentford,  TJx- 
bridge;  Green  ford,  Ruislip  and  Ickenham,  Denham,  Beaconsfield, 
High  Wycombe;  Stairies;  Maidenhead,  HerUey;  Great  Marlow;  Ayles- 
bury ;  Windsor ;  Reading,  etc. 

YI.  Liverpool  Street  Station  (PI.  R,  44 ;  III),  near  Blshopsgate 
Street,  terminus  of  the  Great  Eastern  Railway  (18  platforms, 
20  lines,  nearly  1000  trains  per  day).  Trains  to  Southend,  Chelms- 
ford, Colchester,  Harwich,  Ipswich,  Norwich,  Cromer,  Lowestoft,  Yar- 
mouth ;  Cambridge,  Ely,  Lynn,  Wisbech,  Peterborough,  Lincoln,  Don- 
caster,  York,  etc.  —  Suburban  Trains  to  Bethnal  Green,  Cambridge 
Heath,  London  Fields,  Hackney  Downs,  Rectory  Road,  Stoke  New- 
ington,  Stamford  Hill,  Seven  Sisters,  Palace  Gates  (for  Alexandra 
Palace),  Edmonton,  Enfield;  Clapton,  Tottenham,  Enfield  Lock,  Walt- 
ham  Cross,  Ch€shuntj  Broxboume,  Rye  House,  Hertford ;  St,  James's 


Street,  Hoe  Street^  Wood  Street  (Walthamstow),  Chingford;  to  Eppirhg 
Forest  and  Ongar,  as  In  R.  42;  Forest  Oate,  Manor  Park,  Uford 
(brancli  to  Chigioell,  p.  414),  Seven  King's,  ChadwellHeath ;  Canning 
Town,  Victoria  and  Albert  Docks,  Silvertown,  North  Woolwich)  Shore- 
ditch,  Whitechapel,  Shadwell,  Wapping,  Rotherhithey  Deptford  Road, 
New  Cross,  Croydon^  etc. 

YII.  Broad  Street  Station  (PI.  R,  44;  III),  teminns  of  the 
North  London  Railway.  Trains  every  1/4  hr.  to  Shoreditch,  Hagger* 
ston,  Dalston,  and  thence  (to  the  W.)  \i4  Mildmay  Park,  Canon- 
bury,  Islington  #-  Highbury,  Bamsbury,  Maiden  Lane,  and  Camden 
Town,  to  Chalk  Farm,  on  the  L.  N.W.  railway.  Some  of  the  trains 
go  on  via  Loudon  Road,  Kilbum,  and  Queen's  Park  to  Willesden 
Junction  (low  level).  Also  OTcry  1/4  hr.  from  Broad  St.  via  Dalston 
(as  above)  and  thence  to  the  E.  via  Hackney,  Homerton,  Victoria 
Park,  Old  Ford,  Bow,  South  Bromley,  and  Poplar.  Another  service 
runs  every  1/2  ^r«  *o  Camden  Town  (as  above),  and  thence  via 
Kentish  Town,  Qospel  Oak  (for  Highgate ;  to  Chingford,  see  below), 
Hampttead  Heath,  Finchley  Road,  West  End  Lane,  Brondesbury, 
Salusbury  Road,  Kensal  Rise,  Willesden  Junction  (an  Important 
station  for  North  London,  stopped  at  by  many  of  the  express  trains 
of  the  L.  N.W.  railway),  Acton,  South  Acton  (branch  to  Hammer- 
smith Broadway,  for  Bedford  Park),  Hammersmith,  Qunnersbury, 
Kew  Bridge,  Kew  Gardens^  to  Richmond,  and  Kingston,  Trains  also 
run  every  1/2  ^r.  to  Dalston,  Highbury,  Camden  Town,  Kentish 
Town ;  thence  as  above  to  Willesden  Junction,  and  thence  to  St. 
Quintin  Park  &  Wormwood  Scrubs,  Uxbridge  Road  (for  Shepherd's 
Bush),  Kensington  {Addison  Road;  p.  28),  Sarins  Court,  South  Ken- 
sington, and  thence  by  the  Hnner  circle'  (p.  30)  to  Mansion  House, — 
Gospel  Oak  is  also  the  terminus  of  a  line  via  Highgate  Road,  Junction 
Road,  Upper  HoUoway,  Homsey  Road,  Crouch  Hill,  Harringay  Park, 
St.  Ann^s  Road,  South  Tottenham,  St.  James's  Street,  Hoe  Street, 
Wood  Street,  and  Higham's  Park,  to  Chingford. 

Yin.  Charing  Cross  Station  (PI.  R,  26 ;  //,  IV),  close  to  Tra- 
falgar Square,  one  of  the  West  End  termini  of  the  South  Eastbbn 
AND  Chatham  Railway  to  Tunbridge  Wells,  Hastings;  Dorking, 
Ouildford,  Reading;  Canterbury,  Ramsgate,  Margate,  Folkestone, 
Dover;  Rochester,  Mtddstone,  etc.  —  Sububban  Trains  to  Chislehurst, 
Sevcnoaiks,  Croydon;  Spa  Road,  Southwark  Park,  Deptford,  Greenwich, 
Woolwich,  Dart  ford,  Oravesend,  Chatham;  New  Cross,  Lewisham, 
Beckenham,  Bromley,  Bickley;  Blackheath,  Bexley  Heath,  Eriih;  Lee, 
Eltham,  Sidcup,  etc. 

IX.  Cannon  Street  Stetion  (PL  R,  39;  III),  near  the  Bank, 
City  terminus  for  the  same  lines  as  Charing  Cross.  Trains  from 
Charing  Cross  to  Cannon  Street,  and  vice  versd,  every  10  minutes. 

X.  Victoria  Station  (PI.  R,  G,  21;  IV),  in  Victoria  Street,  the 
terminus  of  the  London,  Brighton,  and  South  Coast  Railway, 
and  also  of  the  South  Eastbrn  and  Chatham  RaU'Way. 

28  7.    RAILWAY  TERMINI. 

1.  The  Chatham  Railway  (Main  Line),  to  Clapham^  Brixton^ 
Heme  Hill,  Dulwieh,  Sydenham  Hill,  Beekehhanij  Bromley j  BiekUy, 
Boeheiter,  Chathamj  Faversham,  Canterbury,  Dover,  Leal;  Queen- 
borough',  Sheemeu;  Heme  Bay,  Margate,  Broaditairs,  Ramsgate; 
Swanley,  8evenoak$,  Maidstone,  and  Athford. 

2.  The  Crystal  Palaob  branch  of  the  S.  E.  &  C.  B. :  stations 
Wandsworth  Roady  Clapham^  Brixton,  Denmark  Hill,  Peckham  Rye, 
Nunhead ,  Honor  Oak,  Lordship  Lane ,  Upper  Sydenham,  Crystal 
Palace  (High  Level  Station). 

3.  The  Mbtbopolitan  Extension,  to  Ludgate  HiU  and  HoU 
bom  Viaduct  Station,'  via  Orosvenor  Road,  Battersea  Park  Road, 
Wandsworth  Road,  Clapham  ^  North  StoekweU ,  Brixton  ^  South 
Stoekwell,  Loughborough  Junction,  Camberwell  New  Road,  Wal- 
worth Road,  Elephant  and  Castle,  and  Borough  Road;  also  through- 
trains  to  King's  Cross  (Metropolitan).  From  Longhhorongh  Junction 
a  branch  runs  to  Heme  Hill,  Dulwich,  Sydenham  Hill,  Penge,  Kent 
House,  and  Beckenham. 

4.  The  West  London  Extension,  via  Battersea,  Chelsea,  West 
Brompton,  to  Kensington  (Addison  Road),  where  there  are  connec- 
tions for  Ealing,  Southall,  and  Windsor,  for  Euston,  and  for  the  N. 
London  Railway  (see  p.  27)  to  Ealing  and  SouthaU  (G.W.B.). 

5.  The  Bbighton  and  South  Coast  Railway,  yiai  Clapham 
Junction  (a  most  important  station  for  South  London,  through 
which  1200  trains  pass  daily),  Wandsworth  Common,  Balham, 
Streatham  Hill,  West  Norwood,  Gipsy  Hill,  and  Crystal  Palace 
(Low  Level  Station),  to  Norwood  Jurhction  (p.  29),  or  by  Clapham 
Junction,  Wandsworth  Common,  Balham,  Streatham  Common, 
Norbury,  Thornton  Heath,  and  Selhurst  to  Croydon  (p.  29).  At 
Norwood  Junction  and  Croydon  the  line  joins  the  London  Bridge 
and  Brighton  Line. 

6.  South  London  Line,  vil  Battersea  Park,  Wandsworth  Road, 
Clapham  Road,  East  Brixton,  Denmark  Hill,  Peckham  Rye,  Queen's 
Road,  Old  Kent  Road,  and  South  Bermondsey,  to  London  Bridge, 

XL  Ludgate  HiU  Station  (PI.  R,  35;  11),  near  St.  Paul's  Cathe- 
dral and  Blackfiiars  Bridge,  City  station  of  the  Metbopolitan 
Extension  of  the  South  Eastern  and  Chatham  Railway  (see  above). 

XII.  Holborn  Viaduct  Station  (PI.  R,  36 ;  IT),  Holborn  Viaduct, 
City  terminus  for  the  main  line  trains  of  the  South  Eastern  and 
Chatham  Railway. 

XIII.  St.  Paul's  Station  (PI.  R,  36 ;  IT),  Queen  Victoria  Street, 
another  terminus  of  the  South  Eastern  and  Chatham  Railway,  for 
the  Main  Line,  Cat  ford,  and  Crystal  Palace  trains. 

XIV.  Fenchurch  Street  Station  (PL  R,  43;  IlT),  near  the  Bank 
(S.  side  of  Fenchurch  St.),  terminus  of  the  Blackwall  Railway  to 
Shadwell,  Stepney,  Limehouse,  West  India  Docks,  Poplar,  and  Black- 
wall,  and  of  the  Tilbury,  Gravbsbnd,  and  Southend  Railway. 
SuBUBBAN  Trains  run  vi&  Leman  Street ,  Shadwell,  Stepney,  Burdett 


Road^  and  Bow  Roady  l)eyond  whloh  they  Join  the  line  from  Liver- 
pool Street  Station  (p.  26).  Trains  also  to  Bromley,  West  Ham, 
PlaiMtoWy  Upton  Park,  East  Ham^  and  Barking ;  to  Limehouse,  West 
India  Docks,  Millwall,  and  North  Oreenwich, 

XY.  Baker  Street  Station  (PI.  R,  20),  of  the  Metropolitan 
Railway  (p.  30),  practically  ranks  among  the  London  termini  since 
the  extension  of  the  St.  John's  Wood  line  to  Harrow  (branch  thence 
to  Uxhridge),  Pinner,  Northwood,  Rickmaneworth,  Chesham,  and 
Aylesharxj  (comp.  R.  44). 

On  the  right  (S.)  hank  of  the  Thames :  — 

XYI.  London  Bridge  Station  (PI.  R,  42),  the  City  terminus  of 
the  Bbighton  and  South  Coast  Railway  ,  via  Norwood  Junction 
(p.  28),  Croydon  (p.  28),  Parley  (junction  for  Caterham),  Red 
HiU  Junction  (branch  W.  for  Reigate,  Box  Hill,  Aixd.  Dorking  j  E.  for 
Dover"),  Three  Bridges  (for  Arundef),  AndiHayward^s  Heath  (junction 
for  Letdes  and  Newhaven),  to  Brighton,  Also  to  Chichester  and 
Portsmouth  for  the  Isle  of  Wight,  —  Suburban  Tbains  to  New 
Cross,  Brockley,  Honor  Oak  Park,  Forest  HiU,  Syder^m  (Crystal 
Palace),  Penge,  and  Anerley;  to  Victoria  Station,  see  p.  28. 

XVII.  Waterloo  Station  (PL  R,  30, 34),  Waterloo  Road,  Lambeth, 
terminus  of  the  South  Wbstbbn  Railway  to  Winchester^  Southampton, 
Portsmouth  (Isle  of  Wight);  Bowmemovih;  Salisbury,  Exeter,  Ply- 
mouth, Barnstable,  Ufracombe.  —  Suburban  Trains  to  Vauxhall, 
Queens  Road,  Clapham  Junction  (p.  28),  Wandsworth,  Putney, 
Ba'^Hes,  Mortlake,  Richmond,  SU  Margaret's,  Twickenham,  Straw- 
berry  Hill,  Teddington,  Hampton  Wick,  and  Kingston;  yii  Barnes 
(see  above)  to  Chiswick,  Kew  Bridge,  Brentford,  Isleworth^  Hounslow^ 
and  Feltham.  Another  route  to  Richmond  leads  via  Vaiuxhall, 
Queen's  Road,  Battersea,  Chelsea,  West  Brompton,  and  Kensington 
(Addison  Road),  and  thence  as  on  p.  27.  Also,  tIH  Clapham  Junction, 
Earlsfield,  Wimbledon,  Raynes  Park  (branch  to  Hampton  Court, 
see  R.  41),  Worcester  Park,  Ewell,  Epsom,  Ashstead,  and  Leatherhead, 
Wimbledon  (an  important  junction)  may  be  reached  hence  also  vil 
Wandsworth,  East  Putney,  Southflelds,  and  Wimbledon  Park, 

[Waterloo  Junction,  adjoining  Waterloo  terminus  on  the  E.,  is  a 
distinct  station  belonging  to  the  South  Eastern  &  Chatham  Railway.] 

8.  Undergronnd  Eailways. 

Within  the  last  few  years  the  4ntramuraP  traffic  of  London 
has  been  practically  revolutionized  by  the  development  of  the 
system  of  underground  tube-railways,  and  London  is  now  perhaps 
the  best  equipped  city  in  the  world  in  respect  of  convenient,  rapid, 
and  cheap  communication  between  the  most  important  quarters. 
The  underground  railway  system  includes,  in  the  first  place,  the 
old  Metropolitan  and  Metropolitan  District  Railways,  a  shallow 
underground  line  long  worked  by  steam-locomotives  but  electrified 


in  1905-6 ;  and,  in  the  second  place,  an  extensive  seiies  of  deep 
Tube  RaitwaySj  in  which  also  the  motive  power  is  electricity.  Most 
of  these  have  direct  communication  with  each  other  at  the  points 
of  intersection,  and  through- tickets  are  issued.  At  first,  in  order 
to  make  himself  acquainted  with  the  Metropolis,  the  stranger  will 
naturally  prefer  to  make  use  of  omnibuses  and  cabs,  but  when  his 
early  curiosity  is  satisfied  he  will  probably  often  avail  himself  of 
the  easy  and  economical  mode  of  travelling  afforded  by  the  under- 
ground electric  railways. 

I.  Metropolitan  and  Metropolitan  District  Bailwayi . 

These  lines,  which  for  the  most  part  run  under  the  houses  and 
streets  by  means  of  tunnels,  and  partly  also  through  cuttings  between 
high  walls,  together  form  a  complete  belt  (the  *inner  circle*)  round 
the  whole  of  the  inner  part  of  London,  while  yarious  branch-lines 
diverge  to  the  outlying  suburbs.  The  Midland,  Great  Western, 
Great  Northern,  and  South  Eastern  Railways  run  suburban  trains  in 
connection  with  the  Metropolitan  lines.  Portions  of  the  Metropolitan 
Railway  were  constructed  at  a  cost  of  1,000,OOOZ.  per  mile. 

Trains  run  on  the  'inner  circle*  in  both  directions  &om  5.30  a.m. 
to  nearly  midnight,  at  Intervals  of  3-10  min.  during  the  day,  and  of 
20  mln.  before  7  a.m.  and  after  9  p.m.  On  Sundays  the  train-service 
is  suspended  during  the  'church  interval'  (11  a.m.-l  p.m.). 

The  stations  generally  occapy  open  sites  and  are  lighted  from  above, 
many  of  them  being  roofed  with  glass.  At  night  they  are  indicated  by 
illuminated  signs  bearing  the  word  ^Underground'.  The  booking-office  is 
generally  on  a  level  with  the  street,  at  the  top  of  the  flight  of  stairs 
leading  down  to  the  railway.  The  official  who  checks  the  tickets  points 
out  the  right  platrorm,  while  the  tickets  themselves  are  marked  with  a 
large  red  O  or  I  (for  'outer'  and  'inner'  line  of  rails),  corresponding  with 
notices  in  the  stations.  After  reaching  the  platform  the  traveller  had 
better  enquire  whether  the  train  for  his  destination  is  the  first  that  comes 
up  or  one  of  those  that  follow,  or  consult  the  somewhat  inconspicuous 
telegraph-board  on  which  the  destination  of  the  'next  train*  is  indicated. 
The  terminus  towards  which  the  train  is  travelling  is  also  generally 
placarded  on  the  front  of  the  engine.  The  names  of  the  stations  are 
called  out  by  the  porters,  and  are  always  painted  at  different  parts  of 
the  platform  and  on  the  lamps  and  benches,  though  frequently  difficult 
to  distinguish  from  the  surrounding  advertisements.  As  the  stoppages  are 
extremely  brief,  no  time  should  be  lost  either  in  taking  seats  or  alight- 
ing. Passengers  leave  the  platform  by  the  'Way  Out\  where  their  tickets 
are  given  up.  Those  who  are  travelling  with  through-tickets  to  a  station 
situated  on  one  of  the  branch-lines  show  their  tickets  at  the  junction 
where  carriages  are  changed,  and  where  the  officials  will  indicate  the 
proper  train.  —  Comp.  the  time-tables  of  the  companies. 

The  carriages  are  of  first  and  third  class  only,  the  former  usually  being 
in  the  middle  of  the  train.  The  third  class  is  apt  to  be  inconveniently 
crowded  between  8  and  10  a.m.  and  5  and  7  p.m.  by  passengers  going  to 
or  returning  from  their  daily  work.  The  fares  are  extremely  moderate, 
seldom  exceeding  a  shilling  even  for  considerable  distances.  Return- 
tickets  are  issued  at  a  fare  and  a  half. 

The  stations  on  the  'inner  circle',  beginning  at  the  E.  and 
thence  following  the  N.  curve  of  the  circle,  are  as  follows :  — 


Mark  Lane  (Tl.  R,  43;  III),  for  the  Tower  of  London,  the  Mint, 
Com  Exchange,  Billingsgate,  and  the  Dockg. 

Aldgate  (PI.  R,  47 ;  i//),  Houndsditch,  corner  of  Leadenhall 
and  Fenchnrch  Streets,  for  the  Tower  Bridge,  Mincing  Lane,  White- 
chapel,  Miuories,  and  the  East  End. 

From  Aldgate  the  line  is  extended  to  AldgaU  East  and  8t.  Mary^t 
(Whitecbapel),  whence  the  trains  run  on  to  Shadwell^  Wappinff,  and  through 
the  Thames  Tunnel  (p.  142)  to  Rotherhithef  D^t/ord  Rotul^  and  Ifeic  CVo««, 
on  the  East  London  Railway.  Through-trains  run  between  New  Gross  and 
many  of  the  District  and  Metropolitan  stations.  A  line  runs  from  White- 
chapel  to  Bowj  connecting  with  the  railway  to  Southend. 

Bifhopsgate  (PI.  R,  44;  III),  near  the  Liverpool  Street  (Great 
Eastern;  sahway)  and  Broad  Street  (North  London)  gtations,  for  the 
Royal  Exchange  and  Stock  Exchange. 

Moorgate  Street  (PI.  R,  40;  III),  close  to  Finsbury  Circns, 
5  min.  from  the  Bank,  chief  station  for  the  City.  Change  for  City 
^  South  London  and  Great  Northern  ^  City  Tubes  (p.  37). 

Alderfgate  Street  (PI.  R,  40),  Long  Lane,  near  the  General  Post 
Office  and  Smithfield  Market ;  change  for  Lndgate  Hill  terminus 
of  the  Sonth  Eastern  and  Chatham  Railway  (p.  28). 

Farringdon  Street  (PI.  R,  36),  Vi  M.  to  the  N.  of  Holboru 
Viaduct,  for  Smithfield  and  St.  Bartholomew's;  trains  to  connect 
with  J7o^om  Viaduct  and  LudgaU  Hill  stations  (see  p.  28). 

Sing's  Croff  (PL  B,  32),  comer  of  Pentonvllle  Road  and  Gray's 
Inn  Road,  connected  by  sabway  with  the  Great  Northern  terminus 
(p.  26).  Change  also  for  St  Pancras  station  (Midland  Railway 
terminus,  p.  26)  and  for  the  City  ^  South  London  and  the  PiccadiUy 
Tubes  (pp.  37,  35). 

Gk>wer  Street  (PI.  B,  28),  near  Euston  Station  (L.  &  N.W. 
terminus,  p.  25)  and  about  V2  ^*  f^om  the  British  Museum. 

Portland  Bead  (PL  R,  20),  Park  Square,  at  the  S.E.  angle  of 
Regent's  Park,  for  the  Zoological  Gardens  (V2  M.),  Queen's  Hall, 
St.  James's  Hall,  and  St.  George's  Hall. 

Baker  Street  (PL  R,  20;  comp.  p.  29),  comer  of  York  Place, 
another  station  for  the  Botanic  and  Zoological  Gardens  and  for  Mme. 
Tussaud's  (p.  48).  A  little  to  the  S.,  in  Manchester  Square,  is  the 
Wallace  Collection  (p.  275).  Change  for  the  Baker  Street  ^  Water- 
loo Tube  (p.  34). 

Bbabch  Link  to  St.  John*$  Wood,R{cbnatuwcrth,  vid  ApleOniry,  see  R.  44. 

Edgware  Bead  (PI.  R,  16),  Chapel  Street. 

Bbahch  Link  to  Biihop't  Road,  Royal  Oak,  Wes(boum€  Pari,  Hotting 
Hill  (the  last  two  stations  are  both  near  Eensal  Green  Cemetery),  Latimer 
Road,  Wood  Lane  (station  for  the  Franco -British  Exhibition  in  1908), 
Sh^herd's  Btuh,  Hammersmith  (trains  every  10  min.);  also  to  Twmkam 
Green  (Bedford  Park),  Ounnersbury,  Kew  Gardens.  Richmond  (trains  every 
half-hour,  from  Bishop's  Eoad  to  Richmond  in  84  min.).  —  From  Latimer 
Road  branch-line  to  the  left  to  Uxhridge  Road,  Addison  Road  {Kensington ; 
for  Olympia,  p.  49),  EtarVs  Court,  and  Bron^ton  (Gloucester  Road),  see 
p.  32 ;  trains  every  »/»  hr. 

Praed  Street,  Faddlngton  (PL  R,  11),  opposite  the  Great 
Western  Hotel  and  the  Paddington  Station  (p.  26  j  subway). 


Queen's  Boad,  Bayswater  (PI.  B,  7),  for  KenBington  Gardens. 

NoUing  HiU  Gate  (PI.  R,  2),  Nottlng  Hill  High  Street,  for  the 
E.  part  of  Netting  Hill,  Gampaen  Hill,  etc. 

High  Street,  Kensington  (PI.  R,  5),  for  Kensington  Palace  and 
Gardens,  Holland  House  and  Park  ( Vs  M.),  and  the  Albert  Hall  (3/4  M.). 

Gloucester  Boad,  Brompton  (PL  G,  6).  Change  for  Piccadilly 
Tube  (p.  36). 

Bbamgh  Lihbs:  To  EarVt  Courts  West  Brompton,  Watham  Oreen  (for 
Stamford  Bridge  Athletic  Grounds),  ParsorC$  Oreen  (for  Hurlingham  Park), 
Futnep  Bridge,  East  Putneg^  Bouthfields,  WimibUdcn  Park,  and  Wimbledon; 
to  EarVt  Courts  West  KenHngtony  Hammersmith^  Raoenseourt  Park^  Tumham 
Oreen,  OwmersburVj  Eew  Gardens,  and  Richmond;  to  BarVs  Court,  Addison 
Road,  Latimer  Road,  etc.  (see  p.  81);  to  EarVs  Court,  Addison  Road ^  Willes- 
den  Junction,  Broad  Street  (see  p.  27).  From  Tumham  Ghreen  a  branch  runs  to 
aUswiek  Park,  MiU  HiU  Park  (p.  417).   Baling  Common,  and  BaUng  ( Broadway). 

South  Kensington  (PL  G,  9),  Pelham  St.,  for  South  Kensington 
Museum  (3  min.  to  the  N.),  Natural  History  Museum,  Albert  Hall, 
Albert  Memorial,  Brompton  Oratory,  and  Imperial  Institute.  Change 
for  Piccadilly  Tube  (p.  35). 

Sloane  Square  (PL  G,  17),  for  Chelsea  Hospital  and  Royal  Court 

Victoria  (PL  R,  21;  IV),  opposite  Victoria  Terminus  (p.  27), 
with  which  it  is  connected  by  a  subway ;  Vi  ^-  ^^^  Buckingham 
Palace  and  within  5  min.  of  Westminster  Cathedral.  Tramway  to 
Kennington  Oval,  Greenwich,  Catford,  and  Dulwich. 

St.  James's  Park  (PL  R,  25 ;  J  K),  York  Street,  for  St.  James's  Park. 

Westminster  Bridge  (PL  R,  26;  IV),  at  the  W.  end  of  West- 
minster Bridge,  station  for  the  Houses  of  Parliament,  Westminster 
Abbey,  Whitehall,  etc.  From  Westminster  to  BlackMars  the  line 
runs  below  the  Victoria  Embankment  (p.  125). 

Charing  Cross  (PL  R,  30;  IV),  for  Charing  Cross,  Trafalgar 
Square,  National  Gallery,  National  Portrait  Gallery,  and  West  Strand. 
Change  for  Baker  Street  ^  Waterloo  Tube  (p.  34). 

Temple  (PL  R,  31 ;  //),  between  Somerset  House  and  the 
Temple,  below  Waterloo  Bridge,  station  for  the  Law  Courts,  Somerset 
House,  and  the  Victoria  Embankment. 

Blackfriars  (PL  R,  35 ;  //),  Bridge  Street,  adjacent  to  Blackfriars 
Bridge,  connected  by  a  covered  way  with  the  St.  Paul's  Station  of  the 
South  Eastern  Railway,  and  near  Ludgate  Hill  Station  (p.  28). 

Mansion  House  (PL  R,  39;  ///),  corner  of  Cannon  Street  and 
Queen  Victoria  Street,  station  for  St.  Paul's.  Omnibus  to  Liverpool 
Street  Station. 

Cannon  Street  (PL  R,  39 ;  ///),  below  the  terminus  of  the  South 
Eastern  Railway  (covered  way),  for  the  Bank  and  the  Exchange. 

The  Monument  (PL  R,  43;  III),  at  the  comer  of  Eastcheap, 
station  for  the  Monument,  London  Bridge,  and  the  Coal  Exchange. 


II.  Tube  Bailwayi. 

The  first  deep-level  electric  railway  in  London  was  opened  in 
1890,  but  the  effective  development  of  the  present  network  of  tube- 
tunnels  beneath  the  most  important  parts  of  the  Metropolis  dates 
only  from  the  last  four  or  five  years.  The  tunnels  lie  at  an  average 
depth  of  60  ft.  below  the  surface  of  the  ground,  though  atFinsbnry 
Park  Station  the  depth  is  only  20  ft.,  while  at  Covent  Garden  it  is 
123  ft.  and  at  Hampstead  183  t\.  Trains  run  in  both  directions  every 
few  minutes  from  about  5.30  a.m.  till  abont  1  a.m.  (on  Sun.  from 
7.30  a.m.  till  midnight).  The  fares  are  low  (ld.-4<2.)  and  the  ar- 
rangements for  through-booking  are  convenient.  Gomp.  the  Railway 
Map  in  the  Appendix. 

The  booking  ofAceA,  on  the  street-level,  are  usually  faced  with  choco- 
late-coloured tiles  on  the  exterior,  and  are  indicated  at  night  by  illnminated 
signs  bearing  the  word  *Underground\  Passengers  are  conveyed  to  and 
from  the  platform-level  in  electric  lifts,  though  at  every  station  there  is 
also  a  staircase.  At  the  busier  stations  short-distance  tickets  (Id.  and  2d.} 
may  be  obtained  from  automatic  machines.  Return-tickets  are  not  issued, 
except  for  journeys  extending  to  some  other  railway-system  (e.g.  the  Metro- 
politan Railway).  Tickets  are  checked  by  the  liftman  on  entering  and  are 
collected  by  the  liftman  at  the  passenger's  destination.  In  the  well-lighted 
subterranean  passages  leading  from  the  lifts  to  the  trains  are  notices  direct- 
ing passengers  to  the  proper  platforms.  These  passages  are  often  draughty; 
while  the  difference  between  the  temperature  of  the  upper  air  and  that  of 
the  tubes  (which  are  warmer  in  winter  and  cooler  in  summer)  is  not  to  be 
ignored  by  those  who  catch  cold  easily.  On  the  whole,  the  tubes  are  fairly 
well  ventilated. 

The  carriages  are  of  one  class  only,  but  there  are  separate  carriages 
for  smokers.  The  stoppages  are  extremely  brief.  The  names  of  the  stations 
are  conspicuously  displayed  at  the  platforms  and  are  also  announced  by 
the  conductors  (not  always  plainly)  in  the  train.  Lists  of  the  stations  in 
order  are  nfuaUy  printed  up  at  each  end  of  every  carriage.  Heavy  or  bulky 
luggage  is  not  conveyed  by  these  railways ;  only  hand-luggage  is  allowed. 

a.  Central  London  Bailway. 

This  line,  opened  in  1900,  runs  in  two  parallel  tunnels  ftom  W. 
to  E.  through  the  heart  of  London.  It  is  6  M.  long,  and  the  trains 
take  about  1/2  hi«  ^oi  the  entire  journey.  It  was  long  familiarly 
known  as  the  'Twopenny  Tube'  from  its  once  uniform  fare  of  2d. 

Shepherd's  Bnsh  (beyond  PI.  R,  2),  Uxbridge  Road,  W.,  near 
the  tramway-terminus  for  Kew,  Richmond,  Hampton  Court,  IJx- 
bridge,  etc.  (p.  24).  During  the  Franco-British  Exhibition  in  1908 
this  line  will  have  a  terminus  (Wood  Lane)  farther  to  the  N.,  adjoin- 
ing the  exhibition-grounds. 

Holland  Park  (PI.  R,  2),  Holland  Park  Avenue. 

Hotting  Hill  Gate  (PI.  R,  2),  Netting  Hill  High  St.,  opposite 
the  Metropolitan  Station  (p.  32). 

Queen's  Boad  (PI.  R,  7),  for  Kensington  Gardens  and  Kensing- 
ton Palace. 

Lancaster  Gate  (PI.  R,  11),  Stanhope  Terrace,  V2  ^*  ^0  ^^^  S. 
of  Paddington  Station  (p.  26). 

Babobkbb's  London.    16th  Edit.  3 


Marble  Arch  (PI.  R,  19),  for  Hyde  Park,  the  Chapel  of  the 
Ascension,  etc. 

Bond  Street  (PI.  R,  19),  at  the  corner  of  Davies  St.  and  Oxford 
St.,  for  the  Wallace  Collection. 

Oxford  CireuB  (PI.  R,  23),  for  Queen's  Hall,  St.  George's  Hall, 
St.  James's  Hall,  Regent  St.,  Oxford  St.,  etc.  Change  for  Baker  St. 
t>''  Waterloo  Tube  (see  below). 

Tottenham  Court  Boad  (Pl.  R,  27;  /),  11  Oxford  Street.  Change 
for  Hampstead  Tube  (p.  36). 

BritiBh  Mnsenm  (PI.  R,  28),  High  Holborn,  for  the  British 
Museum,  Soane  Museum,  and  Lincoln's  Inn. 

Chancery  Lane  (PI.  R,  32),  High  Holborn,  for  Qray^s  Inn,  the 
Record  Office,  and  the  Royal  Courts  of  Justice. 

Post  Office  (PI.  R,  39),  Newgate  St.,  for  the  General  Post  Office, 
Central  Criminal  Court,  and  St.  Paul's. 

Bank  (PI.  R,  43),  for  the  Bank  of  England,  Mansion  House, 
Royal  Exchange,  and  Guildhall.  Change  for  City  ^  South  London 
Bailway  and  the  Waterloo  ^'  City  Railway  (pp.  37,  38). 

b.  Baker  Street  and  Waterloo  Bailway. 

This  line,  familiarly  known  as  the  'Bakerloo  Tube',  was  opened 
in  1906  and  extends  in  both  directions  beyond  the  stations  indicated 
in  its  title,  and  is  to  be  still  farther  extended  on  the  N.  to  Padding- 
ton  Station.  Present  length,  6  M. ;  journey  20  min. ;  fares  Id. -3d. 

Edipirare  Boad  (PI.  R,  16),  V2  M.  from  Paddington  Station. 

Great  Central  (PI.  R,  16),  for  Marylebbne  Station  (Great  Central 
Railway  terminus,  p.  26). 

Baker  Street  (PI.  R,  20),  Upper  Baker  St.,  for  Regent's  Park, 
Madame  Tussaud's,  and  the  Wallace  Collection.  Change  for  the 
Metropolitan  Bailway  (p.  31). 

Begent'B  Park  (PI.  R,  24),  Park  Crescent,  for  the  Zoological 
Gardens,  the  Botanic  Gardens,  Queen's  Hall,  St.  George's  Hall,  and 
St.  James's  Hall. 

Oxford  Circus  (PI.  R,  23),  for  Queen's  Hall,  St.  James's  Hall, 
Regent  St.,  Oxford  St.,  etc.  Change  for  Central  London  Railway 
(see  above). 

Piccadilly  Circus  (PI.  R,  27}  /)  for  Piccadilly  (Royal  Academy), 
Regent  St.  (Geological  Museum ;  New  Gallery),  Shaftesbury  Avenue 
(theatres,  pp.  45-47),  etc.  Change  for  the  Great  Northern,  Piccadilly, 
(V'  Brompton  Railway  (p.  35). 

Trafalgar  Square  (PI.  R,  26;  //,  IV)  for  National  Gallery,  Na- 
tional Portrait  Gallery,  Whitehall,  West  Strand,  and  Charing  Cross 
Terminus  (S.E.  &  Chatham  Railway).  Change  for  the  Hamp8tead 
Tube  (p.  36). 

Embankment  (PI.  R,  30;  IV),  entered  from  District  Railway 
Charing  Cross  Station ,  for  Victoria  Embankment  (Cleopatra's 
Needle).    Change  for  Metropolitan  District  Railway  (p.  32). 


Waterloo  (PI.  R,  30),  at  Waterloo  Station  (terminus  of  the  L. 
&S.W.  Railway).  Change  for  the  Waterloo  #  City  Railway  (p.  38). 

Westminster  Bridge  Boad  (PI.  R,  29),  for  Bethlehem  Lunatic 
Asylum  and  Lambeth  Palace.  Tramways  for  Streatham,  Tooting,  etc. 

Elephant  ft  Castle  (PI.  R,  33),  at  the  corner  of  London  Road. 
Change  for  the  City  ^  South  London  Railway  (p.  37).  Tramways 
to  Dulwich,  Catford,  and  Greenwich  and  Woolwich. 

0.  Great  Northern,  Piccadilly,  and  Brompton  Bailway. 

This  line,  known  also  as  the  'Piccadilly  Tube',  was  opened  in 
1906,  and  runs  from  S.  W.  to  N.E.  across  London  in  a  diagonal  line, 
9  M.  long.   Time  of  journey  35  min. ;  fares  ld.-4d. 

Hammersmith  (beyond  PI.  G,  1),  Hammersmith  Broadway,  op- 
posite the  Metropolitan  District  Railway  Station  (p.  3i).  Tramways 
to  Richmond,  Kew,  and  Hampton  Court  (p.  24). 

Baron's  Court  (beyond PI.  G,  1),  Palliser  Road,  for  Queen's  Club. 

EarPs  Court  (PI.  G,  1,  5),  Earl's  Court  Road,  for  Earl's  Court 

Gloucester  Boad  (PI.  G,  5),  change  for  Metropolitan  District 
Railway  (p.  32). 

South  Kensington  (PI.  G,  9),  Pelham  St.,  for  South  Kens- 
ington Museum,  Natural  History  Museum,  Imperial  Institute,  Albert 
Hall,  and  Albert  Memorial.  Change  for  Metropolitan  District  Rail- 
way (p.  3^). 

Brompton  Boad  (PI.  R,  13),  for  Brompton  Oratory  and  South 
Kensington  Museum. 

Knightsbrldge  (PI.  R,  13),  Brompton  Road,  for  Hyde  Park  and 
Kensington  Gardens. 

Hyde  Park  Comer  (PI.  R,  18 ;  IV),  for  Hyde  Park,  Buckingham 
Palace,  and  Victoria  Station  (8/4  M.  to  the  S.;  omnibus). 

Down  Street  (PI.  R,  18;  i 7),  for  Buckingham  Palace  and  Green 

Dover  Street  (PI.  R,  22-,  iK),  for  Burlington  House  and  St. 
James's  Palace. 

Piccadilly  Circus  (PI.  R,  27;  i)  for  Piccadilly,  Regent  St. 
(Geological  Museum;  New  Gallery),  Shaftesbury  Avenue  (theatres, 
p.  45),  etc.    Change  for  the  Baker  Street  ^  Waterloo  Tube  (p.  34). 

Leicester  Square  (PI.  R,  27;  //),  in  Charing  Cross  Road,  for 
National  Gallery,  National  Portrait  Gallery,  Trafalgar  Square,  and 
theatres  in  Leicester  Square  and  Charing  Cross  Road,  etc.  Change 
for  the  Hampstead  Tube  (p.  36). 

Covent  Garden  (PI.  R,  27;  /i),  at  the  corner  of  Long  Acre  and 
James  St.,  for  Covent  Garden  and  Drury  Lane  Theatres. 

Holborn  (PI.  R,  32;  //),  at  the  comer  of  High  Holborn  and  Kings- 
way,  for  the  British  Museum,  Soane  Museum,  and  Lincoln's  Inn. 

A  branch-tube  runs  from  ihia  station  to  the  Strand  Station  (PL  B,  81  \  11)^ 
for  Aldwych,  Somerset  House,  the  Royal  Courts  of  Justice,  and  the  Temple. 



Bassell  Square  (PI.  R,  28),  Bernard  St.,  for  the  Foundling 
Hospital  and  the  British  Museum. 

King's  GroBB  (PI.  B,  32),  for  King's  Gross  Station  (terminus  of 
the  Great  Northern  Railway,  p.  26)  and  St.  Pancras  Station  (Midland 
Railway,  p.  25).  Change  for  the  City  ^  South  London  Railway  (p.  37). 

York  Bead  (Pi.  B,  30),  at  the  corner  of  Bingfleld  Street. 

Caledonian  Boad  (PI.  B,  29),  for  the  Cattle  Market. 

Holloway  Boad  (PI.  B,  29).  Tramways  to  Uighgate,  East  Finch- 
ley,  and  Barnet  (p.  24). 

OilloBpie  Boad. 

Finsbory  Park,  Seven  Sisters'  Road,  for  Finsbury  Park.  Change 
for  the  Oreat  Northern  ^  City  Tube  (p.  37).  Tramways  to  Alexandra 
Palace,  Tottenham,  and  Edmonton  (p.  24). 

d.  Charing  Gross,  Eueton,  ft  Hampetead  Bailway. 

This  line,  known  shortly  as  the  ^Hampstead  Tube',  was  opened 
in  1907  and  unites  the  N.W.  suburbs  with  Central  London.  Length 
6  M. ;  jonrney  20  min. ;  fares  ld.-4d.  Every  alternate  train  runs 
to  Highgate  (41/2  M. ;  see  below). 

Charing  Cross  (PI.  R,  26 ;  i/),  in  the  forecourt  of  Charing  Cross 
Terminus  (S.E.  &  Chatham  Railway ;  p.  27),  for  the  National  Gallery, 
National  Portrait  Gallery,  theatres  in  the  Strand  (p.  45),  Whitehall, 
and  Embankment. 

Leicester  Square  (PI.  R,  27;  //),  see  p.  35.  Change  for  the 
Piccadilly  Tube, 

Tottenham  Court  Boad  (PI.  R,  27;  /),  see  p.  34.  Change  for 
the  Central  London  Railway, 

Goodge  Street  (PI.  R,  28;  i),  73  Tottenham  Court  Road,  for 
the  Scala  Theatre. 

Warren  Street  (Pl.R,  24),  130  Tottenham  Couit  Road,  for  Uni- 
versity College.  Tramways  to  Hampstead,  Highgate,  and  Finsbury 
Park  (see  p.  21). 

Euston  (PI.  B,  28),  Drummond  St.,  for  Euston  Station  (London 
&  N.W.  Railway  Terminus,  p.  26).  Change  for  the  City  S'  South 
London  Railway  (p.  37). 

Hornington  Crescent  (PI.  B,  23),  for  Working  Men's  College  and 
Camden  Theatre. 

Camden  Town  (PI.  B,  22),  corner  of  High  St.  and  Kentish  Town 
Road,  for  the  Zoological  Gardens. 

At  this  station  every  alternate  train  diverges  for  Highgate  (Highgate 
Woods,  Waterlow  Park),  via  South  Kentish  Town  (PI.  B,  22),  Kentish  Town 
(PI.  B,  21),  and  Tu/nell  Park  (beyond  PL  B,  21).  From  Highgate  Station 
tramways  ply  to  £.  Finchley  and  Barnet. 

Chalk  Parm  (PI.  B,  18),  at  the  comer  of  Adelaide  Road  and 
Haverstock  Hill,  for  Primrose  Hill  and  Chalk  Farm  Station  of  the 
North  London  Railway  (p.  27). 

Belsize  Park  (PI.  B,  13),  188  Haverstock  Hill,  for  Hampstead 
Town  Hall. 


HampBtead  (beyond  PI.  B,  8,  9],  corner  of  Heath  St.  and  High 
St.,  Hampstead,  for  Hampstead  Heal^. 

Oolder's  Green,  North  End  Road,  for  the  Hampstead  Garden  City 
and  Hampstead  Heath  (motor  omnibus  to  Hendou). 

e.  City  ft  Sonth  London  Bailway. 

This  line,  opened  as  far  as  the  ^Angel*  in  1890  and  extended 
thence  to  Euston  in  1907,  passes  nnder  the  Thames,  jnst  above 
London  Bridge,  by  two  separate  tunnels  for  the  up  and  down  traffic. 
Length  7*/2  M. ;  journey  1/2  ^r.;  fares  li.-3d. 

Euston  (PI.  B,  28),  at  Euston  Station  (L.  &  N.W.  Railway 
terminus,  p.  26).   Change  for  the  Hampstead  Tube  (p.  36). 

King's  Cross  (PL  B,  32),  see  p.  36.  Change  for  the  Piccadilly 
Tube  (p.  35). 

Angel  (Pi.  B,  36),  at  the  junction  of  City  Road  and  Pentonville 
Road,  for  the  Agricultural  Hall  and  Grand  Theatre. 

City  Boad  (PL  B,  40). 

Old  Street  (PL  B,  44),  corner  of  City  Road,  for  Bunhill  Fields. 

Hoorgate  Street  (PL  R,  40,  44;  ///),  Finsbury  Pavement. 
Change  for  the  Metropolitan  Railway  (p.  31)  and  the  Great  Northern 
^  City  Tube  (see  below). 

Bank  (PL  R,  43;  ///),  for  the  Bank  of  England,  Guildhall,  and 
Royal  Exchange.  Change  for  the  Central  London  and  Waterloo  i^ 
City  Railways  (pp.  34,  38). 

.  London  Bridge  (PL  R,  42;  III),  Denman  St.,  for  St.  Saviour's 
Church,  Guy's  Hospital,  and  London  Bridge  Station  (S.E.  &  Chatham 
Railway  terminus,  p.  29). 

Borough  (PI.  R,  37),  Borough  High  Street.  Tramways  to 
Streatham,  Camberwell,  etc.  (pp.  23,  24). 

Elephant  &  Castle  (PL  G,  33),  at  the  junction  of  Newington 
Butts  and  Walworth  Road.  Change  for  the  Baker  Street  ^  Waterloo 
Railway  (1^,  34).   Tramways  toDulwich,  Greenwich,  Woolwich,  etc. 

Kennington  (PL  G,  33),  Kennington  Park  Road. 

Oval  (Pi.  G,  30),  for  Kennington  Oval.  Tramways  to  Streatham, 
Greenwich,  Dulwich,  and  Catfordr  (p.  22). 

Stockwell  (PI.  G,  32),  at  the  corner  of  Clapham  Road  and  Bin- 
field  Road,  for  Stockwell  Orphanage. 

Clapham  Boad  (beyond  PL  G,  28),  at  the  corner  of  Clapham 
Road  and  Bedford  Road. 

Clapham  Common,  at  the  comer  of  High  St.  and  Clapham  Park 
Road.   Tramways  to  Tooting,  Wimbledon,  and  Kingston  (p.  24). 

f.  Great  Northern  &  City  Tube. 

This  line,  opened  in  1904,  is  3*/2  M.  in  length  (1/4  hr.;  fares 

Hoorgate  Street  (PL  R,  40,  44 ;  //i),  see  above.  Change  for  the 
Metropolitan  and  City  ^'  South  London  Railways  (pp.  31,  37). 

38  9.  STEAMBOATS. 

Old  Street  (PI.  B,  44),  see  p.  37.  The  station  adjoins  and  com- 
municates with  the  station  on  the  City  ^  South  London  Railway, 

Essex  Boad  (PI.  B,  38),  at  the  comer  of  Oanonbnry  Road. 

Highbury  (PI.  B,  33),  Holloway  Road,  for  the  Highbury  &  Is- 
lington Station  of  the  North  London  Railway  (p.  27),  Tramways  to 
Highgate,  E.  Finchley,  and  Bamet  (p.  24). 

Drayton  Park  (PI.  B,  33),  for  Highbury  Fields.  Tramways  to 
Highgate,  E.  Finchley,  and  Barnet  (p.  24). 

Finsbury  Park  (beyond  PL  B,  33),  see  p.  36.  Change  for  the 
Piccadilly  Tube  (p.  36). 

g.  Waterloo  &  City  Railway. 

This  line,  opened  in  1898,  is  IV2  M.  in  length  (4  or  5  min.; 
fare  2d.,  return  3d.);  no  intermediate  stations. 

Waterloo  (PL  R,  30;  see  p.  29),  at  the  terminus  of  the  L.  & 
►S.W.  Railway. 

Bank  (PL  R,  43;  III),  for  the  Bank  of  England,  Guildhall,  and 
Royal  Exchange.  Change  for  the  Central  London  and  City  ^'  South 
London  Railways  (pp.  34,  37). 

9.  Steamboats. 

There  is  no  adequate  service  of  passenger-steamers  on  the  Thames  at 
London.  The  County  Council  service,  which  plied  in  1905-7,  has  been 
suspended ;  and  the  boats  of  the  Thames  Steamboat  Co.  also  have  ceased 
to  run  for  the  present.  There  is,  however,  the  prospect  of  a  service  be- 
tween Westminster  Bridge  and  Greenwich  in  summer,  1906. 

On  the  Thames  between  Hampton  Court  towards  the  west  and 
Southend  and  Sheemess  on  the  east  there  are  about  45  piers  or  land- 
ing-places, the  larger  half  of  which  are  on  the  north  or  left  bank. 
At  London  Bridge  there  are  two  piers,  Old  Swan  Pier^  on  the  N. 
bank,  immediately  above  the  bridge,  and  Surrey  Side  Pier^  on  the 
S.  bank,  immediately  below.  Between  the  bridges,  as  the  reach 
between  Vauxhall  Bridge  on  the  west  and  London  Bridge  on  the 
east  is  sometimes  called,  are  the  piers  at  All  Hallows^  BlackfriarSy 
Temple^  Charing  Cross ^  Westminster ^  Lambeth ^  and  Vauxhall, 
Above  Vauxhall  Bridge  are  Nine  Elms  ^  Pimlico,  Battersea  Park, 
Cadogan  (Chelsea)^  CarlyU  Pier  (Chelsea)^  Battersea  Square,  Wands- 
worth,  Putney,  Harnmersmith,  Kew,  Richmond,  Teddington,  and 
Hampton  Court.  Below  London  Bridge  (*below  bridge')  are  Cherry 
Gardens  (in  no  sense  corresponding  with  its  name),  Thames  Tun- 
nel, Olobe  Stairs,  Limehouse,  West  India  Docks,  Commercial  Docks, 
Greenwich,  North  Greenwich,  Blackwall,  South  Woolwich,  North 
Woolwich,  Rosherville,  Gravesend,  Southend,  and  Sheemess,  where 
the  Nore  light-ship  is  reached,  and  the  estuary  of  the  Thames  ex- 
pands into  the  German  Ocean. 

*Brllb'  Steamers.  These  steamers,  starting  at  London  Bridge  (Fresh 
Wharf)  daily  or  almost  daily  in  summer,  sail  down  the  estuary  of  the 

10.  POST  OFFICE.  39 

Thames  ^i^  Greenwich  and  Woolteich  to  Tilbury  (fare  it.  id.);  and  thence 
proceed  either  to  the  K.  to  Southmd  (fares  2«.  Bd.,  2s.),  Claettm,  WaUon- 
on-the-Naze  (is.  6d.,  3s.  6d.;  steamers  sometimes  changed),  Felixstowe  (6«., 
4<.),  Ipswich  i6s.  Qd.^  is.  6d.),  Southwold  (6<.  6<{.,  5«.),  Lowestoft,  and  yarmou/^i 
(7<.  6<2.,  5«.)i  or  to  the  S.  to  Margate  (is.  6<l.,  8«.  6d.)  and  Ramsgate 
(5<.,  4<.).  Oravesend  and  Bheerness  also  may  be  reached  by  Belle  steamer. 
The  hours  and  days  on  which  the  different  ports  are  touched  at  vary; 
passengers  should  consult  the  adrertisements  in  the  newspapers  or  obtain 
a  time-table  from  the  company's  office.  Belle  House,  Fish  Street  Hill,  E.G. 

New  Palacb  Stbamkbb  Co.  From  London  Bridge  (Old  Swan  Pier)  the 
^Royal  Sovereign''  plies  daily  in  summer  (except  Frid.  in  June)  at  0  a.m. 
(9.20  on  Sun.)  to  Greenwich^  North  Woolwich,  Tilbury,  Southend,  Margate, 
and  Ramsgate  (return -fares  6«.  6d.,  6«.  Gd.).  From  Tilbury  (train  from 
Fenchurch  St.  or  St.  Pancras)  the  ^Koh-i-noor'  plies  four  times  weekly 
to  Southend,  Margate,  Ramsgate,  Deal,  and  Dover  (return-fares  7s.,  Qs.).  On 
Sat.  this  steamer  makes  two  trips  to  Margate  and  back.  Office,  60  King 
William  St.,  E.G. 

A  steamer  of  the  General  Steam  Navigation  Co.  plies  (in  summer)  on 
Sat.,  Mon.,  and  Wed.  to  SoutJiend,  Margate,  and  Boulogne  (saloon  fare  Ss.  6d., 
return  lis.  6d.),  returning  on  Sun.,  Tues,,  and  Thursday. 

Steamers  upstream  from  Richmond,  see  p.  411 ;  from  Kingston,  see  p.  389. 

10.  Post  and  Telegraph  Offices.  Parcels  Companies. 
Commissionnaires.  Messengers.  Lady  Couriers. 

PoBt  OfAce.  The  Gbnbeal  Post  Oppicb  Is  in  St.  Martin's  le 
Grand  Qp.  95).  The  Poste  Restante  Office  is  on  the  S.  (right)  side 
of  the  portico,  and  is  open  from  6.45  a.m.  to  10  p.m.  There  are 
also  Poste  Restante  Offices  at  all  the  branch-offices.  Letters  to  he 
called  for,  which  should  have  the  words  'Poste  Restante*  added  to 
the  address,  are  deliyered  to  applicants  on  the  production  of  their 
passports  or  other  proof  of  Identity,  hut  it  is  hotter  to  give  cor- 
respondents a  private  address.  Unclaimed  letters  addressed  *poste 
restante',  are  kept  for  2-8  weeks  (according  to  their  place  of  origin), 
and  then  sent  to  the  Dead  Letter  Office  for  return  to  the  writer,  or 
for  destruction.  Such  letters,  however,  will  be  returned  within  a 
specified  time  to  the  writer,  if  a  request  to  that  effect  appear  on  the 

Unprepaid  letters  are  charged  double  postage,  but  may  be  refused 
by  the  addressee.  The  postage  for  the  whole  of  Great  Britain,  Ireland, 
and  the  islands  in  the  British  seas  is  Id.  for  Letters  not  exceeding 
4  oz. ,  and  ^/zd.  for  every  additional  2  oz. ;  for  Newspapers  ^j^d. 
each,  irrespective  of  weight.  The  fee  for  registration  for  a  letter  or 
other  packet  is  2d. ;  special  registered-letter  envelopes  are  supplied 
at  374-4d.  each  (Id.  postage  included).  —  For  letters  to  Egypt  or 
any  British  colony  the  rate  is  Id.  per  oz.,  to  any  other  part  of  the 
world  21/2^.  for  the  first  oz.  and  1 1/2^-  for  each  additional  oz.  — 
For  Boofc  Pacfccts  (now  officially  styled  'Halfpenny  Packets*)  a  uniform 
rate  of  ^j^d.  per  2  oz.  is  charged  for  any  part  of  the  world.  No 
inland  book-packet  may  exceed  2  ft.  in  length,  1  ft.  in  width,  and 
1  ft.  in  depth.  Newspapers  for  abroad  pay  book-post  rates.  British 
newspapers  or  magazines  over  2  oz.  in  weight  may  be  sent  to  Canada 

40  10.  POST  OFFICE. 

at  the  rate  of  id,  per  lb.  (maximum  6  lbs.).  —  Post  Cards  for 
use  in  the  British  Islands  are  issued  at  6^/^.  or  6d.  per  packet 
of  ten  (thin  and  thick) ;  for  all  other  countries,  at  id,  each ;  reply 
post-cards  may  be  had  at  double  these  rates.  Inland  poet-cards  are 
transmissible  abroad  with  an  additional  ^2^-  stamp.  PriYate  post- 
cards, conforming  in  size  and  thickness  to  the  official  cards  and 
prepaid  by  means  of  adhesive  stamps,  may  also  be  used ;  those  for 
abroad  must  have  the  words  Tost  Card'  on  the  address  side  (sold 
by  most  stationers).  Picture  post-cards,  without  communications, 
may  be  sent  to  any  country  in  the  postal  union  for  */2<^«»  ^^  ^^^ 
words  ^post  card'  be  erased  and  the  words  'book  post'  substituted. 
LeiUr  Cards  are  sold  at  i^Ud.  each  or  eight  for  9d.  Envelopes  of 
two  sizes  with  embossed  Y2^*  stamps,  of  three  sizes  with  embossed 
Id.  stamps,  and  newspaper  wrappers  with  impressed  ^/^d.  or  Id. 
stamps,  are  also  sold.  —  Reply-Coupons ^  each  exchangeable  for 
stamps  to  the  value  of  2^2^-  (^^  centimes)  in  any  country  that  is  a 
party  to  the  arrangement,  are  sold  for  3d. 

The  number  of  daily  deliveries  of  letters  in  London  varies  from  four 
to  twelve  according  to  the  distance  from  the  head  office  at  St.  Martin's 
le  Grand.  On  Sundays  there  is  no  delivery  by  postman,  but  letters  from 
the  provinces  and  abroad  are  delivered  by  express  messenger  if  a  fee  of 
3d.  per  mile  (reckoned  from  the  G.P.O.  at  Mt.  Pleasant)  is  prepaid  in 
addition  to  the  ordinary  postage.  Letters  posted  in  the  pillar  boxes  within 
the  town  limits  and  in  some  of  the  nearer  suburbs  are  collected  in  time 
for  the  general  day  mails  and  for  the  first  London  district  delivery  on  the 
following  day.  Letters  for  the  evening  mails  must  be  posted  in  the  central 
districts  before  6  p.m.,  but  with  an  additional  ^td.  stamp  they  may  be  posted 
at  St.  Martin's  le  Grand  up  to  7.30  and  at  Mt.  Pleasant  up  to  7.45  p.m.  For 
most  places  within  200  miles  of  London  there  are  supplementary  night  mail 
despatches,  letters  for  which  may  be  posted  (withoat  late  fee)  at  the  above 
offices  up  to  8.30  and  9  p.m.  respectively.  Foreign  letters  may  be  posted 
at  the  General  Post  Office  till  7  p.m.  with  an  additional  Id.  stamp;  till  7.30 
with  2d.  extra;  and  at  the  termini  for  Continental  trains  till  8.30  or  9  p.m. 
with  2d.  extra.  Most  of  the  head  district  offices  are  open  on  Sunday 
from  8  a.m.  to  8  p.m.  Full  official  information  will  be  found  in  the  Pott 
Office  Ouide  (quarterly;  6d.),  or  the  Post  0/^c«  ^ondftoo*  (half-yearly ;  Id.). 

ExPSBBS  Lkttbbs.  About  270  of  the  chief  post-offices  in  London  re- 
ceive letters  and  parcels  to  be  delivered  in  London  and  its  suburbs  by 
special  messengers  at  a  charge  of  8d.  per  mile  or  part  of  a  mile  (id.  per  mile 
for  each  article  above  one),  plus  a  weight  fee  ot  8d.  for  each  packet  weigh- 
ing over  lib.  If  the  parcel  be  over  20lbs.  in  weight  (or  i51bs.  if  a  public 
conveyance  be  not  available)  the  actual  cost  of  a  cab  is  charged  in  addition 
to  the  express  fee.  Express  letters  handed  in  at  other  post-offices  are 
forwarded  in  the  ordinary  course  of  post  to  the  nearest  Express  Delivery 
Office,  whence  they  are  sent  on  by  special  messenger.  —  The  express  mes- 
sengers also  act  as  guides  to  any  part  of  London  at  a  fee  of  3d.  per  mile. 

London  is  divided  into  eight  Postal  Districts  —  the  Eastern, 
Northern,  North  Western,  Western,  South  Western,  South  Eastern, 
East  Central ,  and  West  Central  —  which  are  designated  by  the 
capital  letters  E.,  N.,  N.W.,  etc.  Each  has  its  district  post-office, 
from  which  letters  are  distributed  to  the  surrounding  district.  At 
these  chief  district  offices  letters  (except  for  the  general  night 
mails)  may  be  posted  about  Y2  ^'*  l&ter  than  at  the  branches  or 
pillars.  The  delivery  of  London  letters  is  facilitated  by  the  addition 

10.  TELEGRAPHS.  41 

to  the  addiess  of  the  Initials  of  the  postal  district.  The  number  of 
offices  and  pillars  in  London  is  upwards  of  4000  and  the  number 
of  people  employed  is  about  21,000. 

Paboel  Post.  The  rate  of  postage  for  an  inland  parcel  is  3d.  for 
a  weight  not  exceeding  1  lb.;  each  additional  pound  up  to  3  lbs  ,  Id. ; 
not  exceeding  5  lbs.  6d.,  7  lbs.  7d.,  8  lbs.  Sd. ,  etc.  The  maximum 
length  allowed  for  such  a  parcel  is  3  ft.  6  in.,  and  the  length  and 
girth  combined  must  not  exceed  6  ft.;  the  maximum  weight  is  11  lbs. 
Insurance  (up  to  400^.)  is  allowed.  Parcels  must  be  handed  in  at 
a  post-office,  not  posted  in  a  letter-box.  —  A  Parcel  Post  Service, 
atYarious  rates  and  subject  to  yarlous  regulations,  is  established  also 
between  the  United  Kingdom  and  most  foreign  countries  and 
British  colonies.  A  'Customs  Declaration'  and  a  'Despatch  Note* 
(forms  to  be  obtained  at  a  post-office)  must  be  filled  up  for  each 
foreign  parcel.  Insurance  (maximum  20-4002.  according  to  the 
country  to  which  the  parcel  is  addressed)  is  allowed.  Parcels  for 
the  United  States  may  be  sent  by  post  or  by  a  semi-official  service 
maintained  by  the  American  Express  Go.  (p.  43).  Insured  parcels 
are  accepted  only  by  the  latter  service  (maximum  1202.). 

Post  Opricx  Honbt  Obdbss  are  issued  for  sums  not  exceeding  40Z.  at  the 
nnmeronf  Money  Order  Officu  connected  with  the  post-office,  at  least  one 
of  which  is  to  be  found  in  every  post  town  in  the  United  Kingdom.  For 
sums  up  to  II.  the  charge  for  transmission  is  2d.;  ik  to  3/.,  3d;  3^-10/., 
Ad. ;  i0f.-20l.,  6d. ;  20/.-30I.,  Sd. ;  WlSOl.,  lOd.  —  Postal  Ordebs  for  every 
multiple  of  sixpence  up  to  iOs.  (inclusive)  and  for  21«.,  are  issued  at  a 
charge  of  V*''-  (up  to  2s.  6d.),  id.  (up  to  i6s.\  or  ii/zd.    They  are  payable 

payment  within  three  months  from  the  last  day  of  the  month  of  issue, 
a  fresh  commission  is  charged  equal  to  the  original  cost.  By  the  use  of 
not  more  than  three  stamps  (amounting  at  most  to  6d.),  affixed  to  the 
face  of  the  order,  any  broken  amount  may  be  made  up. 

FoBBiGxr  Postal  Honbt  Osdbbs  are  issued  at  charges  of  3d.  for  sums 
not  exceeding  12.,  U.  6d.  not  exceeding  lOi.,  2s.  2d.  not  exceeding  20/., 
and  6t.  3d.  not  exceeding  40/.  The  maximum  for  a  single  order  for  all 
British  colonies  and  protectorates  and  for  most  European  countries  is  40/. 
(but  for  Russia  30/.,  for  Bulgaria,  Denmark,  and  the  United  States  20/.). 

Tblboraph  Mokbt  Obdebs  are  iasued  for  sums  not  exceeding  40/.  by 
all  post-offices  transacting  telegraph  and  money  order  busineas.  A  charge 
of  not  less  than  6d.  U  made  for  the  official  telegram  of  advice,  in  addition 
to  poundage  at  the  same  rate  as  for  inland  money  orders  (see  above),  and 
a  supplementary  fee  of  2d.  for  each  order.  Telegraph  money  orders  may 
also  be  sent  to  many  foreign  countries  (not  Including  the  United  States  of 
America),  the  maximum  being  the  same  as  for  money-orders.  Charges 
include  charge  for  the  telegram  of  adyice,  ordinary  poundage,  and  a  fee 
of  6d.  for  each  order. 

Telegraphs.  The  whole  telegraph  system  of  Great  Britain,  with 
the  sole  exception  of  wires  for  the  private  nse  of  the  railway-com- 
panies, belongs  to  Government  (p.  96).  The  tariff  for  inland  tele- 
grams is  y^d.  per  word ,  with  a  minimnm  charge  of  6(2. ;  the 
addresses  are  counted  as  part  of  the  telegram.  Replies  up  to  48 
words  may  be  prepaid.  Telegram  -  forms  with  embossed  stamps 
may  be  purchased  singly  (6d.)  or  in  books  of  20  (10s.  24.).  Tele- 
grams are  received  at  many  railway-stations  and  most  post-offices 

42  10.  TELEPHONES. 

throaghout  the  country.  They  may  also  be  posted  in  any  pillar 
box  or  post-office  and  are  in  that  ease,  if  properly  prepaid ,  de- 
spatched as  soon  as  possible  after  the  box  is  cleared.  London  and 
its  suburbs  contain  more  than  500  telegraph  -  offices,  open  from- 
8  a.m.  to  8  p.m.  or  longer.  Always  open  are:  Central  Telegraph 
Station,  St.  Martin's  le  Grand  (comer  of  Newgate  St.);  West 
Strand,  opposite  Charing  Cross  Station;  London  Bridge  Station; 
Liverpool  St.  Station;  St.  Pancras  Station;  Waterloo  Station; 
Willesden  Junction  Station;  Stratford  Railway  Station.  The  office 
at  King's  Cross  Station  is  open  always  except  i  .30  to  2.30  on  Sun- 
day; that  at  Marylebone  Station  Is  open  always  except  11.30  a.m.- 
3.30  p.m.  on  Sundays. 

Foreign  Tblxosahs.  The  tariflf  per  word  for  telegrams  to  Belgium^ 
Holland^  France^  or  Oertnany  is  2d.;  Italy ^  Austria,  Hungary,  Denmark, 
Norwiff,  Spain,  P&rtugal,  or  SwUwerland  3d.  i  Sweden  S'/td. ;  Russia  in  Europe 
A^lid. ;  Greece  6<2. ;  Turkey  d^/td. ;  Canada  is.  to  Ss.  2d. ;  United  Slates  U, 
to  U.  64. ;  Egypt  U.  to  U.  id.  -,  India  is.  iOd.  to  2s. ;  Cape  Colony  or  Natal  28. 
Gd.',  Australia  2s.  dd.  to  3s.',  West  Indies  is.  Sd.  to  7s.  6d.i  South  America 
3s.  to  7s.  Id.  The  minimum  in  every  case  is  iOd. 

WiBBLESs  Telegrams.  Messages  are  accepted  at  all  telegraph-offices 
for  transmission  by  wireless  telegraphy  to  certain  Atlantic  liners,  at  a 
charge  of  Q^jtd.  per  word  (minimum  charge  6<.  Qd.).  In  addition  to  the 
name  of  the  ship  that  of  the  wireless  telegraph  station  (Crookhaven,  Lizard, 
Malin  Head,  Kiton,  North  Foreland,  or  Bosslare)  must  appear  in  the  address. 
Telegrams  to  British  war-ships  are  charged  3V2<f .  per  word  (minimum  3s.  6d.). 

The  Marconi  International  Marine  Communication  Co.  (Watergate  House, 
Adelphi)  maintains  wireless  communication  with  Montreal  at  the  rate  of 
V/id.  per  word. 

Telephones.  Telephonic  communication  within  the  London  Exchange 
Area,  covering  a  district  640  sq.  M.  in  extent,  with  a  population  of  more 
than  6,000,000,  is  maintained  parUy  by  the  National  Tilephone  Co.,  the 
head  office  of  which  is  at  ^Telephone  House',  Victoria  Embankment, 
£.  C,  and  partly  by  the  Post  Office,  whose  Central  Exchange  is  in  Queen 
Victoria  St.  (p.  130).  When  the  licence  of  the  Telephone  Co.  expires  in 
1911  its  whole  plant  will  be  taken  over  by  the  Post  Office.  The  present 
double  jurisdiction  is,  however,  of  little  importance  to  visitors  to  London, 
as  there  is  free  iatercommunication  between  the  systems.  Call-offices  open 
to  the  public  at  the  rate  of  2d.  per  3  minutes'  conversation  are  to  be 
found  all  over  London  —  in  post-offices,  shops,  public  libraries,  under- 
ground stations,  etc.  —  The  Post  Office  lias  also  a  system  of  trunk-lines 
to  the  chief  towns  of  the  United  Kingdom  (charge  for  8  min.  from  3d.  up- 
wards according  to  distance).  —  Telephonic  communication  exists  between 
London  and  Paris,  Belgium,  and  some  French  provincial  towns.  The  public 
call -offices  are  at  the  General  Post  Office  West  (p.  95;  always  open), 
West  Strand  Office  (always  open),  and  Threadneedle  Street  Post  Office  (open 
on  weekdays  from  8  a.m.  to  8  p.m.).  Charge  8«.  per  three  minutes  except 
for  Bordeaux,  Lyons,  Marseilles  and  St.  Etienne,  in  which  cases  the  charge  is 
10«.  for  8  minutes.  [In  Belgium  Greenwich  time  is  used  officially  for  tele- 
phonic purposes,  but  Paris  time  is  9  min.  in  advance  of  London  time, 
a  fact  to  be  taken  into  account  in  arranging  for  conversations  with  Paris 

Parcels  Companies.  Parcels  for  London  and  the  environs  are  trans- 
mitted by  the  London  Parcels  Delivery  Company  (head-office,  12  Rolls  Build- 
ings, Fetter  Lane,  Fleet  St.),  by  Carter,  Paterson,  A  Co.  (126  Goswell  Road, 
E.C.),  and  by  Pick/ord  Limited  (57  Gresham  St.,  E.C.),  all  with  numerous 
receiving  offices  distributed  throughout  London,  usually  in  shops  indicated 
by  notices.  Within  a  radius  of  3  M.  a  parcel  under  4lbs.  is  sent  for  3d., 
under  141bS.,  Qd.,  under  28lb8.,  8d.,   and  so  on  up  to  1121bB.  for  Is.  2d.; 


beyond  3  M.  the  charges  are  from  id.  upwards.  [A  card  with  the  initials 
of  any  of  these  companies  in  large  letters,  conspicuously  exhibited  in  the 
window,  will  arrest  the  first  of  its  vans  that  happens  to  pass  the  house.] 
The  District  and  Metropolitan  Railways  also  convey  parcels  at  cheap  rates. 
Parcels  for  any  place  in  the  United  Kingdom  may  be  entrusted  to  these 
companies,  but  the  Post  Office  is  the  best  carrier  for  packages  not  ex< 
ceeding  lllbs.  in  weight.  Parcels  for  the  Continent  are  forwarded  by 
the  Continental  Daily  Parcels  Express  (53  Gracechurch  8t.)  and  the 
aiobe  Parcels  Express  (Errol  St.,  Whitecross  St.,  II  St.  Andrew*s  Hill,  and 
9  Blenheim  St.,  Kew  Bond  St.),  which  work  in  connection  with  the 
continental  post-offices.  Parcels  for  America  are  forwarded  by  Staveley 
A  Co.^s  American  European  Express,  45a  Jewin  St ,  E.G.,  Weills  Fargo  A  Co,^ 
29  Cannon  St.,  E.G.,  Feild  A  Co.^  14  St.  Mary  Axe,  and  the  American  Line 
SUamship  Co.  (p.  xiii).  Pitt  A  Scott  (25  Cannon  St.,  City),  and  the  American 
Express  Co.^  5  Haymarket,  S.W.,  and  84  Queen  St.,  E.G.,  are  general 
shipping  and  parcel  agents  for  all  parts  of  the  world. 

CommisBioimaireB.  These  are  a  corps  of  retired  soldiers  of  high 
character,  organized  in  1859  by  the  late  Captain  Sir  Edward  Walter 
(d.  1904),  and  are  convenient  and  trustworthy  messengers  for  the 
conveyance  of  letters  or  small  parcels.  They  also  act  as  gnides  and 
interpreters.  Their  head -office  is  at  Exchange  Court,  419a  Strand. 
Their  charges  are  Sd,  per  mile  or  6(2.  per  hour;  the  rate  is  a  little 
higher  if  the  parcel  to  be  carried  weighs  more  than  14  lbs.  The 
charge  for  a  day  is  about  5s.,  and  they  may  also  be  hired  by  special 
arrangement  for  a  week  or  a  longer  period. 

District  Kesaenger  Co.  Messengers  of  this  company  charge  4d.  per 
half-mile,  6d.  per  mile,  8tf.  per  hr.,  fares  extra.  Letters  are  posted  or 
cabs  called  at  2(2.,  or  id.  after  10  p.m.  and  on  Sundays.  Head -office: 
100  St.  Martinis  Lane,  W.C;  among  the  numerous  branch-offices  (open 
always)  may  be  mentioned  those  at  the  Hotel  Bitz,  Hotel  Cecil.  St.  Ermm's 
Hotel,  Westminster,  91  and  193  Piccadilly,  269  Regent  Street,  27  Chancery 
Lane,  Holborn  Restaurant,  66  Queen  Victoria  Street,  120  Leadenhall  Street, 
Torrington  Place  Lodge,  Torrington  Square,  4  Charing  Gross,  17  London 
Street,  Paddington,  73a  Victoria  Street,  17  Sloane  Street,  121  Finchley  Road, 
and  several  of  the  principal  railway  termini. 

The  International  Lady  Gonriersi  4  Charing  Cross  (District 
Messengers  Office),  provide  ladies  qualified  to  act  as  guides  to  the 
sights  of  London,  as  interpreters,  as  travelling  companions,  as  aids 
in  shopping  or  packing,  etc.  They  also  keep  a  register  of  boarding 
and  lodging  houses,  engage  rooms  at  hotels,  exchange  money,  provide 
railway  and  other  tickets,  and  generally  undertake  to  give  all  the 
information  and  assistance  required  hy  a  stranger  In  Loudon.  Fee 
IO5.  per  day,  50*.  per  week.  The  fee  for  meeting  at  railway- 
stations  is  5«.  —  The  American  Rendezvous,  156  Regent  St.,  in- 
cludes a  lady-guides  bureau.  —  Miss  L.  E.  Elwin^  23  Alwyne  Road, 
Canonbury,  N.,  may  also  be  recommended  as  a  lady  guide. 

11.  Theatres,  Music  Halls,  and  other  Entertainments. 

The  performance  at  most  of  the  London  theatres  begins  about 
7.30,  8,  or  8.30,  and  Tasts  till  11  p.m.  Many  theatres  also  give  so- 
called  ^morning  performances'  or  *matin<fes*,  beginning  about  2.30 
or  3  p.m.  For  details  consult  the  notices  *under  the  clock'  (i.e.  im- 

44  11.    THEATRES. 

mediately  before  the  summaries  and  leaden)  in  the  daily  papers. 
The  doors  are  nsnally  opened  half-an-honr  before  the  performance. 
In  some  theatres  a  small  extra  payment  (6d.  or  Is.)  admits  to  the 
cheaper  seats  by  the  'early  door\  before  the  general  public  is  ad- 
mitted. —  Good  German  and  French  companies  Tisit  London  an- 
nually; see  the  advertisements  in  the  newspapers. 

London  possesses  about  30  west  end  theatres,  as  many  suburban 
theatres,  and  about  60  regular  music-halls,  besides  ten  limes  the  number 
of  smaller  halls  and  assembly-rooms,  the  aggregate  nightly  audience  at 
these  being  estimated  at  150,000.  A  visit  to  the  whole  of  the  theatres  of 
London,  which,  however,  could  only  be  managed  in  the  course  of  a  pro- 
longed sojourn,  would  give  the  traveller  a  capital  insight  into  the  social 
life  of  the  ptople  throughout  all  its  gradations.  At  some  of  the  better 
theatres  all  extra  fees  have  been  abolished,  but  most  of  them  still  main- 
tain the  objectionable  custom  of  charging  for  programmes,  the  care  of 
wraps,  etc.  Opera-glasses  may  be  hired  for  U.  or  is.  M.  f^om  the 
attendants;  in  some  theatres  the  glasses  are  placed  in  automatic  boxes 
on  the  backs  of  the  seats  and  opened  by  dropping  a  sixpenny  piece  or  a 
shilling  in  the  slot. 

The  best  seats  are  the  Stalls^  next  to  the  Orchestra,  and  the  Dress 
Circle  or  Balcony  Stalls.  The  gallery  above  the  latter  is  known  variously 
as  the  (T2>per  Circle^  Upper  Boxes,  or  Farmly  Circle.  Tickets  for  all  these 
places  ma)  be  secured  in  advance  at  the  Box  Office  (usually  open  from 
10  a.m.  to  10  p.m.)  of  the  theatre  or  from  the  undermentioned  agents;  and 
on  the  occasion  of  popular  performances  this  precaution  is  essential.  In 
certain  theatres  any  seat  in  the  house  may  be  reserved  in  advance.  The 
price  for  a  stall  is  almost  invariably  10«.  Gd.,  admission  to  the  pit  2^.  6c2., 
to  the  gallery  \s.  \  while  the  charges  for  other  seats  vary  slightly  in  different 
theatres.  —  Tickets  for  the  opera  and  for  most  of  the  theatres  may  be 
obtained  also  from  Lctcon  A  Oilier,  168a  New  Bond  Street;  Hays,  26  Old 
Bond  Street,  82  CornLill,  and  4  Royal  Exchange  Buildings ;  Keiih,  Prowse^ 
A  Co.t  48  Cheapside,  148  Fenchurch  Street,  3  Grand  Hotel  Buildings, 
42  Victoria  Street,  4  First  Avenue  Hotel  Buildings,  High  Holborn,  and 
162  New  Bond  Street;  Cramer,  124  Oxford  St.,  136  High  St.,  Notting  Hill 
Gate,  and  46  Moorgate  Street,  City;  Newman,  Queen's  Hall,  Langham  Place; 
Webster  A  Waddington,  804  Regent  Street;  Ashton  A  Mitchell,  33  Old  Bond 
Streets.  30  Sloane  Street,  16  Gloucester  Road,  Stock  Exchange,  etc. ;  Cecil 
Roy,  36  Wigmore  Street,  11  Pont  Street,  4  Bank  Buildings,  Gloucester 
Road,  91  Knightsbridge,  59  South  Audley  Street,  and  68  Regent  Street,  and 
at  the  offices  of  the  District  Messenger  Co.  (p.  43),  at  charges  somewhat 
higher  as  a  rule  than  at  the  theatres  themselves.  Single  box-seats  can 
generally  be  obtained  at  the  door  as  well  as  at  the  box-office,  except 
when  the  boxes  are  let  for  the  season. 

Those  who  have  not  taken  their  tickets  in  advance  should  be  at  the 
door  Va  !""•  before  the  beginning  of  the  performance,  with,  if  possible, 
the  exact  price  of  their  ticket  in  readiness.  All  the  theatres  are  closed 
on  Good  Friday  and  Christmas  Day,  and  many  throughout  Passion  Week. 

Evening-dress  is  not  now  compulsory  in  any  of  the  London  theatre?, 
but  is  customary  in  the  stalls  and  dress  circle  and  de  rigueur  in  most 
parts  of  the  opera-house  during  the  opera  season. 

The  chief  London  theatres,  in  alphabetical  order,  are  the  follow- 
ing (many  of  them  closed  in  August  and  September). 

Adblphi  Theatre  (PI.  R,  31 ;  II\  411  Strand  (N.  side),  near 
Bedford  Street.  Melodramas  and  farces.  Stalls  IO5.  6d.,  dress  circle 
65.,  upper  circle  48.  and  Ss.,  pit  2a.  6d.,  gallery  la. 

Aldwyoh  Thbatre  (pi.  R,  31 ;  i/),  Aldwych,  Strand.  Stalls 
10s.  6d.,  balcony  7s.  Gi.,  6s.,  and  5s.,  upper  circle  5s.  and  4s.,  pit 
2s.  6d.,  gallery  Is. 

11.  THEATRES.  45 

Apollo  Thbateb  (PI.  R,  27;  /),  Shaftesbury  Avenue.  Musical 
comedies,  etc.  Stalls  iOs,  6d.,  balcony  stalls  7«.  6(2.  and  6«.,  upper 
circle  4«.  and  5«.,  pit  2^.  6d.,  gallery  is, 

CoMBDT  Thbatbb  (P1.R,26;  /),  PantonSt.,  Haymarket.  Stalls 
lOs.  6d.,  balcony  7«.  6(2.,  upper  circle  6s.  and  48.,  pit  2«.  6(2.,  amphi- 
theatre  Is.  6<2.,  gallery  is. 

CouBT  Thbateb  (Pi.  G,  17),  Sloane  Square,  Chelsea.  Comedies 
and  dramas.  Stalls  10^.  6(2.,  dress  circle  Is.  6(2.  and  6s.,  upper 
circle  4s.,  pit  2s.  6(2.,  gallery  Is. 

Royal  Italian  Opbea,  or  Covbnt  Gaedbn  Thbateb  (PI.  R, 
31;  //),  on  the  W.  side  of  Bow  St.,  Long  Acre,  the  third  theatre 
on  the  same  site,  was  built  in  1858  by  Barry.  It  accommodates  an 
audience  of  3500  persons,  being  nearly  as  large  as  the  Scala  at 
Milan,  and  has  a  handsome  Corinthian  colonnade.  This  house  was 
originally  sacred  to  Italian  opera,  but  is  now  also  used  for  fancy 
dress  balls,  etc.,  in  winter.  Boxes  2V2-8  guineas,  orchestra  stalls 
21s.,  balcony  15s.,  amphitheatre  10s.,  7s.  6(2.,  and  5s.,  gallery  2s.  6(2. 
Operas  have  also  been  given  here  at  'theatre*  prices  —  i.e,  about 
50  per  cent  lower  than  those  just  mentioned.  In  winter,  stalls  6s., 
stage  stalls  4s.,  grand  circle  2s.  6(2.,  balcony  stalls  2s.,  promenade  Is. 

Oeitbeion  Thbateb  (PI.  R,  26 :  /),  Piccadilly  Circus.  Comedies, 
society  plays,  farces,  etc.  Stalls  10s.  6(2.,  dress  circle  7s.  6(2.,  family 
circle  5s.  and  4s.,  pit  2s.  6(2.,  gallery  Is. 

Daly's  Thbateb  (PI. R, 27;  /),  Cranbourn  St.,  Leicester  Square. 
Musical  comedies,  dramas,  etc.  Stalls  10s.  6(2.,  balcony  stalls  7s. 
6(2.,  upper  circle  5s.  and  4s.,  pit  2s.  6(2.,  gallery  Is. 

Deuey  Lanb  Thbateb  (PI.  R,  31;  //),  Catherine  St.,  Drury 
Lane,  near  Covent  Garden,  where  Garrick,  Eean,  the  Kembles,  and 
Mrs.  Siddons  used  to  act.  Shakspeare's  plays,  comedies,  spec- 
tacular plays,  English  opera,  etc.  Pantomime  in  winter.  Stalls 
10s.  6(2.,  grand  circle  7s.  and  6s.,  first  circle  5s.  and  4s.,  balcony  2s., 
pit  2s.  6(2.,  gallery  Is.  No  fees.  The  vestibule  contains  a  statue  of 
Kean  as  Hamlet,  by  Carew,  and  others. 

DuKB  OP  Yoek's  Thbateb  (Pi.  R,  27;  //),  St.  Martin's  Lane, 
near  Trafalgar  Square.  Comedies,  dramas,  etc.  Stalls  10s.  6(2.,  bal- 
cony 7s.  6(2.  and  6s.,  upper  circle  4».,  pit  2s.  6(2.,  gallery  Is. 

Gaiety  Theatee  (PI.  R,  31 ;  //),  at  the  corner  of  the  Strand 
and  Aldwych.  Musical  comedies,  burlesques,  farces.  Stalls  10s.  6(2., 
dress  circle  7s.  6(2.  and  6s.,  upper  circle  5s.  and  4s.,  pit  2s.  6(2., 
gallery  Is. 

Gaeeick  Thbateb  (PI.  R,  27;  //),  Charing  Cross  Road.  Com- 
edies and  dramas.  Stalls  10s.  6(2.,  balcony  stalls  7s.  6(2.,  dress  circle 
6s.,  upper  circle  5s.  and  4s.,  pit  2s.  6(2.,  gallery  Is. 

Haymaekbt  Thbateb  (PL  R,  26;  /),  at  the  S.  end  of  the  Hay- 
market.  English  comedy  and  drama.  Stalls  10s.  6(2.,  balcony  stalls 
7s.,  balcony  5s.,  upper  circle  2s.  6(2.,  upper  boxes  2s.  6(2.,  gallery  Is. 
No  fees. 

46  11.    THEATRES. 

UiOKs  Theatke  (P1.R,27;  /),  Shaftesbury  Avenue,  at  the  corner 
of  Rupert  Street.  Comedy  and  drama.  Stalls  108.  6d.,  dress  circle 
7s,  Qd.  and  68. ,  upper  circle  58.  and  48.,  pit  28.  6d.,  gallery  Is. 

His  Majesty's  Theatre  (PI.  R,  26;  i),  in  the  Haymarket,  ad- 
joining the  Carlton  Hotel.  English  comedy  and  drama  (Mr.  Beerbohm 
Tree).  Stalls  10s.  6d.,  balcony  stalls  78.  6<2.,  balcony  58.,  upper 
circle  48.,  3«.,  and  2s.,  pit  28.  6(2.,  gallery  l8. 

Imperial  Theatre  (PL  R,  25;  IV),  Tothill  St.,  Westminster. 
Comedies,  burlesques,  and  farces.  Stalls  lOs.  6d.,  dress  circle  78. 
6(2.,  upper  circle  58.  and  48.,  pit  28.  6d.,  gallery  is. 

KiNGSWAY  Theatre  (PI.  R,  31;  //),  Great  Queen  St.,  Lincoln's 
Inn  Fields.  Light  comedy.  Stalls  108.  6<2.,  dress  circle  78.  6d.  and 
58.,  pit-stalls  68.,  upper  circle  48.,  pit  23.  6<2.,  gallery  l8.  Any  seat 
in  the  house  may  be  reserved  in  advance. 

Lyceum  Theatre  (PI.  R,  31 ;  //),  Wellington  St.,  Strand.  Pop- 
ular drama.  Stalls  58.  and  38.;  dress  circle  28.  6d.,  pit-stalls  l8.  6(i., 
pit  la.,  gallery  6d. 

Lyrio  Theatre  (PI.  R,  27;  J),  Shaftesbury  Avenue.  Comedy- 
operas,  romantic  drama,  etc.  Stalls  108.  6(2.,  balcony  stalls  78.  6(2. 
and  68.,  upper  circle  58.  and  48.,  pit  28.  6(2.,  gallery  l8. 

New  Theatre  (PI.  R,  27;  /i),  St.  Martin's  Lane.  Comedies 
and  domestic  drama.  Stalls  108.  6(2.,  dress  circle  78.  6(2.  and  68., 
family  circle  58.  and  48.,  pit  28.  6(2.,  gallery  is. 

Playhouse  (Pl.R,  26,  30;  /F),  Northumberland  Avenue.  Com- 
edy, etc.  Stalls  108.  6(2.,  balcony  stalls  78.  6(2.,  balcony  68.,  upper 
circle  48.,  pit-circle  28. 6(2.,  gallery  Is.  Any  seat  in  the  house  may 
be  reserved  in  advance. 

Princess's  Theatre  (PI.  R,  23;  i),  152  Oxford  St.,  to  the  E. 
of  Oxford  Circus.  Melodramas,  musical  comedies,  etc.  Stalls  68., 
grand  circle  is.  and  38.,  first  circle  28.,  pit  stalls  Is.  6(2.,  pit  Is. 

Prince  op  Wales  Theatre  (PI.  R,  27,  36;  7),  Coventry  St., 
Haymarket.  Comedies,  operettas,  etc.  Stalls  lOs.  6d.,  balcony  stalls 
7s.  6(2.,  upper  circle  5s.  and  4s.,  pit  28.  6(2.,  gallery  Is. 

Queen's  Theatre  (PI.  R,  27;  /),  Shaftesbury  Avenue,  at  the 
cwrner  of  Wardour  Street.  Comedy  and  drama.  Stalls  lOs.  6(2.,  dress 
circle  78.  6c2.  and  5s.,  upper  circle  4s.  and  3s.,  pit  2s,  6c2.,  gallery  Is. 

New  Royalty  Theatre  (PI.  R,  27;  J),  73  Dean  St.,  Soho. 
Comedies  and  dramas.  Stalls  10s.  6(2.,  dress  circle  78.  6(2.  and  68., 
upper  circle  48.,  pit  28.  6(2.,  gallery  Is. 

Savoy  Theatre  (PI.  R,  31 ;  IT),  Savoy  Place,  Strand.  Modern 
plays.  Stalls  lOs.  6(2.,  dress  circle  7s.  6(2.  and  58,,  upper  circle  48., 
pit  28.  6(2.,  gallery  Is. 

St.  James's  Theatre  (PI.  R,  22;  IV),  King  St.,  St.  James's 
Square.  Comedies  and  society  plays  (Mr.  George  Alexander).  Stalls 
10s.  6(2.,  dress  circle  78.,  upper  circle  4s.,  pit  28. 6(2.,  gallery  Is.  No  fees. 

ScALA  Theatre  (PI.  R,  24;  /),  Charlotte  St.,  Fitzroy  Square. 
Stalls  7s.  6(2.,  staircase  stalls  6s.,  balcony  3s.,  pit  2s.  6(2.,  gallery  Is. 

11.  THEATRES.  47 

Shaptbbbuey  Thbatbb  (pi.  R,  27;  i),  Shaftesbury  Avenue. 
Comedies,  etc.  Stalls  iOs.  6d.,  balcony  stalls  7s.  6d.  and  6«.,  upper 
circle  5^.,  4a.,  and  3^.,  pit  2«.  6(2.,  amphitheatre  is.  6<2.,  gallery  is. 

Tebky's  Thbatbb  (PI.  R,  31 :  /i),  105  Strand.  Comedies,  do- 
mestic dramas,  etc.  Stalls  10«.  6d.,  balcony  stalls  7«.  6<2.  and  6s., 
upper  circle  4^.,  pit  2«.  6(2.,  gallery  is. 

Vaudbvillb  Thbatbb  (Pi.  R,  31 ;  II),  404  Strand.  Comedies, 
farces,  and  burlesques.  Stalls  10«.  6(2.,  balcony  7^.  6(2.,  lower  circle 
6a.,  npper  circle  4a.,  pit  2a.  6(2. ,  gallery  la. 

Waldorf  Thbatbb  (PI.  R,  31;  II),  Aldwyoh,  Strand.  Stalls 
10a.  6(2.,  balcony  7a.  6(2.,  6a.,  and  5a.,  npper  circle  5a.  and  4a.,  pit 
2a.  6(2.,  gallery  la. 

Wyndham's  Thbatbb  (PI.  R,27; /i),  Cranbourn  St.,  €haring 
Cross  Road,  with  a  roof-garden  and  elevator.  Comedies,  society 
pieces,  etc.  Stalls  10a.,  balcony  stalls  7a.  6(2.,  grand  circle  6a.,  upper 
circle  5a.  and  4a.,  pit  2a.  6(2.,  gallery  la. 

The  following  are  'peoples'  theatres',  in  which,  for  the  tourist, 
the  audience  forms  part  of  the  entertainment. 

Geand  Thbatbb  (PL  B,  35),  ffigh  St.,  Islington. 

National  Stand abd  Thbatbb  (PI.  R,  44),  204  Shoreditch 
High  Street.    Popular  pieces.    Admission  4d.'3a. 

Payilion  Thbatbb  (PI.  R,  52),  193  Whitechapel  Road,  holding 
nearly  4000  persons.  Nautical  dramas,  melodramas,  farces.  Ad- 
mission 3(2.-la. 

Royal  Subbby  Thbatbb  (PI.  R,  33),  124  Blackfriars  Road. 
Melodramas  and  farces.    Admission  3(2.  to  la. 

Elbfhant  and  Castlb  Thbatbb  (PL  G,  37),  New  Kent  Road. 
Popular  performances.   Prices  id.  to  2a.  6(2. 

Bbitannia  (PL  B,  24),  Hoxton  St.,  in  the  N.E,  of  London, 
holding  nearly  3400  persons. 

SuBUBBAN  Theatbes.  Within  the  last  fevr  years  a  number  of  theatres 
have  been  bnilt  in  the  sabarbs  of  London,  where  very  fair  performances 
are  frequently  to  be  seen  (sometimes  metropolitan  companies).  Among 
these  are  the  Goronei  (PL  R,  2),  dotting  Hill  Oate^  Camden,  Camden  Town; 
Marlborough^  HoUoway;  Alexandra^  Stoke  Newington;  MiiropoU  (PI.  G.AO)y 
near  Camberwell  Green  ^  Broadway.  New  Cross;  Kenningion  Theatre  (p.  382); 
Croion  Thtatrty  Peckham;  Shaktptare^  near  Claph^m  Junction*;  Lyric  Optra 
Howe,  Hammersmith;  irmtjr'^.  Hammersmith  Road;  Fvlham  O^and,  Fulham 
Road;  and  theatres  at  Dalston,  Stratford,  Mile  End,  Lewisbam,  Croydon, 
Brixton,  Battersea,  Rotherhithe,  etc.    Adm.  6d.-5«. 

Music  Halls  and  Variety  Entertainments. 
The  entertainments  offered  by  the  Music  Halls  have  certainly 
improved  in  tone  during  the  last  ten  or  fifteen  years,  and  ladies  may 
visit  the  better-class  west  end  establishments  without  fear,  though 
they  should,  of  course,  eschew  the  cheaper  seats.  The  ballets  at  the 
Alhambra  and  the  £mpire  are  justly  celebrated.  Smoking  is  almost 
universally  permitted.   The  objectionable  custom  of  charging  %d. 

48  11.    MUSIC  HALLS. 

for  a  programme,  often  consisting  mainly  of  advertisements,  is  rife 
at  the  music  halls  also. 

Alhamb&a  (PL  R,  27;  i),  Leicester  Square,  with  another  en- 
trance in  Charing  Cross  Road  (elaborate  hallets).  Begins  at  7.30  p.m. 
Fauteuils  and  grand  circle  stalls  7«.  6(2.,  stalls  and  promenade  5s., 
grand  balcony  3«.,  pit  stalls  2«.,  pit  is. 

Empibb  Thbatrb  of  Varibtibs  (PI.  R,  27;  7),  Leicester  Square 
(also  with  good  ballets).   Prices  78.  6d.,  58.,  28.  6d.,  is. 

Palace  Thbateb  of  Vabibtibs  (PI.  R,  27;  /),  Cambridge  Circus, 
Shaftesbury  Avenue.   Prices  7«.  6d.,  58.,  38.,  28.  6d.,  28.,  l8.,  Qd. 

London  Pavilion  (PI.  R,  27 ;  /),  Piccadilly  Circus.  Begins  at 
7.30  p.m.  Prices  58.,  48.,  38.,  la.  6d.,  1*. 

HiFFODBOMB  (PI.  R,  27;  //),  Cranboum  St.,  corner  of  Charing 
Cross  Road.  Performances  at  2  and  8  p.m.  Prices  78. 6(2.,  58.,  3s.,  is. 

The  Oxpobd  (PI.  R,  27;  /),  14  Oxford  Street.  Adm.  from  l8. 

TrvoLi  Thbatrb  of  Vabibtibs,  65  Strand.  Begins  at  7.30  p.m. 
Prices  58.,  38.,  28.,  l8.  6(2.,  l8. 

London  Coliseum,  St.  Martin's  Lane,  at  the  corner  of  Chandos 
Street.  Performances  at  2  and  8  p.m.  Prices  38.  6d.,  2s.  6(2.,  2s., 
Is.  G(2. 

Mbt&ofolitan  Thbatbb  of  Vabibtibs,  267  Edgware  Road. 
Begins  at  8  p.m.   Adm.  6(2.  to  22.  28.  (private  box). 

HoLBOEN  Empire  (Pi.  R,  32;  //),  242  High  Holbom.  Two  per- 
formances nightly;  matinees  on  Thurs.  and  Saturday.  Prices  38., 
28.,  Is.,  6(2. 

Cantbbbubt  Thbatbb  of  Vabibtibs  ,  143  Westminster  Bridge 
Road.    Entertainment  begins  at  7.40  p.m.    Adm.  from  6(2. 

Middlesex  Music  Hall,  Drury  Lane.  Begins  at  7.30p.m.  Prices 
from  6(2.  upwards. 

Royal  Viotobia  Coffee  Music  Hall,  131  Waterloo  Road,  Lam- 
beth, formerly  the  Victoria  Palace  Theatre.  Open  at  7  p.m.  Prices 
from  3(2.  to  lOs.  6(2.  (private  box). 

Pabagon  Thbatbb  of  Vabibtibs  ,  95  Mile  End  Road.  Begins 
at  7.30  p.m.    Admission  from  6(2.  upwards. 

Cambridge  Theatre  op  Varieties,  136  Commercial  St ,  E. 

Collinses  Music  Hall,  10  Islington  Green,  near  the  Royal  Agri- 
cultural Hall.  Admission  6(2.-38. 

South  London  Palace  of  Amusements,  92  London  Road,  St. 
George's  Fields,  near  the  Elephant  and  Castle,  a  large  hall  with 
5000  seats.  Concerts,  ballets,  etc.  Admission  28.,  Is.  6(2.,  Is.,  and  6(2. 

Exhibitions  and  Entertainments. 
Madame  Tussaud'b  Waxwork  Exhibition,  Marylebone  Road, 
near  Baker  Street  Station  (PI.  R,  20),  a  collection  of  wax  figures  of  an- 
cient and  modern  notabilities.  The  best  time  for  visiting  it  is  in  the 
evening,  by  electric  light.  Admission  Is.  —  At  the  back  (6(2.  extra) 
are  a  room  with  various  memorials  of  Napoleon  1.  and  the  ^Chamber 

11.   EXHIBITIONS.  49 

of  Horror s\  containing  the  guillotine  ^Mch  decapitated  Louii  XYI. 
and  Marie  Antoinette,  and  other  articles  of  a  ghaitly  natnre. 

St.  Geobgb's  Hall  (PI.  R,  24;  i),  Langham  Place.  Maskelyne 
and  Deyant's  conjuring  and  illusionary  performances  at  3  p.m. ; 
dramas  with  magical  effects  at  8  p.m.;  adm.  60.,  4«.,  Ss.,  29.,  la. 

AoBicuLTUBAL  Hall  (PI.  B,  36),  LiYorpool  Road,  Islington. 
Cattle  shows,  exhibitions,  lectures,  dioramas,  concerts,  etc. 

Hbngler's  Cirque  (PI.  R,  23;  /),  Argyle  St.,  Oxford  Circus; 
daily  at  3  and  8  p.m.    Adm.  from  la. 

OiNEMATOGBAPH  Enteetainmbnts.  Marlhorovgh  Hall,  Poly- 
technic, Regent  Str. ;  adm.  l8.-4s.  —  Halt^s  Tours  of  the  Worlds 
165  Oxford  St.;  cinematograph  views,  adm.  6d.  —  ArdmaUd  Pict- 
ure Show^  170  Piccadilly;  all  day,  adm.  Is.  including  tea. 

Crystal  Palace,  Sydenham  (p.  400).  Occasional  exhibitions, 
dog-shows,  cat-shows,  poultry-shows,  etc.;  pantomime  in  winter ; 
fireworks  on  Thursday  and  Saturday  eyenings  in  summer. 

Olympia,  opposite  the  Addison  Road  Station,  Kensington  (p.  31), 
a  huge  amphitheatre,  holding  10,000  people,  for  spectacular  per- 
formances, sporting  and  military  shows  (notably  the  Royal  Military 
Tournament  in  June),  bicycling  contests,  promenade  concerts,  etc. 
(see  daily  papers ;  adm.  l-5«.). 

Earl's  Court  Exhibition  Grounds  (PI.  G,  1,  2),  with  elaborate 
annual  'natlonar  exhibitions,  numerous  side-shows  (adm.  extra)) 
baads,  etc.  Other  features  are  a  switch-back  railway  and  a  water- 
chute.    Adm.  la.,  11  a.m.  to  11  p.m. 

Wbmblby  Pare,  to  the  N.W.  of  London.  Occasional  entertain* 
ments :  music,  boating  on  artificial  lake,  athletic  contests,  balloon 
ascents,  etc.  Admission  6d.  Train  from  Baker  St.  Station  (see  R.  44). 

Alexandra  Palace,  Muswell  Hill.  Theatrical  performances, 
concerts,  fetes,  huge  organ,  boating  lake,  skating  rink,  etc.  Ad- 
mission free,  except  on  so-called  'Maintenance  Days'  (14  yearly), 
when  a  small  charge  is  made.    See  p.  374. 

Fbanco-Bkitish  Exhibition,  Shepherd's  Bush.  The  exhibition,  which 
will  be  open  from  May  14th  to  October,  1908,  displays  in  numerous  handsome 
pavilions  and  galleries  examples  of  the  industries  and  arts  of  the  British 
Empire  and  of  France  and  her  Colonies.  The  grounds  (140  acres)  contain 
also  the  Stadium  in  which  will  be  decided  most  of  the  contests  of  the 
London  Olympic  Games  (4th  International  Olympiad)  to  be  held  in  July, 
1908.  —  The  main  entrance  is  in  Uxbridge  Road,  between  Shepherd's  Bash 
Station  (Central  London  Bail  way)  and  Uxbridge  Road  Station  (Metro.  Railway), 
and  is  within  the  four-mile  cab  radius  (p.  18).  There  is  another  entrance 
in  Wood  Lane  (stations,  see  pp.  31,  33). 

12.  Concerts  and  Exhibitions  of  Pictures. 


Queen's  Hall  (PI.  R,  24;  JT),  Langham  Place,  W.,  a  large  hall 
with  3000  seats.  Among  the  concerts  given  here  are  the  Philharmonie 
Concerts  (Mr.  Fred.  Cowen,  conductor),  in  May  and  June;  the 

Bakdbkbu^s  London.    15th  Edit.  4 

50  12.  CONCERTS. 

Fromenade  Concerts,  daily  in  summei  (Aug.-Oct.)  at  8  p.m.,  adm. 
ia.'bs,,  and  the  Sunday  Afternoon  Concerts  (Mr.  Henry  J.  Wood, 
conductor  at  both),  in  winter ;  the  London  Symphony  Concerts  and 
the  Ballad  Concerts,  In  winter. 

St.  James'8  Hall  (PI.  B,  24;  7),  Great  Portland  St.,  a  new 
concert-hall  with  1200  seats,  opened  in  April,  1908;  numerous 
excellent  orchestral  and  other  concerts. 

Royal  Albbbt  Hall  (PL  R,  9),  South  Kensington  (p.  338). 
Sunday  afternoon  concerts  (seats  3d.-2«.)  in  winter,  and  musical 
fetes  and  concerts  on  a  large  scale  at  uncertain  intervals. 

Cbystal  Palacb,  Sydenham  (p.  400);  occasional  concerts. 

Albxandba  Palace  (p.  374);  occasional  concerts. 

Stbinwat  Hall  (PI.  R,  19 j  /),  15  Lower  Seymour  St.,  Portman 

iEoLiAN  Hall,  135  Bond  St.  (PI.  R,23;  /);  good  chamber  music 
(Bohemian  Quartet,  etc.). 

Bechstbin  Hall,  Wigmore  St.  (PI.  R,  19;  /);  Nora  Clench 
Quartet  Concerts^  etc. 

Sallb  Eeabd,  Great  Marlborough  St.  (PI.  R,  23;  7). 

Beoadwood's  Hall,  Conduit  Street. 

Cavendish  Rooms,  61  Mortimer  Street. 

Exhibitions  of  Pictures. 

Royal  Academy  op  Fine  Arts  (PI.  R,  22;  /),  Burlington  Hovse, 
Piccadilly  (p.  265).  Exhibition  of  the  works  of  living  British 
painters  and  sculptors,  from  first  Monday  in  May  to  first  Monday 
in  August.  Open  daily  8-7 ;  admission  1 5.,  catalogue  1«.  During 
the  last  week  open  also  from  7.30  to  10.30  p.m. ;  admission  6d. 
Exhibition  of  the  works  of  Ancient  Masters  in  January  and  Febru- 
ary. Diploma  and  Gibson  galleries,  open  throughout  the  year  (see 
p.  265  ;  entrance  to  the  right  of  the  main  entrance). 

The  New  Galleby  (PI.  R,  23;  /),  121  Regent  Street.  Summer 
and  winter  exhibitions.   Admission  l^. 

Royal  Society  of  Painters  in  Water  Colours,  5a  Pall  Mall 
East.  Open  from  Easter  to  the  end  of  July,  and  from  December 
to  March;  admission  la.,  catalogue  is. 

Royal  Institute  op  Painters  in  Water  Colours,  191  Picca- 
dilly.   Exhibitions  from  March  to  the  end  of  June  (9-6 ;  Is.). 

Society  of  Oil  Painters.  Exhibition  at  191  Piccadilly  in 
Jan.  and  Feb.  (10-4;  la.). 

Society  of  Beitish  Artists  (PI.  R,  26;  /),  61/2  Suffolk  St.,  Pall 
Mall  East.  Exhibitions  from  Ist  April  to  1st  Aug.  (9-6)  and  from 
1st  Oct.  to  Iftt  Feb.  (10-6).    Admission  is. 

Royal  Society  op  Painter- Etchers.  Spring  exhibitions  at 
5a  Pall  Mall  East. 

New  English  Art  Club.  Exhibitions  at  the  Dudley  Gallery, 
169  Piccadilly  flO-O;  is.). 

.  12.   PlCTUllE  EXHIBITIONS.  51 

Society  of  Lady  Artists.  Summer  exhibition  at  the  Suffolk 
Street  Galleries  (p.  50);  admission  1«.,  catalogue  Gd. 

Do&i  Gallbsy,  35  New  Bond  St.,  containing  large  paintings 
\)y  Oustave  DorL   Daily,  10-6;  1«. 

Occasional  special  exhibitions  of  pictures  take  place  at  the 
Guildhall  (p.  110),  Whitbohapel  Abt  Galleby  (p.  144),  and  the 
GBArpoN  Gallbby  (pi.  R,  23;  i),  Grafton  St.,  Bond  Street.  These 
are  advertised  in  the  newspapers. 

There  are  also  in  winter  and  spring  Yarious  exhibitions  of  French, 
Belgian,  German,  Dutch,  and  other  paintings  at  120  Pall  Vail  (French 
Gallery).  43  Old  Bond  8t.  (Agnew's),  5  Begent  St.  (Goupil  Gallery),  236a 
Regent  St.  (Holland  GaUery),  U8  New  Bond  St.  (Fine  Art  Society),  160  New 
Bond  St.  (Dowdeswell  Galleries),  157a  Kew  Bond  St.  (Continental  Gallery), 
175  New  Bond  St.  (Mr.  Tooth),  7  Haymarket  (McLean's),  the  St.  James 
Gallery,  4a  King  St.,  Carfax  Gallery,  24  Bury  St.,  Leicester  Galleries, 
20  Green  St.,  Leicester  Square,  etc.    Usual  charge  1«. 

13.  Races,  Sports,  and  Games. 

Archery.  The  focus  of  this  sport  in  London  is  in  the  grounds 
of  the  Royal  ToxopMlite  Society,  Regent's  Park  (see  p.  285). 

Atliletiet.  The  ehief  scene  of  athletic  sports  of  all  kinds  is 
Stamford  Bridge  Sports  Ground  on  the  Falham  Road,  where  the 
London  Athletic  Club  has  its  headquarters.  The  Amateur  Champion- 
ships of  the  United  Kingdom  are  decided  here  when  these  sports  are 
held  in  London  (every  third  year;  1908, 1911,  etc.).  The  University 
Sports,  between  Oxford  and  Cambridge,  take  place  at  Queen's  Club, 
in  the  Boat  Race  week  (see  below).  The  card  now  comprises  ten 
^events'.  It  was  at  Queen's  Club  that  the  International  contests  be- 
tween Oxford  and  Cambridge  on  the  one  side  and  Harvard  and  Yale 
on  the  other  took  place  in  1899  and  1904.  The  Oerman  Qymnastic 
Society,  26  St.  Pancras  Road,  King's  Cross,  takes  the  lead  among  all 
gymnastic  clubs;  about  half  of  its  7-800  members  are  English.  The 
Amateur  Athletic  A$$ociation  (hon.  sec.  Mr.  P.  L.  Fisher,  10  John  St., 
Adelphi)  consists  of  representatives  of  the  leading  athletic  clubs. 

Aquatics.  The  chief  event  in  the  year  is  the  Oxford  and  Cam- 
bridge Boat  Race ,  usually  rowed  on  the  second  Saturday  before 
Easter.  The  course  is  on  the  Thames ,  from  Putney  to  Mortlake ; 
the  distance  is  just  over  4^4  M.,  and  the  time  occupied  in  rowing 
it  varies  from  just  under  20  min.  to  23  min.,  according  to  the 
state  of  the  wind  and  tide.  The  Londoners  pour  out  to  see  the 
boat-race  in  almost  as  great  crowds  as  to  the  Derby,  sympathetic- 
ally exhibiting  in  some  portion  of  their  attire  either  the  dark-blue 
colours  of  Oxford  or  the  light-blue  of  Cambridge.  —  There  are  also 
several  regattas  held  upon  the  Thames.  Henley  Regatta  (at  the 
beginning  of  July),  the  chief  of  these,  is  also  an  important  society- 
function,  characteristically  English  (numerous  house  -  boats).  To 
Henley  crews  are  usually  sent  from  the  universities  of  Oxford,- 
Cambridge,  and  Dublin,  by  Eton  College,  and  by  the  London  Row- 


52  13.  RACES,  SPORTS,  GAMES. 

ing  Glabf  the  Leander,  the  Thames  Club,  and  other  clubs  of  more 
or  less  note.  Crews  from  American  nniversities  and  from  other 
countries  frequently  take  part  in  the  proceedings.  Of  the  other 
Thames  regattas,  the  best  are  those  of  MoUsty,  Reading^  Goring  ^ 
Streatleyj  Marlow^  Staines^  and  Walton.  —  On  Aug.  Ist  a  boat-race 
takes  place  among  young  Thames  watermen  for  Doggeti's  Coat  and 
Badge,  a  prize  founded  by  Doggett,  the  comedian,  in  1715.  The 
course  is  from  Old  Swan  Pier,  London  Bridge,  to  the  site  of  the 
Old  Swan  at  Chelsea,  about  6  miles.  —  Yacht-races  are  held  at 
the  mouth  of  the  Thames  in  summer,  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Royal  Thama  Yacht  Clvb,  the  Royal  London  Yacht  Club,  the  Royal 
Corinthian  Yacht  Club,  and  the  New  Thames  Yacht  Clii,  See  the 
Rowing  Almanack  (is, ;  Field  Office). 

BiUiards.  The  chief  matches  are  played  in  the  rooms  of  Bur- 
roughes  §r  Watt,  19  Soho  Square,  and  Thurston  ^  Co,  45  Leicester 
Square,  comfortable  accommodation  being  provided  in  each  case  for 
spectators  (adm.  48.,  28.  6d.,  Is.).  —  Billiard-tables  will  be  found 
in  almost  every  hotel  and  large  restaurant  or  public-house.  The 
usual  charge  is  Is.  per  hr.  (Is.  6d.  by  artificial  light)  or  Gd.  per 
game  of  fifty.  Among  billiard-rooms  may  be  mentioned  those  of 
Beallj  Brighton  Chambers,  Denman  St.,  London  Bridge;  Cook, 
Panton  St.,  Haymarket;  the  J16iel  Victoria  (p.  4);  and  Carlo  Gatti, 
Villiers  St.  The  arc-oval  table  is  to  be  found  at  the  Hotel  Victoria, 
Shelley's  Hotel,  8  Albemarle  St.,  and  elsewhere. 

Boxing.  Among  the  chief  boxing  clubs  in  London  are  the  West 
London  Boxing  Club,  the  National  Sporting  Club,  and  the  Cestus 
Boxing  Club,  and  there  are  also  boxing  clubs  in  connection  with 
the  German  Gymnastic  Society,  the  London  Athletic  Club,  etc.  Most 
of  these  are  affiliated  to  the  Amateur  Boxing  Association,  A  com- 
petition for  amateur  boxers  is  held  yearly,  the  prizes  being  hand- 
some challenge  cups  presented  by  the  Marquis  of  Queensberry. 

Chess.  London  contains  numerous  first-class  chess-clubs,  the 
chief  being  the  City  of  London  Chess  Club,  Grocers'  Hall,  Poultry, 
E.  C,  and  the  St,  George's,  2  Savile  Row,  W.  —  Chess  is  played  at 
the  London  Tavern  (p.  15),  the  Ship  ^^  Turtle  (p.  15),  the  Vienna 
Cafi  (p.  16),  the  Gambit  Cafe,  Oheapside,  and  in  many  other  cafes. 

Cricket.  Lord's  at  St.  John's  Wood  (p.  290),  the  headquarters 
of  the  Marylebone  Club  (sec,  Mr.  F.  E.  Lacey),  is  the  chief 
cricket-ground  in  London.  Here  are  played ,  in  June  and  July, 
the  Eton  and  Harrow,  the  Oxford  and  Cambridge,  and  many  other 
matches.  The  Kennington  Oval  (p.  382),  the  headquarters  of  the 
Surrey  County  Club,  is  also  an  important  cricket-centre.  The  Lon- 
don County  Club  (captain,  Dr.  W.  G.  Grace)  plays  at  the  Crystal 
Palace  (p.  403).  The  Essex  County  Club  ground  is  at  Leyton  (p.  414). 

Croquet  has  of  late  come  again  into  favour  and  is  played  at  many 
different  places.  The  chief  tournaments  take  place  at  Sheen  House 
(headquarters  of  the  Croquet  Association'),  Wimbledon  (All  England 

13.    RACES,  SPORTS,  GAMES.  53 

Lawn  Tennis  ^  Croquet  Club),  and  the  Qaeen^s  Club,  West  Ken- 

Cycling.  There  are  now  a  great  many  cycling  clubs  in  London, 
the  oldest  of  which  was  founded  in  1870.  The  chief  bicycle  race- 
meetings  are  held  at  Catford,  Putney,  Heme  Hill,  the  Crystal  Palace, 
Alexandra  Park,  and  Wood  Green. 

Excellent  cycling  may  be  bad  within  easy  reach  of  London,  in  Herts 
and  W.  Essex  to  the  N.  and  in  Surrey  and  the  W.  border  of  Kent  to  the  S. 
The  S.  district  is  much  more  hilly,  bat  offers  more  beautiful  scenery.  A 
favourite  ride  is  that  vi&  Windsor  to  Oxford.  The  main  roads  leading  out 
of  London  are  generally  rather  rough,  owing  to  the  heavy  traffic ;  hence  it 
may  be  advisable,  especially  for  those  not  accustomed  to  crowded  roads, 
to  take  the  train  to  a  station  a  few  miles  out. 

The  English  ^rule  of  the  road^  is  the  reverse  of  that  on  the  Continent 
and  in  America;  keep  to  the  Uft  in  meeting,  to  the  right  in  overtaking 
vehicles.    Lamps  must  be  lit  at  dusk. 

The  headquarters  of  the  NatUmal  CyclUtt'  Union^  the  governing  body 
for  cycle  racing  in  England  and  Wales,  are  at  27  Chancery  Lane  (sec, 
Mr.  Sam.  R.  Noble),  and  those  of  the  Oyclittt^  Touring  Club  are  at  47 
Victoria  St..  Westminster  (sec,  Mr.  W.  A.  Russell).  Cyclists  touring  in 
Great  Britain  will  find  it  advantageous  to  Join  the  C.  T.  C.  (subs.  ««.), 
the  Touring  Bareau  of  which  is  always  ready  to  help  strangers  in  plan- 
ning their  tours;  members  are  entitled  to  reduced  prices  at  hotels  in  all 
parts  of  the  country.  Exhibitions  of  bicycles,  tricycles,  and  their  acces- 
sories are  held  in  London  annually.  Compare  the  Monthly  QtuetU  of  the 
Cyclists*  Touring  Club. 

Fishing  (roach,  perch,  gndgeon,  pike,  barbel,  dace,  and  trout) 
can  be  indulged  in  at  all  places  on  the  Thamea  between  Richmond 
and  Wallingford.  No  permission  is  required,  except  in  priyate  waters. 
The  services  of  a  fisherman,  with  punt  and  tackle,  can  be  secured 
at  a  charge  of  about  10s.  per  day,  the  hirer  prOYiding  him  with 
dinner  and  beer.  The  Lea  (p.  416),  Darent,  Brenty  Colne,  etc., 
also  afford  good  opportunities  to  the  London  angler.  See  the  AngUrs 
Diary  (Field  Office,  346  Strand;  Is.  6ci.),  and  compare  p.  416. 

Football.  Football  is  in  season  from  about  September  to  April. 
The  chief  matches  under  the  Rugby  Football  Union  rules  are  played 
at  the  Rectory  Field^  BlacJdieath  (headquarters  of  the  Blackheath 
Football  Club);  Richmond  Old  Deer  Park  (London  Scottish  Club); 
and  Richmond  Athletic  Oround  (Richmond  Club).  The  Crystal 
Palace  and  the  Essex  County  Ground  at  Ley  ton  are  the  scenes  of 
the  best  matches  under  the  Football  Association  rules.  The  Oxford 
and  Cambridge  matches  (both  Rugby  and  Association)  are  decided 
at  Qiuen's  Clvh,  West  Kensington, 

Oolf.  Golf,  which  is  in  season  all  the  year  round,  Is  played  at 
Blackheath  (p.  395),  Richmond,  Wimbledon,  Tooting,  Wembley,  North- 
loood,  EUham,  Cassiobury  Park,  West  Drayton,  Ealing,  Mitcham, 
StanmorCf  and  a  score  of  other  places  near  London,  at  all  of  which 
an  introduction  to  the  club  is  essential.  There  is  a  public  golf- 
course  at  Chingford  (p.  416). 

Hockey  is  rapidly  growing  in  popularity,  and  there  are  many 
clubs  in  or  near  London  affiliated  to  the  Hockey  AtsodaXion.  Hockey 
la  also  extensively  played  by  ladies. 

54  13.   RACES,  SPORTS,  GAMES. 

Horse  Racing.  The  principal  race-meetings  taking  place 
within  easy  distance  of  London  are  the  following :  — 

1.  The  Epsom  Summer  Meetingy  at  which  the  Derby  and  Oaka 
are  ran.  The  former  invariably  takes  place  on  a  Wednesday,  and 
the  latter  on  a  Friday,  the  date  being  generally  within  a  fortnight 
before  or  after  Whitsuntide  (end  of  May  or  beginning  of  Jnne). 

The  Derby  was  instituted  by  the  Earl  of  Derby  in  1780,  and  the 
value  of  the  stakes  now  sometimes  exceeds  60002.  The  length  of  the 
course  is  V/t  M.,  and  it  was  gone  over  by  Spearmint  in  190d  in  2  min. 
36^/5  sec,  the  shortest  time  on  record.  Both  horses  and  mares  are  allowed 
to  compete  for  the  Derby  (mares  carrying  Sib.  less  weight),  while  the 
Oaks  is  confined  to  mares.  In  both  cases  the  age  of  the  horses  running 
must  be  three  years.  To  view  these  races  London  empties  itself  annually 
by  road  and  rail,  though  Parliament  no  longer  suspends  its  sitting  on 
Derby  Day,  once  its  almost  invariable  custom.  The  London  and  Brighton 
Railway  Company  (London  Bridge  and  Victoria  stations)  has  a  station  at 
Epsom  close  to  the  course,  and  it  may  be  reached  also  by  the  London 
and  South  Western  Railway  from  Waterloo  or  by  the  South  Eastern  Bail- 
way  from  Charing  Cross.  The  increased  facilities  for  reaching  Epsom  by 
train  have  somewhat  diminished  the  popularity  of  the  road;  but  the 
traveller  who  would  see  the  Derby  Day  and  its  characteristic  sights 
thoroughly  will  not  regret  his  choice  if  he  select  the  latter.  A  decently 
appointed  open  carriage  and  pair,  holding  four  persons,  will  cost  &-10/., 
everything  included.  A  hansom  cab  can  be  had  for  rather  less  than  half 
that  amount,  but  an  arrangement  should  be  made  with  the  driver  on  the 
previous  day.  A  seat  on  a  coach  or  brake  may  usually  be  secured  for 
about  2l.,  lancheon  included.  The  appearance  of  Epsom  Downs  on  Derby 
Day,  crowded  with  myriads  of  human  beings,  is  one  of  the  most  striking 
and  animated  sights  ever  witnessed  in  the  neighbourhood  of  London,  and 
will  interest  the  ordinary  visitor  more  than  Uie  great  race  itself. 

2.  The  Ascot  Week  is  about  a  fortnight  after  the  Derby.  The 
Gold  Gup  Day  is  on  Thursday,  when  some  members  of  the  Royal 
Family  usually  drive  up  the  course  in  state,  attended  by  the  master 
and  huntsmen  of  the  Royal  Buckhounds.  The  course  is  reached  by 
train  from  Waterloo ;  or  the  visitor  may  travel  by  the  Great  Western 
Railway  (Paddington  Station)  to  Windsor  and  drive  thence  to  Ascot. 

3.  At  Sandown,  near  Esher,  at  Kempton  Parfc,  Sunbury,  and  at 
the  Hurst  Park  Clvb,  Hampton,  races  and  steeple-chases  are  held 
several  times  during  the  year. 

4.  The  Epsom  Spring  Meeting^  lasting  for  three  days,  on  one  of 
which  the  City  and  Suburban  Handicap  is  decided. 

Besides  the  above  there  are  numerous  smaller  race-meetings  near 
London,  but  with  the  exception  of  that  at  Croydon  they  will  hardly  repay 
the  trouble  of  a  visit,  as  they  are  largely  patronized  by  the  ^rough*  ele- 
ment. The  stranger  should,  if  possible,  attend  races  and  other  public 
gatherings  in  company  with  a  friend  who  is  well  acquainted  with  the  best 
method  of  seeing  the  sport.  Much  trouble  and  disappointment  will  be 
thereby  avoided. 

ITeumiarkety  the  headquarters  of  racing,  and  Ooodxeood  Races t  see 
Baedeker^t  Grtat  Britain. 

Hunting.  This  sport  is  carried  on  throughout  England  from 
autumn  to  spring.  Cub  -  hunting  generally  begins  in  September 
and  continues  until  31st  October.  Regular  fox-hunting  then  takes  its 
place  and  lasts  till  about  the  middle  of  April.  Hare-hunting  lasts 
from  2dth  Oct.  to  27th  Feb.,  and  buck-hunting  begins  on  14th  Sep* 

13.  RA.CES,  SPORTS,  GAMES.  55 

tember.  Should  the  traveller  be  staying  in  the  country  he  will  prob- 
ably have  but  little  difficulty  in  seeing  a  meet  of  a  pack  of  fox-* 
hounds.  The  Surrey  fox-hounds  are  the  nearest  to  London.  There 
is  a  pack  of  harriers  at  Brighton.  The  Royal  Buckhounds  often  meet 
in  the  vicinity  of  Windsor,  and  when  this  is  the  case  the  journey 
can  be  easily  made  from  London.  The  quarry  is  a  stag,  which  is 
allowed  to  escape  from  a  cart.  The  huntsmen  and  whippers-in  wear 
a  scarlet  and  gold  uniform.  The  followers  of  the  hounds  wear  scarlet, 
black,  and  indeed  any  colour,  and  this  diversity,  coupled  with  the 
large  attendance  in  carriages,  on  foot,  and  on  horseback,  makes 
the  scene  a  very  lively  one.    For  meets  of  hounds,  see  the  Field, 

Motoring.  Motor-cars  and  motor-cycles  in  Great  Britain  must 
be  registered  (fee  il,  and  55.  respectively)  and  must  bear  their 
registered  numbers.  The  driver  must  hold  a  licence  (annual  fee 
55.),  for  which,  however,  no  examination  need  be  passed.  The 
maximum  legal  speed  under  any  circumstances  is  20  M.  per  hour, 
but  in  certain  localities  (e,g,  the  London  parks)  or  in  special  circum- 
stances it  may  be  much  less.  Automobile  Club,  see  p.  75.  Rule  of 
the  road,  see  under  Cycling  (p.  53).  —  The  Brooklands  Racing 
Track,  opened  in  1907,  is  at  Weybridge,  about  20  M.  to  the  S.W. 
of  London  (adm.  2^.  Gd.,  grand  stand  55.,  lawn  2l5.). 

LacTOBSO  is  now  played  by  about  a  score  of  clubs  in  or  near 
London,  and  the  chief  authority  in  this  part  of  the  country  is  the 
South  of  England  Lacrosse  Association.  The  final  ties  of  the  Inter- 
national and  North  v.  South  matches  are  generally  played  either  on 
the  Richmond  Athletic  Ground  or  at  the  Crystal  Palace.  The  game 
is  also  played  at  Lord's  Cricket  Ground  (p.  290).  Canadian  teamg 
sometimes  visit  England  and  play  exhibition  matches. 

Lawn  Tennis.  The  governing  and  controlling  body  for  this 
pastime  is  the  Lawn  Tennis  Association  (Hon.  Sec,  Mr.  G.  R. 
Mewbum,  33  Old  Broad  St.,  E.C.),  established  in  1888.  The  com- 
petition for  the  Lawn  Tennis  Championship  of  the  World  takes 
place  on  the  ground  of  the  All  England  Lawn  Tennis  Club^  Wim- 
bledon, beginning  on  the  Monday  nearest  June  22nd.  The  Covered 
Court  Championship  (end  of  April)  and  other  important  competi- 
tions are  decided  at  Queen's  Club  (p.  75).  Courts  open  to  strangers 
are  found  at  the  Crystal  Palace,  Battersea  Park,  and  other  public 
gardens,  drill-halls,  etc.,  but  this  game  cannot  be  enjoyed  to  per- 
fection except  in  club  or  private  grounds. 

Polo  is  played  mainly  at  HurUngham  (p.  386),  Ranelagh  (p.  386), 
and  the  Crystal  Palace  (p.  403). 

Backets  and  Court  Tennis  are  played  at  Lord's  (p.  290),  Prince's 
Club,  and  Queen's  Club  (p.  75).  The  Amateur  Championships  in 
tennis  and  rackets  and  the  Public  Schools  and  University  Rackets 
Competitions  are  decided  at  Queen's  Club ;  the  Gold  Backet  Tennis 
Competition  at  Lord's;  and  the  Army  Racket  Championship  at 
Prince's  Club. 

56  14.  SHOPS. 

Skating.  Among  the  chief  skating  resorts  in  or  near  London  are 
Elstree  Reservoir,  the  Welsh  Harp  (p.  417),  Ruislip  Reservoir  (p.  420), 
Wimbledon  Park  (p.  404),  Wembley  Park  (p.  420),  the  Serpentine 
(p.  327),  Regent's  Park  (p.  286),  Hampstead  Heath  (p.  371),  and 
(indoors)  Princess  Club,  Knightsbridge  (p.  75).  The  headquarters  of 
the  Skating  Club  are  in  the  gardens  of  the  Toxophilite  Society  (p.  285). 
The  Hon.  Secretary  of  the  National  Skating  Association  of  Great 
Britain  is  Mr.  H.  Ellington,  London  Rowing  Club,  Putney,  S.W., 
the  London  headquarters  being  at  Elstree  Reservoir. 

Swimming.  London  contains  over  300  swimming  clubs ,  with 
their  headquarters  at  the  public  baths  (p.  17).  Most  of  them  are 
affiliated  to  the  Boyal  Life  Saving  Society  (8  Bayley  St.,  Bedford 
Square,  W.C.),  established  in  1891  for  the  purpose  of  teaching  how 
to  rescue  those  in  danger  of  drowning  and  restore  the  apparently 
drowned.  Periodical  tests  of  efficiency  are  held  (apply  to  the  hon. 
secretary).  The  Amateur  Swimming  Association  conducts  various 
championship  competitions,  swum  in  the  Thames  and  elsewhere. 
Water  Polo  is  also  very  popular,  and  games  may  be  seen  any  even- 
ing in  summer  at  any  of  the  public  baths. 

14.  Shops,  Bazaars,  and  Markets. 
The  Go-operative  System. 

Shops  abound  everywhere.  In  the  business-quarters  usually 
visited  by  strangers  it  is  rare  to  see  a  house  vnthout  shops  on  the 
groundfloor.  Prices  are  almost  invariably  fixed,  so  that  bargaining 
is  unnecessary.  Some  of  the  most  attractive  shops  are  in  Regent  St., 
Oxford  St.,  Piccadilly,  Bond  St.,  the  Strand,  Fleet  St.,  Cheapside, 
St.  Paul's  Churchyard,  and  Ludgate  Hill. 

The  following  is  a  brief  list  of  some  of  the  best  (and,  in  many 
cases,  the  dearest)  shops  in  London ;  it  is,  however,  to  be  observed 
that  other  excellent  shops  abound  in  all  parts  of  London,  in  many 
cases  no  whit  inferior  to  those  here  mentioned.  Besides  shops  con- 
taining the  articles  usually  purchased  by  travellers  for  their  personal 
use,  or  as  presents,  we  mention  a  few  of  the  large  depots  of  famous 
English  manufactures,  such  as  cutlery,  china,  and  water-colours. 

Aetists'  Coloubmen:  —  Ackermann^  203  Regent  St.  (water 
colours);  JVcioman,  24  Soho  Square;  Rowney  ^  Co.,  61  Brompton 
Road,  S.W. ;  Winsor  ^  Newton,  37  Rathbone  Place. 

BooKSBLLBBS :  —  Hatchard,  187  Piccadilly;  J.  ^  E.  Bumpus, 
350  Oxford  St.;  Harrison  ^  Sons,  45  Pall  Mall ;  Bain,  14  Charles  St. , 
Haymarket;  Bickers ^ Son,  1  Leicester  Square;  Truslove ^- Hanson^ 
153  Oxford  St.;  Gilbert  ^  Field,  67  Moorgate  St.;  Stoneham, 
79  &  129  Cheapside,  9  Old  Broad  St.,  39  Walbrook,  etc.; 
Sotheran  ^  Co.,  37  Piccadilly  and  140  Strand;  Alfred  Wilson^ 
18  Gracechurch  St.;  Dunn,  23  Ludgate  Hill,  etc. ;.^.  ^umyiw, 

14.    SHOPS.  57 

335  High  Holbora;  Jones  ^  Evan$,  77  Queen  St.,  Oheapside.  — 
F0B.B10N  B00K8SLLBR8 :  Dulau  ^  Co,y  37  Soho  Square  (general 
agents  for  Baedeker^s  Handbooks) ;  Williams  ^  Norgate,  14  Hen- 
rietta St.,  Covent  Garden;  Hachette,  18  King  William  St.,  West 
Strand;  Nutt^  57  Long  Acre;  Boquesy  97  New  Oxford  St. ;  Rolandi, 
20  Berners  St. ;  Siegle,  30  Lime  St.  and  2  Langham  Place ;  Luzae^ 
46  Great  Russell  St.  —  Secondhand  Booksbllbbs:  Quaritchf  11 
Grafton  St.;  EUis,  Holdsworth,  ^ 8mith,  29  New  Bond  St.;  Francis 
EdwardSy  83a  High  St.,  Marylebone,  W. ;  Sotheran^  see  p.  56; 
Stevens, Son,  ^  StUes,  39  Great  Russell  St.,  W.G. ;  Pickering  ^  Chatio, 
BBHaymarket;  C.^  E.Brown,  119  Queen's  Road,  Bayswater;Do6e2;, 
54  and  77  Charing  Cross  Road ;  Winter,  52  Charing  Cross  Road. 

Cabpbts:  —  Gregory  ^  Co.,  19  Old  Cavendish  St.,  W. ; 
Hampton  ^  Sons,  8-10  Pall  Mall  East;  Liberty,  142-154  Regent  St. ; 
Shoolbred^Co.,  150-162,  Afapfe,  141-150  Tottenham  Court  Road; 
Waring  ^  Gillow,  170-180  Oxford  St. ;  Cardinal  ^  Harford  (Turkish 
carpets),  108-110  High  Holborn;  Ooodyers  (Oriental),  198  Regent 
St. ;  Trdoar,  68-70  Lndgate  Hill. 

Chemists:  —  Ptiekard,  lOYigo  St., Regent  St.;  Squire  ^  Sons, 
413  Oxford  St. ;  Bell  ^  Co.,  225  Oxford  St. ;  Challice,  34  VllUers 
St.,  Strand;  Pond,  68  Fleet  St.;  Nurtken  ^  Co,,  390  Strand; 
Savory  #  Moore,  143  New  Bond  St. ;  Thomas,  7  Upper  St.  Martin's 
Lane  (moderate  prices).  —  Homeopathic  Chemists:  Amibrechtj 
Nelson,^  Co., 71  Duke  St.,  Grosvenor Square, W. ;  Keene ^  Ashwetl,  6 
South  Molton  St.,  W. ;  Leath  ^  Ross,  68  Duke  St.,  Grosvenor  Square ; 
Cruttenden,  67  Wigmore  St. ;  Oould  ^  Son,  59  Moorgate  St.,  E.C. 

Messrs.  Burroughs,  Wtlleoms^  A  Co.,  Hanufactaring  Chemists,  Snow 
Hill  Buildings,  Holborn  Viaduct,  prepare  portable  drugs  in  the  form  of 
tabloids,  which  will  be  found  exceedingly  convenient  by  travellers.  Their 
small  and  light  pocket-cases  contain  a  selection  of  the  most  useful  re- 
medies in  this  form.   These  tabloid  drugs  may  be  obtained  of  all  chemists. 

China,  see  Glass. 

CuTLBBT :  —  Aiprey  ^  Co.,  166  NewBondSt.  and  22  Albemarle 
St.;  Holtzapffel  ^  Co.,  53  Haymarket;  Lund,  56-57  Cornhill; 
Mappin  ^  Webb,  220  Regent  St.,  158-162  Oxford  St.,  and  2 
Queen  Victoria  St.;  Verinder,  17a  Ludgate  Hill;  Rodgers  ^  Sons, 
60  Holborn  Viaduct;  Weiss  ^'  Son,  287  Oxford  St.  Also  travelling- 
bags,  writing-cases,  dispatch-boxes,  etc.,  at  most  of  these. 

Dentists:  —  A.  A.  Goldsmith  (American),  53  Harley  St.,  W. ; 
K.  A,  Davenport  (Amer.),  20  Stratford  Place,-  Oxford  St;  Coffin 
(Amer.),  94  Cornwall  Gardens;  Pierrepoint,  2  Cockspur  St.,  W.; 
Spokes,  4  Portland  Place,  W. ;  Durujan,  9  Charles  St.,  St.  James's,  W. ; 
Gabriel,  7  Portland  Place  ;  Fleming,  13  Queen  Anne  St.,  Cavendish 
Square,  W.;  R.  C.  Morits,  130  Cromwell  Road,  S.W.  (the  last  two 
somewhat  less  expensiye);  E.Sturridge,  29a  Wimpole  St.;  A.  C, 
PHtchard,  23  Brook  St. 

Dbafebs  :  —  Debenham^  Freebody,  17-37  Wigmore  St.,  Caven- 
diBh  Square,  W. ;  Mar  shall  ^Snelgrove,  334-354  Oxford  St. ;  BusseU^ 

58  14.  SHOPS. 

Allen,  17  Old  Bond  St. ;  Liberty  (Oriental  fabrics),  142  and  218 
Regent  St.;  Ooodyera  (Oriental  goods),  174  and  198  Regent  St. ; 
Otren,  12a-22  Westbonrne  Grove, Bay swater,  W. ;  Redmayne  ^  Co., 
19  New  Bond  St. ;  Shoolbred  ^  Co.,  161  &  162  Tottenham  Conrt 
Road,  W.  C;  Derry  ^  Toms,  99-119  Kensington  High  St.;  Capper^ 
Son,  ^  Co,  (linen),  29  Regent  St.  and  67  New  Bond  St. ;  Dickins^ 
Jones,  230-244  Regent  St. ;  Bolhuon  ^  Cleaver  (Irish  linen),  156-170 
Regent  St.;  Walpole  Brothers  (Irish  linen),  89  New  Bond  St.; 
Harrod's  Stores,  87-135  Brompton  Road ;  Swan  ^  Edgar  (Waterloo 
House),  39-67 Regent  St.,  and  9-15Piccadilly;  *S«?/tWj^«, 406 etc.  Ox- 
ford St. ;  PeUr  Robinson,  200-234  Oxford  St.  and  274-286  Regent  St. ; 
Whiteley,  31-55  Westboume  Grove,  Bayswater,W. ;  Hitchcock  ^  Co,, 
69-74  St.  Paul's  Churchyard,  City;  WalUs  ^  Co.,7  Holborn  Circus; 
Evans,  292-320  Oxford  St. ;  Jaeger's  Sanitary  Woollen  System  Co., 
30  Sloane  St.,  456  Strand,  and  126  Regent  St.,  etc. 

Dbessmakeas: —  Viola,  27AIbemarie  St. ;  lAberty  (^iit  costumes), 
142  and  218  Regent  St.;  Mme.  Swaebi et  Cie,,  48  Baker  St.,  W.; 
Durrani,  116  New  Bond  St. ;  Mrs.  NettUship,  28  Wigmore  St. ;  Carey  ^ 
Wall,  8  Bruton  St.,  W.;  Forma,  40  Conduit  St.;  Worth,  4  New 
Buriington  St. ;  Paquin,  39  Dover  St;  Kate  Reily,  10  Dover  St. 
See  also  Drapers  and  Ladies'  Tailors. 

Engravings:  —  Colnaghi  ^  Co.,  13  and  14  Pall  Mall  East; 
Graves,  6  Pall  Mall;  Marchznt  ^  Co,  (successors  of  Ooupil  ^ 
Co.^,  6Regent  St.,  Pall  Mall,  and  10  Charies  St.,  St.  James's,  S.W. ; 
JlfacZean,  7  Haymaiket ;  Tooth,  176  New  Bond  St.  ;  Lefhvre,  1a  King 
St.,  St.  James's  Square;  A.  Ackermann  ^  Son,  191  Regent  St.; 
Leggatt,  62  Cheapside  and  30  St.  James's  St. ;  Agnevj  ^  Sons,  43 
Old  Bond  St. ;  Deighton,  4  Grand  Hotel  Buildings,  Charing  Cross. 

Fubniture:  —  Waring  ^  Oillow  170-180  Oxford  St. ;  Smee  ^ 
Cobay,iSd  New  Bond  St. ;  Story,  49-53  Kensington  High  St. ;  Liberty, 
142  and  218  Regent  St. ;  Shoolbred,  151  &  162,  MapU,  141-150  Tot- 
tenham Court  Road ;  Graham  ^  Riddle,  463  Oxford  St ;  Hampton 
t?'  Sons,  8-11  Pall  Mall  East;  Goodyers  (Oriental  goods),  198  & 
174  Regent  St.;  Harrod^s  Stores,  87-135  Brompton  Road. 

Furriers:  —  Victory  ^  Co.,  162  Regent  St;  Debenham  ^ 
Freebody,  37  Wigmore  St. ;  Ince,  156,  Marshall  ^  Snelgrove,  334- 
354,  Poland,  190,  Peter  Robinson,  200-234,  all  in  Oxford  St. ;  Russ, 
70  New  Bond  St. 

Games,  Requisites  por:  —  Wisden  ^  Co,,  21  Cranbourn  St., 
W.  C;  Feliham  ^  Co.,  73  Lower  Thames  St.;  Ayres,  111  Alders- 
gate  St.,  E.  C;  Hovenden,  29-33  Bemers  St.,  W.,  and  85  City  Road, 
E.  C. ;  Gamage,  118-128  Holborn ;  Park  (golf),  115  Cannon  St.,  E.  C. ; 
Tate,  18  Princes  St.,  Cavendish  Square  (tennis  rackets);  Slasenger, 
Laurence  Pountney  Hill,  E.  C;  Holden,  10  Upper  Baker  St,  N.W. 
(tennis  rackets):  Jaques,  102  Hatton  Garden,  E.  C;  Lillywhite, 
Frowd,  ^  Co.,2i  Hay  market,  W.,  and  2  Newington  Causeway,  S.  E.; 
Piggott,  117  Cheapside,  E.  C;    Parkins  ^  Gotto,  54-62  Oxford  St. 

14.   SHOPS.  59 

Glass  and  Poboblain:  —  Osier ,  100  Oxford  St.;  Phillips^  43 
New  Bond  St. ;  Mortloeks  Limited,  466-470  Oxford  St.  and  32 
Orchard  St.;  Daniell  ^  Sons,  42-46  Wigmore  St.  ;  PcWa«<^  Co.,  21 
Northumberland  Avenue ;  Standish,  58  Baker  St. ;  Qoode,  17-21 
South  Audley  St. ;  Qreen,  107  Queen  Victoria  St. ;  Venice  and  Murano 
Olass  Co,,  13  New  Bond  St. 

Glotbs:  —  See  Drapees  (p.  57).  Also:  Wheeler,  14-17  Poultry 
and  8  Queen  Victoria  St.,  City  ]  PenbeHky,  388-392  Oxford  St.  (French 
gloves) ;  Jugla,  34  Coventry  St.,  W. ;  Swears  ^  We^to  190-196  Regent 
St. ;  London  Olove  Co.,  83  New  Bond  St.  (Ist  floor)  and  45  Cheap- 
side;  Sleep  (driving  gloves),  9  Woodstock  St.,  Oxford  St.,  and  10 

Goldsmiths  and  Jewbllsbs:  —  Oass  ^  Co.,  138  Regent  St.; 
Garrard^  Co.,  26  Haymarket;  Lambert  ^  Co.,  10-12  Coventry 
St.,  Haymarket;  Hancocks  ^  Co.,  38  and  39  Bruton  St.  and  152 
New  Bond  St. ;  Hunt  ^  Roskdl,  156  New  Bond  St. ;  Tiffany,  221 
Regent  St. ;  EZkington  ^  Co. ,  22  Regent  St.  and 73  Oheapside  (electro- 
plate) ;  Packer,  76  Regent  St. ;  Mrs.  Newman,  10  Savile  Row,  W. ; 
Goldsmiths' ^  SUversmiths'  Co.,  112  Regent  St. ;  Watherston  ^Son, 
6  Vigo  St. ;  Liberty  and  Ooodyers  (Oriental  jewelry),  see  under 
Drapers;  SpMc  ^  Son  (medals),  17  Piccadilly,  30  Oomhill,  and  6 
King  St.,  St.  James's. 

Gun  and  Riplb  Makbbs  :  —  WesUey  Richards,  178  New  Bond 
St.;  Lancaster,  11  Panton  St.,  Haymarket;  Rigby  ^  Co.,  72  St. 
James's  St. ;  Purdey,  Audley  House,  South  Audley  St. ;  Grant,  67a 
St.  James's  St. ;  Jeffery  ^  Co.,  60  Queen  Victoria  St.,  E.  C,  and  13 
King  St.,  St.  James's;  ReiUy,  296  Oxford  St.;  WinchesUr  Repeating 
Arms  Co.,  1  Laurence  Pountney  Hill,  E.C.;  Colt's  Fire  Arms  Com- 
pany, 15a  Pall  Mall,  S.W. 

Hattbbs:  —  Lincoln,  Bennett,  ^  Co.y  40  Piccadilly;  Heath, 
105-109  Oxford  St.,  62a  Piccadilly,  and  47  Comhill;  Cater  ^  Co., 
56  Pall  Mall;  Christy  ^  Co.,  35  Gracechurch  St.,  City;  Woodrow, 
42  Comhill  and  46  Piccadilly;  Truefitt,  13  Old  Bond  St.  and  20 
Burlington  Arcade;  ScotU,  1  Old  Bond  St.;  Preedy,  23  Haymarket. 

Hosibbs  and  Shibtmakbbs  :  —  Hamilton  Shirt  Making  Society, 
41  Poland  St.,  W.;  PooU  ^  Lord,  322  Oxford  St. ;  Hope  Brothers, 
44  Ludgate  Hill,  E.  C,  281  High  Holbom,  86  Regent  St.,  129  Ken- 
sington High  St.,  etc.;  Capper,  Son,  ^  Co.,  29  Regent  St.  and 
67  New  Bond  St. ;  Harborows,  6  New  Bond  St.  and  16  St.  Ann  St., 
"Westminster ;  Lahmann  Agency,  246  High  Holborn. 

Laob:  —  Haywards,  11  Old  Bond  St. ;  Debenham  ^  Freebody, 
17-37  Wigmore  St. ;  SUinmann,  185  Piccadilly ;  Marshall  ^  Snelgrove, 
334-354  Oxford  St.;  Dickins  ^  Jones,  230-244  Regent  St.;  Irish 
Warehouse,  147  Regent  St. ;  Royal  Irish  Industries  Association,  23 
Motcomb  St.,  S.W. 

Ladibs'  TJndbbolothino  :  —  Mason,  352  Oxford  St. ;  Steinmann, 
186  PlccadUly;   Penberthy,   388-392  Oxford  St.;    Mrs,  Addley- 

60  14.    SHOPS. 

Bourne,  174  Sloane  St.;  Swears  ^  WelU  (children),  190-196  Oxford 
St.;  Edmondsj  Orr,  ^  Co.  (also  children's  outfitters),  3  Lower 
Seymour  St.  Also  at  most  Drapers  (p.  57), 

Lbatubb  Goods  (dressing-cases,  dispatch-boxes,  etc.):  — 
Fisher,  188  Strand;  John  Pound  ^  Co.,  67  Piccadilly,  211  Regent 
St.,  81-84  Leadenhall  St.,  and  177  Tottenham  Court  Road;  ThomhUl 
^  Co.,  144  New  Bond  St.    Comp.  Cutlery  and  Trunk  Makers. 

Map  Sbllbbs  (also  guidebooks,  etc.) :  — Bacon  ^  Co.,  127  Strand ; 
Philip  ^  Sons,  32  Fleet  St. ;  W.  ^  A.  K,  Johnston,  7  Paternoster 
Square,  E.  C. ;  Potter,  145  Minories  (charts).  —  Obdnancb  Suevby 
Maps,  E.  Stanford,  12-14  Long  Acre. 

MiLLiNBBS :  —  Michard,  2  Hanover  Square ;  Maison  NouvelU, 
240  Oxford  St ,  237  Regent  St.,  etc.;  Durrant,  116  New  Bond  St.; 
Mrs.  Kerr,  83  Duke  St.,  Grosvenor  Square;  Angrave,  102  Queen's 
Road,  Bayswater;  Mrs.  White,  63  Jermyn  St.;  Maison  de  Cram, 
41  Chester  Square,  S.W.  Also  in  the  millinery  departments  of  the 
large  drapers  (p.  57). 

Music  Sbllbbs :  —  Boosey  ^  Co.,  295  Regent  St. ;  Chappell  ^  Co., 
50  New  Bond  St. ;  Cramer  ^  Co.,  126  Oxford  St.,  W.,  and  46  Moor- 
gate  St.,  E.C.;  Novello  ^  Co.,  160  Wardour  St.,  W.;  Breitkopf 
^  Haertel,  54  Great  Marlborough  St. ;  Hammond  ^  Co.,  6  Kingly  St., 
Regent  St. ;  Metzler  ^  Co.,  40-43  Great  Marlborough  St.;  Augener, 
6  New  Burlington  St.,  W.,  199  Regent  St,W.,  and  22  Newgate  St., 
E.C. ;  Keith  Prowse,  ^  Co.,  48  Cheapside,  3  Grand  Hotel  Buildings, 
162  New  Bond  St.,  etc.;  Woolhouu,  174  Wardour  St.,  W. 

Opticians  :  —  Elliott  Brothers,  36  Leicester  Square;  Dallmeyer, 
25  Newman  St.,  W. ;  Negretti  ^  Zambra,  38  Holborn  Viaduct,  45 
Cornhill,  and  122  Regent  St. ;  Callaghan,  23a  New  Bond  St. ; 
DoUond  ^  Co.,  35  Ludgate  Hill,  62  Old  Broad  St.,  5  Northumber- 
land Avenue,  etc. ;  C.  P.  Ooerx,  4  Holborn  Circus;  Cox,  98  New- 
gate St. 

Pebfumebs  :  —  Atkinson,  24  Old  Bond  St. ;  Piesse  ^  Lubin, 
28  South  Molton  St.,  W. ;  Rimmel,  79  Strand,  119  Regent  St.,  and 
64  Cheapside ;  Breidenba^h,  48  Greek  St.,  Soho  (wholesale) ;  BayUy, 
94  St.  Martin's  Lane  (wholesale). 

Photogbaphebs  :  —  Mendelssohn,  14  Pembridge  Crescent,  Net- 
ting Hill  Gate,  W. ;  Hollyer,  9  Pembroke  Square,  Kensington,  W. 
(sitters  on  Monday  only,  pictures  on  other  days);  MayaU  ^^  Co. 
(Barraud),  126  Piccadilly,  W.;  Barraud  ^  Robertson,  120  Fulham 
Road,  S.  W. ;  Elliot  ^  Fry,  55  Baker  St.,  W.;  Ellis  ^  Walery,  51  Baker 
St. ,  W. ;  Fradelle  ^  Young,  283  Regent  St. ;  London  Stereoscopic 
Co.,  106  Regent  St  ,  W.,  and  54  Cheapside,  E.C;  Sawyer  ^  Dunn, 
153  Maida  Vale;  FaVL,  9  Baker  St.  (children). 

Photoobaph  Sbllbbs  :  —  Autotype  Fine  Art  Oallery,  74  New 
Oxford  St. ;  Mansell,  405  Oxford  St. ;  London  Stereoscopic  Company, 
54  Cheapside  and  108  Regent  St.;  Spoontr,  379  Strand;  Erdmann 
4'  Schanz,  116  Doici  Terrace,  Bedford  Hill,  Balham  (photographs 

14.  SHOPS.  61 

of  persons,  pictures,  or  places  sent  on  view;  catalogue  sent  on  ap- 
plication); Fkdtoerom  Co.^  61  St.  Paul's  Churchyard  j  Hanfitaengl, 
16  Pall  Mall  East;  Deighton,  4  Grand  Hotel  Buildings,  Trafalgar 
Square.  —  Photoobaphio  Matbbials:  Fallowfiddj  146  Charing 
Cross  Road;  Marion j  22  Soho  Square;  Houghtons  Limitedy  Watson 
^  Sont,  High  Holhorn  88  and  313;  Kodak  LimiUd,  115  Oxford  St., 
171  Regent  St.,  60  Cheapside,  etc. 

PiANOFOBTB  Manupactuebbs  :  —  Broodwood  ^  SonSf  Conduit 
St.;  CoUard^  Collard,  16  Grosvenor  St.;  Erardj  18  Great  Marl- 
borough St. ;  Bechttein,  Bluthner^  Brinsmead,  Ibaehj  32-4(1;  7-13, 
18-22,  and  30  Wigmore  St.,  W.;  Hopkinson,  84  New  Bond  St.; 
PUyelly  Wolff,  Lyon,  ^  Co.,  79  Baker  St. ;  Steinrray,  16  Lower 
Seymour  St.,  W. 

Pbbsebyes,  etc.  ('Italian  Warehouses') :  —  Fortnum  ^  Mason, 
181-183  Piccadilly;  Morel  Brothers,  Cdbhttt,  ^ Son,  210  Piccadilly; 
Jackson,  172  Piccadilly  (American  groceries  and  canned  goods); 
Cadbury,  Pratt,  ^  Ch,,  24  New  Bond  St. ;  Stemhridge  (Indian  con- 
diments), 18  Green  St.,  Leicester  Square;  Appenrodt  (German 
specialties),  8  New  Coventry  St.,  366  Strand,  259  Regent  St.,  etc. 

Pbintsellbbs,  see  Engravings. 

Shobmakbbs.  For  gentlemen :  —  Thierry,  70  Regent  St.  and 
48  Gresham  St. ;  Burgess  ^  Deroy,  205  Regent  St. ;  Waukenphast, 
125  Nev^Bond  St. ;  Dowie  ^  Marshall,  455  West  Strand;  Fuchs, 
54  Conduit  St. ;  Bowley  ^  Co.,  51  Jermyn  St.;  Peal,  487  Oxford 
St. ;  Medwin,  41  Sackville  St. ;  Hoby  ^^  Gullick,  24  Pall  Mall ;  Tuetek, 
15b  Clifford  St. ;  Francis,  44  Maddox  St. ;  Holden  Brothers  ('nature 
true'  hoots),  3  Harewood  Place,  Hanover  Square ;  Manfield  ^  Sons, 
376  Strand,  307  High  Holhorn,  228  Piccadilly,  67  Eastcheap,  etc.; 
Emerson  Shoe  Co.,  425  Strand;  American  Shoe  Co.,  169  Regent  St., 
373  Strand,  and  113  Westhoume  Grove.  —  For  ladies:  —  Hook, 
Knowles,  ^  Co.,  66  New  Bond  St.  (also  for  gentlemen);  Bird, 
3  Argyll  Place,  Regent  St. ;  Oundry  ^  Sons,  187  Regent  St. ; 
Thierry,  70  Regent  St.;  Yapp,  200  and  210  Sloane  St.;  Sorosis 
Shoe  Co.  (Amer.),  Regent  House,  Regent  St.,  81  Brompton  Road, 
and  19  Westbourne  Grove. 

Silk  Mbbcebs,  see  Drapers. 

Tailobs  :  —  Poole  ^  Co.,  37-39  Savile  Row,  Regent  St.  (intro- 
duction from  former  customer  required) ;  H.  Walker,  47  Albemarle 
St.  (ready-money  tailor,  moderate  charges) ;  E,  Oeorge,  87  Regent 
St.;  MiUs,  4  Sackville  St.;  Kerslake  ^  Dixon,  12  Hanover  St., 
Hanover  Square;  Radford,  Jones,  ^  Co.,  32  George  St.,  Hanover 
Square;  Blarney  ^  Co.,  21a  Jermyn  St.;  Henry  Keen,  2  South- 
ampton Row;  Tetley  ^  Butler,  21  Sackville  St.;  Bought  ^  Co.,  17 
Sackville  St. ;  Norton  ^  Sons,  44  Conduit  St. ;  Meyer  ^  Mortimer, 
36  Conduit  St.;  Brown,  Son,  ^  Long,  11  Princes  St.,  Hanover 
Square ;  Stohwasser  ^  Winter,  39  Conduit  St. ;  Stulz,  Binnie,  ^  Co., 
10  Clifford  St.;  Phillips  ^^  Sons,  58  Regent  St.;   DaU  ^  Co.,  265 

62  14.  SHOPS. 

Regent  St.,  236  Oxford  St.,  etc;  Hoare  ^  Sons,  261  HighHolborn  j 
J.  W.  Dori,  30  Duke  St.,  St.  James's;  West  End  Clothiers  Co. 
(ready  money),  71  Strand,  66  Regent  St.,  37  Ludgate  Hill,  and 
other  addresses;  Piggott^  117  Gheapside  and  1-3  Milk  Street  Baild- 
Ings  (also  general  outfitter);  Samuel  Brothers,  65  Ludgate  Hill, 
E.G.  (boys*  outfitters,  etc.).  —  Glbrioal  Tailors:  Pratt,  22-24 
Tavistock  St.,  Govent  Garden;  Seary,  13  New  Oxford  St. ;  Vanheems 
^  Wheeler,  47  Berners  St.,  Oxford  St.  —  Ladies'  Tailobb  :  Red  fern, 
26 Conduit  St ;  Goodman  ^  Davis,  18  Old  Cavendish  St.,  Cavendish 
Squar^,  Fishtr,  NicoU,  Regent  St.,  Nos.  215-219  and  114-120; 
PhiUips  ^  Sons^  58  Regent  St ;  Scott  Adie  (Scotch  goods),  115  Regent 
St.;  Boyle  ^  Qalvin,  288  Regent  St.;  PUUips,  185  Sloane  St.; 
Smits,  7  Hanover  St. ;  Hart,  171  Queen's  Road,  Bayswater;  Eawles, 
6  Paddington  St.  —  Ready-made  clothes  may  be  obtained  very 
cheaply  in  numerous  large  shops  (prices  usually  affixed). 

Tobacconists  :  —  Carreras,  7Wardour  St.  (sellers  of  the  Craven 
mixture,  said  to  be  the  ^Arcadia'  of  *My  Lady  Nicotine');  Fribourp 
^  Treyer,  34  Haymarket  and  3  Leadenhall  St. ;  Benson  ^  Hedges, 
13  Old  Bond  St ;  Wolff,  Phillips,  ^  Co.,  119  Jermyn  St,  W.;  and 
many  others. 

Toys:  — •  HamUy,  202  Regent  St,  35  New  Oxford  St,  512 
Oxford  St,  and  86  High  Holborn;  Oamage,  118-128  Holborn;  Mrs. 
Peck  (dolls),  131  Regent  St.;  MorreU,  368  Oxford  St  and  50 
Burlington  Arcade,  Piccadilly ;  Parkins  ^  Ootto,  54-62  Oxford  St ; 
Jaques,  102  Hatton  Garden,  E.G. 

Tbunk  Makers:  —  Allen,  37  Strand;  Drew  ^  Sons,  33-37 
Piccadilly  Circus, W. ;  Drew  ^  Co.,  156  Leadenhall  St.,  E.G. ;  Pound, 
67  Piccadilly,  211  Regent  St.,  and  177  Tottenham  Court  Road; 
Southgate,  74  Watling  St  —  Strangers  should  be  on  their  guard 
against  the  temptation  to  purchase  trunks  and  portmanteaus  in 
inferior  leather  marked  *second  hand'  —  a  common  form  of  fraud 
in  houses  of  a  lower  class. 

Upholsterers,  see  Furniture. 

Watchmakers  :  —  Bennett,  65  Gheapside ;  Benson ,  25  Old 
Bond  St.  and  62  and  64  Ludgate  Hill;  E,  Dent  ^  Co.,  61  Strand; 
M.  F.  Dent  ^  Co,,  34  Cockspur  St;  Chas,  Frodsham  ^  Co.,  115  New 
Bond  St. ;  Bedford  (Waltham  Watches),  105  Regent  St. 

Waterproof  Goods  :  —  Andersons,  58  Charing  Cross  and  35 
St.  Paul's  Churchyard ;  Cording  ^  Co,,  19  Piccadilly ;  Qeorge  Cording, 
125  Regent  St.;  Walkley,  5  Strand;  Cow,  46  Gheapside. 

Wine  Merchants.  —  There  are  about  2500  wine  merchants  in 
London,  most  of  whom  can  supply  fairly  good  wine  at  reasonable 
prices.  Visitors  who  occupy  private  apartments  should  procure  their 
wine  from  a  dealer.  The  wines  at  hotels  are  generally  dear  and  in- 
different. The  following  are  good  houses:  —  Cockhum  ^  Co, 
(established  1796;  specialty,  Scotch  whiskey),  8  Lime  St.,  City, 
Jusierini  S'  Brooks,  2  Pall  Mall  (150  years  on  same  spot;  noted  for 

14.  MARKETS.  63 

very  old  French  brandy) ;  Hedge$  ^  Butltr,  155  Regent  St ;  Qilhey, 
Pa&theon,  173  Oxford  St.,  besides  other  offices  (with  an  extensive 
trade  in  low-priced  wines) ;  Fortnum  ^  Maaonj  181-183  Piccadilly ; 
CarhoneU  ^  Co.,  59  St.  James's  St. ;  Q,  Tanqutray  ^  Co.,  5  Pall  Mall 
East;  BoiU  Woodd  ^  Som,  34  New  Bond  St.;  BaUsh,  MansfiM, 
^  Co.,  47  Pall  Mall;  Danueq,  6  Great  Tower  St.,  E.G.  —  The 
Victoria  Wine  Co.  (head  office,  6  Osbom  St.,  E.,  with  about  90 
branch-offices)  does  a  large  business  in  moderate-priced  wines,  from 
single  bottles  upwards.  —  Most  of  the  best-known  continental  wine- 
firms  have  agencies  in  London,  the  addresses  of  which  may  be  found 
in  the  Post  Office  Directory.  Claret  and  other  wines  may  be  obtained 
also  from  most  of  the  grocers. 

Bazaars.  These  emporiums  afford  pleasant  covered  walks 
between  rows  of  shops  abundantly  stocked  with  all  kinds  of  attract- 
ive and  useful  articles.  The  most  important  are  the  Boyal  Arcade, 
28  Old  Bond  St. ;  Opera  Colonnade,  Haymarket;  Burlington  Arcade, 
Piccadilly;  Ludgaie  or  Imperial  Arcade,  Ludgate  Circus;  Baker 
Street  Bazaar,  58  Baker  Street. 

Karkets.  The  immense  market  traffic  of  London  is  among  the 
most  impressive  sights  of  the  Metropolis ,  and  one  with  which  no 
stranger  should  fail  to  make  himself  acquainted.  The  chief  mar- 
kets are  held  at  early  hours  of  the  morning,  when  they  are  visited  by 
vast  crowds  hastening  to  supply  their  commissariat  for  the  day. 

The  chief  Vegttahle,  Fruit,  and  Flower  Market  is  Covent  Garden 
(p.  210).  The  best  time  to  visit  this  market  is  about  sunrise. 

Billingsgate  (p.  124),  the  great  fish-market,  as  interesting  in  its 
way  as  Covent  Garden,  though  pervaded  by  far  less  pleasant  odours, 
is  situated  in  Lower  Thames  St.,  City,  near  London  Bridge.  The 
market  commences  daily  at  5  a.  m. 

The  Central  London  Markets  (see  p.  100),  occupying  together 
about  80  acres  at  Smiihfield  (PI.  R,  36),  to  the  N.  of  Newgate  St., 
City,  are  the  chief  centres  of  the  food-supply  of  London. 

The  Metropolitan  Cattle  Market  (PI.  B,  26,  29) ,  Copenhagen 
Fields,  between  Islington  and  Camden  Town,  is  one  of  the  largest  in 
the  world,  covering  30  acres  of  ground  and  accommodating  8-10,000 
cattle,  36,000  sheep,  and  1000  pigs.  The  principal  markets  are  held 
on  Mondays  and  Thursdays,  but  on  other  days  the  traffic  is  also 
very  considerable.  The  great  day  is  the  Monday  of  the  week  be- 
fore Christmas.  *Pedlars'  Market'  on  Friday  afternoon,  see  p.  274. 
—  At  Deptford  (p.  390)  is  a  great  Foreign  Cattle  Market,  for  cattle 
imported  from  the  Continent  and  elsewhere. 

Among  the  other  important  markets  of  London  are  Leadenhall 
Market  (p.  119),  Leadenhall  St.,  on  a  site  where  poultry  and  game 
have  been  sold  for  at  least  400  years ;  the  Borough  Market,  beside 
St.  Saviour's  Church  (p.  375),  one  of  the  largest  wholesale  fruit  and 
vegetable  markets;  Spitalfields  Market  (PI.  R,  48),  Commercial  St., 


E.,  for  yegetables,  etc.,  the  chief  emporium  for  East  London;  the 
Shadwell  Market  (PI.  R,  54),  to  the  E.  of  London  Docks,  for  flsh;  and 
Portland  Market  (PI.  R,  12),  Salisbury  St.,  Marylehone.  Columbia 
Market  (Pi.  B,  48),  Bethnal  Green,  was  erected  by  the  munificence 
of  the  Baroness  Burdett  Goutts,  at  a  cost  of  200,00()Z.,  for  supplying 
meat,  flsh,  and  yegetables  to  one  of  the  poorest  quarters  of  London. 

The  largest  Horse  Market  is  TatteraalVs  (PI.  R,  18),  Enightsbrldge 
Green,  where  auction-sales  take  place  eyery  Monday  at  11.30  a.m., 
and  in  spring  on  Thursdays  also.  The  horses  are  on  view  on  Sat. 
and  Sun.  (11-6).  Tattersall's  is  the  centre  of  all  business  relating 
to  horse-racing  and  betting  throughout  the  country,  —  the  English- 
man's substitute  for  the  Continental  lotteries.  Aldridge'a,  St.  Mar- 
tin's Lane,  is  another  important  horse-mart. 

The  Co-operative  System.  The  object  of  this  system  may  be 
described  as  the  furnishing  of  members  of  a  trading  association, 
formed  for  the  purpose,  with  genuine  and  moderately-priced  goods 
on  the  principle  of  ready-money  payments,  the  cheapness  being 
secured  by  economy  of  management  and  by  contentment  with  small 
profits.  There  are  now  about  thirty  *co-operatiye  stores' In  London, 
carrying  on  an  immense  trade.  The  chief  companies  are  the  Army 
and  Navy  Co-operative  Society j  105  Victoria  St.,  Westminster,  the 
Civil  Service  Supply  Association^  the  Junior  Army  and  Navy  Stores^ 
15  Regent  St.  and  39  King  St.,  Coyent  Garden,  and  the  Civil  Service 
Co-operative  Society^  28  Haymarket. 

The  Civil  Service  Supply  Association  Limited  consists  of  shareholders, 
of  members  belonging  to  the  Civil  Service,  and  of  outsiders  (who,  how- 
ever, must  be  friends  of  members  or  shareholders),  who  pay  a  subscnption 
of  2s.  ^.  per  annum.  The  association  now  employs  more  than  1400  per- 
sons, who  receive  salaries  amounting  in  all  to  about  117,000/.  annually. 
The  cost  of  the  string,  paper,  and  straw  used  in  packing  goods  for  customers 
amounts  to  10,000/.  a  year,  and  more  than  90,000/.  is  annually  sjpent  for 
carriage.  The  total  value  of  the  sales  in  1907  amounted  to  l,6^,4g8/.,  the 
net  profit  being  about  2V2  per  cent.  The  articles  sold  comprise  groceries, 
wines,  spirits,  provisions,  tobacco,  clothing,  books,  stationery,  fancy  goods, 
drugs,  china  and  glass,  ironmongery,  and  watches.  The  chief  premises 
of  the  association  are  in  Queen  Victoria  Street,  while  it  has  others  in 
Bedford  Street,  in  Chandos  Street,  Strand,  and  in  Maclise  Road,  West 
Kensington.  —  The  sales  of  the  Army  and  Navy  Stores  reach  a  still  higher 
total,  amounting  to  about  3,326,000/.  per  annum. 

Strangers  or  visitors  to  London  are,  of  course,  unable  to  make  purchases 
at  a  co-operative  store  except  through  a  member. 

Co-operative  Working  Societies.  Another  application  of  the 
co-operative  system  is  seen  in  the  various  associations  established 
on  the  principle  of  the  Co-Partnership  of  the  Workers, 

Among  societies  of  this  kind  the  following  may  be  mentioned:  Book- 
hindwi"  Co-operative  Society^  17  Bury  St..  Bloomsbury •,  Hamilton  SMrt- 
Making  Society^  41  Poland  St.,W.;  Women's  Printing  Society,  66Whitcomb 
St.,W.C.;   Co-operative  Printing  Society,  Tudor  St.,  New  Bridge  St.,  E.C. 


15.  Libraries,  Beading  Booms,  and  Newspapers. 

Public  Libraries.  London  and  its  sabnrbs  now  contain  up- 
wards of  fifty  free  public  libraries,  where  yisitors  may  freely  enter 
and  consult  the  books  and  magazines.  They  are  open  from  8,  9,  or 
10  a.m.  to  9, 10,  or  11  p.m.,  and  many  of  them  are  also  open  on  Sun. 
evening.  All  have  free  news-rooms,  reading-rooms,  and  reference- 
libraries  'y  but  books  are,  as  a  rule,  lent  out  only  to  residents  of  the 
district  on  a  rate-payer's  recommendation. 

Some  sort  of  an  introduction  is  generally  necessary  for  those 
who  wish  to  use  the  books  in  the  following  great  libraries,  at  which, 
however,  no  fees  are  charged. 

British  Museum  Library y  see  p.  320;  Sion  Colltgt  Library  (p.  127),  on 
the  Thames  Embankment,  110,000  vols.,  one  of  the  most  valuable  theo- 
logical libraries  in  London,  containing  portraits  of  Charles  I.,  Charles  II., 
and  Laud  and  other  bishops ;  Dr.  William*'  Library ^  University  Hal],  Gordon 
Square,  with  about  60,000  vols.,  mainly  theological  and  historical,  includ- 
ing many  Puritan  and  Commonwealth  pamphlets,  and  portraits  of  Baxter, 
Watts,  Priestley,  and  other  divines;  Lambtth  Palaet  Library^  p.  380;  Allan 
Library^  with  a  fine  collection  of  Bibles  and  theological  works,  to  be  trans- 
ferred to  the  new  Wesleyan  Church  House  (p.  249),  and  at  present  in- 
accessible ;  Ouildhall  Library,  p.  109 ;  Patent  Office  Library^  25  Southampton 
Buildings,  Chancery  Lane,  especially  rich  in  scientific  journals  and  trans- 
actions of  learned  societies  (open  free,  10-1(9. 

CirculatixLg  Libraries.  London  Library,  14  St.  James's  Square, 
with  220,000  vols,  (annual  subs.  Si,,  introduction  by  a  member 
necessary);  London  Institution  Library,  Finsbury  Circus,  with 
100,000  vols,  (annual  subs.  1L  12«.  6d.);  Mudie'a  Select  Library 
( Limited),  SO'^^  New  Oxford  St.,  a  gigantic  establishment  possess- 
ing hundreds  of  thousands  of  volumes  (minimum  quarterly  sub- 
scription, 78.);  branches  at  241  Brompton  Road  and  48  Queen 
Victoria  St.,  E.G.;  W,  H,  Smith  ^  Son,  186  Strand,  branch  at 
2  Arundel  St.,W.C. ;  Rolandi,  20Bemers  St.,  Oxford  St.,  for  foreign 
books  (300,000  vols. ;  monthly  subs.  4a.  Qd. ,  yearly  21. 2«.) ;  Cawthom 
Sf  Hatt,  24  Cockspur  St.;  Ashton  ^  MitcheU,  33  Old  Bond  St,  and 
16  Gloucester  Road,  S.W.  (subs,  from  15a.  per  quarter);  Lewie's 
Medical  §r  Scientific  Library,  136  Gower  Street  (subs,  from  il,  is. 
per  annum ;  catalogue  2a.,  to  non-subscribers  5a.).  —  The  Booklovers' 
Library  (17  Hanover  St.,  Hanover  Square)  maintains  deposits  of  its 
books  at  numerous  booksellers^  all  over  London,  at  any  one  of  which 
subscribers  may  exchange  volumes ;  annual  fee  bs. ,  wiih  charge  of 
2(2.  each  time  a  book  is  exchanged. 

Beading  Booms.  Besides  those  at  the  free  libraries  (see  above) 
the  following  reading-rooms,  most  of  which  are  supplied  with 
English  and  foreign  newspapers,  may  be  mentioned :  Colonial  In- 
stitute, Northumberland  Avenue  (subs.  1-2  guineas  per  annum ; 
comp.  p.  76);  Ouildhall  Free  Library;  Central  News  Agency,  5  New 
Bridge  St. ,  Ludgate  Circus  (adm.  2d.) ;  Commissioners  of  Patents 
Librofy,    25  Southampton  Buildings,    Chancery  Lane;    Street's 

Babdkkbb's  London.    15th  Edit.  5 

66  15.  NEWSPAPERS. 

Colonial  ^  General  Newspaper  Offices,  30  Goinhill,  164  Piccadilly, 
and  5  Serle  St.,  Llncoln*g  Inn ;  Chicago  Daily  News,  Trafalgar  Build- 
ings, Trafalgar  Sqnare. 

newspapers.  Al>ont  450  newspapers  are  published  in  London 
and  its  environs.  Among  the  principal  morning  papers  are  the  Times 
(3d.),  in  political  opinion  nominally  Independent  of  party  (printing- 
office,  see  p.  128) ;  then  the  Daily  News  {}l%d, ;  a  leading  Liberal 
journal),  Daily  Telegraph  (Id.),  Standard  [id,;  a  strong  Oonserra- 
tive  organ).  Morning  Post  (Id./  organ  of  the  court  and  aristocracy), 
Morning  Advertiser  (Id.;  the  organ  of  the  licensed  Yictuallersj, 
Daily  Chronicle  {}l^,;  Radical),  linandal  News  (id.),  Financial 
Times  (Id.),  Morning  Leader  (}/2d.;  Radical),  and  Daily  Express 
(72d.)-  ^e  ^<^i^y  Graphic  (Id.)  is  illustrated.  The  leading  evening 
papers  include  the  Westminster  Oaxette  (Id.),  the  Pall  Mall  Oatette 
(Id.),  the  Evening  Standard  and  St  Jameses  Gazette  (Id.),  Qlohe 
(Id.;  the  oldest  evening  paper,  dating  from  1803),  Star  (V2<^0)  ^^^ 
Evening  News  (Va^O*  Most  of  these  are  sold  at  the  principal  railway- 
stations,  at  newsagents'  shops,  and  in  the  streets  by  newsboys.  The 
oldest  paper  in  the  country  is  the  London  Oaxette,  the  organ  of  the 
Government,  established  in  1642  and  published  twice  weekly. 
The  City  Press  (bi-weekly ;  2d.)  contains  city  and  antiquarian  no- 
tices; London  (weekly  j  Id.)  and  the iondotiilfyus (weekly;  Id.)  also 
deal  with  local  government  topics.  Among  the  favourite  weekly 
journals  are  the  comic  paper  Punch  (3d.) ;  the  illustrated  papers 
(6d.  each) ,  Sphere,  Graphic ,  Black  and  White,  Illustrated  London 
News,  Sporting  and  Dramatic  News,  Sketch,  Bystander,  Tatler,  Lady's 
Pictorial,  Lady,  Gentlewoman,  and  Queen  (for  ladies) ;  and  the  supe- 
rior literary  journals  and  reviews.  Athenaeum,  Academy  (3d.  each), 
Spectator,  Nation,  Saturday  Review,  and  Ouilook  (6d.  each).  The 
Weekly  Dispatch,  the  Observer,  Lloyd's  News  (circulation  of  over 
1,000,000),  the  People,  Reynolds',  the  Sunday  Times,  and  the 
Referee  (a  sporting  and  theatrical  organ)  are  Sunday  papers.  The 
Guardian  (weekly ;  3d.)  is  the  chief  organ  of  the  Church  of  England, 
and  the  Toditft  (weekly ;  5d.)  that  of  the  Roman  Catholics.  Truth,  The 
World,  and  Vanity  Fair  (6d.  each)  are  mainly  *  society'  papers. 

The  Field  (weekly;  6d.)  is  the  principal  journal  of  field-sports  and 
other  subjects  interesting  to  the  'country  gentleman^;  and  next  is  Land 
and  Water,  also  weekly  (6tf.)*  The  Sporttman  (daily;  id.).  Sporting  U/e 
(daily;  Id.),  and  the  Bporting  Timet  (weekly;  2d.)  are  the  chief  organs  of 
the  racing  public,  and  the  JBra  (weekly;  6d.)  of  the  theatrical  world. 

Science  and  Art  Journals :  Journal  of  the  Society  of  Art*  (fid.).  Nature 
(Sd.),  Knowledge^  The  Electrician  (weekly;  6d.),  C?temieal  Newt  (weekly; 
id.).  Inventors'  Review  (weekly ;  8d.).  The  Lancet  (weekly ;  Id.)  and  the  Britiah 
Medical  Journal  (6d.)  are  the  leading  medical  papers.  —  Journals  and 
Transactions  of  the  Geological,  Astronomical,  and  other  learned  societies. 

Commercial  and  Professional  Journals  (weekly):  The  EconomUt  {M.), 
the  leading  commercial  and  financial  authority ;  Agricultural  Gazette  (2d.)  -, 
Board  of  Trade  Journal  (monthly;  8d.);  Farmer  (id.);  Mark  Lane  Express 
(3d.),  mainly  relied  upon  for  market-prices;  Engineer,  Engineering  (each 
6d.),  for  mechanics,  surveyors,  and  contractors ;  Buildtr  (4d.),  and  Builders'' 

16.  EMBASSIES.  67 

Journal  ild.)^  devoted  to  bailding,  designs,  sanitation,  and  domestic  com- 
fort; Architect  (4<l.);  Collierp  Guardian  (Sd.);  fining  Journal  (fid.)\  Gar- 
doners'  Chronicle  (Sd.)-,  BulUanist  rM.)',  Railwap  Timei  (6<f.);  Monop  karket 
Review  (64.) ',  Journal  of  Education  (6(1.),  Bdueattonta  Time*  (SdX  and  The  School 
World  (6<l.),  for  teachers. 

The  Canadian  GagetU  (8d.)  is  a  London  weekl7  dealing  with  Canadian 
matters.  Several  of  the  leading  American  and  Colonial  papers  have  re- 
presentatives and  advertising  offtoes  in  London.  The  address  of  the 
AuodaUd  Prees  is  34  Old  Jewrj,  B.  C. 

French  newspapers  are  sold  at  the  Libreririe  du  Ftgaroy  9  New  Coventry 
St.,  at  the  Caf^  Honico,  and  at  various  shops  in  Soho. 

16.  Embassies  and  Consulates.   Colonial  Represent- 
atives. Bankers. 


America,  United  States  of.  Embassy,  l^SVictOTla  St.,  S.W.  (office- 
hours  11-B);  ambassador,  Hon,  Whitelaw  Reid,  Gonsnlate,  12 
St  Helen's  Place,  Bishopsgate,  E.G.;  consul-general,  Robert 
J,  Wynne,  Esq,;  vice-consnl-general,  RiehardWestaeott,  Esq. 

Austria-Hungary,  Embassy,  18  Belgrave  Square,  S.W.  General 
Consulate,  22  Laurence  Pountney  Lane,  E.G. 

Belgium,  Legation,  15  West  Halkin  St.,  Belgraye  Square,  S.W. 
General  Gonsnlate,  29  Great  St.  Helen's,  E.G. 

Bratil,  Legation,  152  Gomwall  Gardens,  S.W.  Gonsnlate,  Coventry 
House,  South  Place,  Finsbury,  E.G. 

C^tfMt.    Legation,  49  Portland  Place,  W. 

Denmark,  Legation,  24  Pont  St.,  S.W.  General  Consulate,  8 
Byward  St.,  Great  Tower  Street,  E.G. 

France.  Embassy,  Albert  Gate  House,  Hyde  Park.  General  Con- 
sulate, 4  Christopher  St.,  Finsbury,  E.G. 

Germany .  Embassy,  9  Carlton  House  Terrace,  S.W.  General  Con- 
sulate, 49  Finsbury  Square,  E.G. 

Oreeee,  Legation,  1  Stanhope  Gardens,  S.W.  General  Consulate, 
40  Old  Broad  St.,  E.G. 

Italy,  Embassy,  20  Grosyenor  Square,  W.  General  Consulate, 
44  Finsbury  Square,  E.G. 

Japan,  Embassy,  4  Grosvenor  Gardens,  S.W.  General  Consulate, 
1  Broad  Street  Place,  E.G.,  and  72  Kensington  Park  Road,  W. 

Netherlands,  Legation,  8  Grosyenor  Gardens,  S.W.  General  Con- 
sulate, 12  Blomfield  St.,  E.G. 

Norway,  Legation,  36  Victoria  St,  S.W.  General  Consulate,  22 
Great  St  Helen's,  E.G. 

Persia,  Legation,  Gomwall  House,  Cornwall  Gardens,  S.W.  General 
Consulate,  122  Victoria  St.,  S.W. 

Portugal,  Legation,  12  Gloucester  Place,  Portman  Square,  W. 
General  Consulate,  6  South  St.,  Finsbury,  E.G. 

Russia.  Embassy,  Chesham  House,  Belgrave  Square,  S.W.  General 
Consulate,  17  Great  Winchester  St.,  E.G. 


68  16.   BANKERS. 

Spain.    Embassy,  1  Grosvenor  Gardens,  S.W.    General  Consulate, 

40  Trinity  Square,  E.G. 
Sweden,   Legation,  73  Portland  Place,  W.    General  Consulate,  10 

Lloyd's  Ayenue,  E.G. 
Switzerland,   Legation  and  Consulate,  38  Beaucbamp  Place,  S.W. 
Turkey,  Embaasy,  69  Portland  Place,  W.    General  Consulate,  140 

Leadenhall  Street  Place,  E.G. 

Representatives  of  British  CoUmUs. 
AustraUay  Commonwealth  of,   BepresentatWe,  Capt,  R,  Muirhead 

Collinsy  72  Victoria  Street,  S.W. 
Canada,  Dominion  of.   High  Commissioner,  Lord  Strathcona  and 

Mountroyal,  17  Victoria  Street,  S.W. 
Cape  Color^,    Agent  General,  Sir  Thomas  E.  Fuller^  100  Victoria 

Street,  S.W. 
Natal,  Agent  General,  Sir  William  Arbuckle,  26  Victoria  Street,  S.W. 
New  South  Wales,   Agent  General,  Hon.  T.  A,  Coghlan,  123  Cannon 

Street,  E.G. 
New  Zealand,  High  Commissioner,  Hon,  W,  P,  Reeves,  13  Victoria 

Street,  S.W. 
Queensland,  Agent  General,  Sir  Horace  Tomer,  1  Victoria  Street,  S.W. 
South  Australia.  Agent  General,  Hon.  J,  0,  Jenkins,  28  Bisbopsgate 

Street,  E.  C. 
Tasmania,  Agent  General,  Hon.  Alfred  Dohson,  6  Victoria  Street,  S.W. 
Transvaal,     Agent   General,    Sir  Richard  Solomon,   72  Victoria 

Street,  S.W. 
Victoria,  Agent  General,  Hon.  J,  W.  Tuverner,  142  Victoria  Street,S.W. 
West  Australia.    Agent  General,  Hon,  C.  H.  Rason,   15  Victoria 

Street,  S.W. 
Crown  Colonies.  Agents,  SirE.  E.  Blake,  Major  M.  A.  Cameron,  and 

W.  H,  Mercer,  Esq.,  4  Wbiteball  Gardens,  S.W. 


Pkivatb  Banks:  —  Messrs.  Barclay  S'  Co,,  54  Lombard  St.  and 
1  Pall  Mall  East ;  Child  ^  Co.,  1  Fleet  St. ;  Coutts  f  Co.,  440  Strand ; 
Drummond,  49  Cbaring  Cross;  Olyn,  Mills,  Currie,  ^  Co,,  67  Lom- 
bard St. ;  Hoare,  37  Fleet  St. ;  Roharts,  Lubbock,  ^  Co.,  15  Lom- 
bard St. ;  Samuel  Montagu  ^  Co.,  60  Old  Broad  St.,  E.G. 

Joint  Stock  Banks  :  —  Capital  ^  Counties  Bank,  39  Thread- 
needle  St. ;  London  and  County,  21  Lombard  St. ;  London  Joint 
Stock,  5  Prince's  St.,  Mansion  House,  E.  C. ;  London  and  ProvineicU, 
3  Bank  Buildings,  Lotbbury;  London  and  South  Western,  170  Fen- 
cburcb  St. ;  London  and  Westminster,  41  Lotbbury ;  London,  City, 
^'  Midland,  5  Threadneedle  St.;  National  Provincial,  112  Bishops- 
gate  St.  Within ;  Union  of  London  ^  Smiths,  2  Prince's  St.,  Mansion 
House,  E.G. ;  Lloyds,  72  Lombard  St.  and  222  Strand ;  Parr's  Bank, 

17.  DIVINE  SERVICE.  0)3 

52  Threadneedle  St.  and  1  Cavendish  Sc^nare,  etc. ;  William$  Dea" 
con's,  20  Birchin  Lane,  etc. 

All  the  banking  companies  have  branch-offices  in  different  paitt 
of  London  and  suburbs,  some  as  many  as  fifty  to  a  hundred. 

Ambsioan  Banks  :  —  Brown,  Shipley,  §r  Co,,  Founders'  Court, 
Lothbury,  E.  C,  and  123  Pall  Mkll,  S.W.;  J.  S.  Morgan  ^  Co,,  22 
Old  Broad  St.,  E.  C. ;  Knauth,  Nachod,  ^  Kiihtu,  at  Parr's  Bank  (see 
p.  68);  London,  Paris,  ^  American  Bank,  40  Threadneedle  St.,  E.C. ; 
Bank  of  British  North  America,  5  Gracechurch  St.;  American  Express 
Co.,  84  Queen  St.,  Cheapslde,  and  6  Haymarket,  S.W» 

MoNBT  Chanoe&s.  Cook's  Tourist  Offices,  Ludgate  Circus, 
38  Piccadilly,  Forecourt,  Charing  Cross  Station,  13  Cockspur  St,  82 
Oxford  St.,  21  High  St.,  Kensington,  122  HighHolborn,  378  Strand, 
81  Cheapside,  99  Gracechurch  St.,  and  117  High  St.,  Whitechapel; 
Davison,  148  Strand;  WhiteUy,  31-61  Westboume  Groye ;  Smart, 
72  Westbourne  Grove;  American  Express  Co.  (see  above). 

17.  Divine  Service. 

To  enable  visitors  belonging  to  different  religious  denominations 
to  attend  their  respective  places  of  worship,  a  list  is  here  given 
of  the  principal  churches  in  London.  The  denominations  are  ar- 
ranged in  alphabetical  order.  The  chief  edifices  of  the  Church  of 
England  are  noticed  throughout  the  Handbook. 

There  are  about  700  churchet  of  the  Ghureli  of  England  in  London  or 
its  Immediate  vicinity,  of  which  about  70  are  pariah-churches  in  the  City, 
50  parish-churches  in  the  Ketropolitan  district  beyond,  and  550  ecclesi- 
astical parish  or  district  churches  or  chapels,  some  connected  with  asyl- 
ums, missions,  etc.  Of  the  Koneonformist  churches,  which  amount  to 
about  800  in  all,  240  are  Independent,  130  Baptist,  150  Wesleyan,  and  50 
Roman  Catholic.  —  The  hours  named  after  each  church  are  those  of 
divine  service  on  Sundays^  when  no  hour  is  specified  it  is  understood 
that  the  hours  of  the  regular  Sunday  services  are  11  a.m.  and  6.30  p.m. 
Many  of  the  Saturday  morning  and  evening  papers  give  a  list  of  the 
principal  preachers  on  Sunday. 

Baptist  Chapels:  — Metropolitan  Tabernacle,  Newington  Butts, 
close  to  the  Elephant  and  Castle  (p.  378),  the  church  of  the  late 
Rev.  C.  H.  Spurgeon;  services  at  11  and  6.30.  —  Westboume  Park 
Chapel  (Dr.  Clifford)}  services  at  11  and  7.  —  Bloom^bury  Chapel, 
Shaftesbury  Avenue ;  services  at  11  and  7.  —  Regents  Park  Chapel, 
Park  Square  Esst,  Regent's  Park;  seryices  at  11  and  7. 

Catholic  Apostolic  Chubchbs:  —  Gordon  Square,  Euston 
Road.  —  Mare  Street,  Hackney.  —  Malda  Hill  West,  Paddingtou. 
Services  at  these,  at  6  and  10  a.m.,  2  and  6  p.m.  —  College  Street, 
Chelsea;  services  at  6,  10,  and  5.  —  Duncan  Street,  Islington, 
services  at  2  and  5.  —  Gordon  House  Road,  N.W.;  services  at  6, 
10,  5,  and  5.30. 

CoNGBBGATioNALisTs  or  INDEPENDENTS :  —  City  Temple,  Hol- 
bom  Viaduct  (Bev.  R.  J.  Campbell);  services  at  11  and  7  (lecture 

70  17.   DIVINE  SERVIOE. 

on  TharB.  at  noon).  —  Union  Chapel,  Islington.  —  Westminster 
Chapel,  James  St.,  Westminster  (Dr,  Morgan).  —  King's  Weigh 
House  Chapel,  Duke  St.,  Grosvenor  Square;  11  and  7.  —  Kensington 
Chapel,  Phillimore  Terrace,  Allen  St.,  Kensington.  —  Christ  Church, 
Westminster  Bridge  Road ;  the  tower  and  spire  of  this  church  were 
built  by  Americans  in  London  as  a  memorial  of  Abraham  Lincoln.  — 
Whitefield's  Tabernacle,  Tottenham  Court  Road  (Rev.  C.  8.  Home) ; 
11  and  7.  —  Lyndhurst  Road,  Hampstead  (Dr,  Horton);  11  and  7.  — 
The  Pilgrim  Fathers  Memorial  Church,  New  Kent  Road  (11  and  7), 
dating  from  1616,  is  said  to  be  the  oldest  congregational  church  in 
the  empire. 

Fbiends  or  Quakers:  —  Meeting-houses  at  52  St.  Martin's 
Lane,  Trafalgar  Square  (service  at  11),  and  Devonshire  House,  12 
Bishopsgate  Street  Without  (services  at  11  and  7).  There  are  in 
all  about  a  dozen  meeting-houses  in  the  London  District. 

Jews  :  —  Great  Synagogue,  Duke  St.,  Aldgate.  —  Synagogue 
(Reform),  34  Upper  Berkeley  St. ,  Edgware  Road.  —  Central  Syna- 
gogue, Great  Portland  Street.  —  West  London  Bayswater  Synagogue, 
Chichester  Place,  Harrow  Road.  —  New  West  End  Synagogue, 
St.  Petersburg  Place,  Bayswater  Road.  —  New  Synagogue,  Chreat 
St.  Helen's,  Leadenhall  Street.  —  Spanish  ^  Portuguese  Synagogues, 
Bevis  Marks,  E.  C,  and  Lauderdale  Road,  Maida  Yale.  —  Service 
begins  at  sunset  on  Fridays.  The  office  of  the  Chief  Rabbi  is  at 
22  Finsbury  Square,  E.  C. 

Methodists,  a.  Wesleyan  Methodists :  —  Wesle^s  Chapel,  47 
City  Road;  Kingsway  Chapel,  Great  Queen  St.;  Finsbury  Park  Chapel, 
Wilberforce  Road;  Hindt  Street  Chapel,  Manchester  Square;  Mostyn 
Road  Oiapel,  Brixton  Road;  Peckham  Chapel,  Queen's  Road,  Peck- 
ham.  —  b.  Primitive  Methodists:  —  Swrrey  Chapel,  Blackfriars 
Road,  S.E.;  Marylebone,  Seymour  Place;  Camden  Town,  King  St., 
N.W.;  Defoe  Chapel,  High  St.,  Tooting.  ■—  c.  United  Methodist 
Church :  —  Brunswick  Chapel,  156  Great  Dover  St.,  Southwark ; 
Queen's  Road  Chapel,  Queen's  Road,  Bayswater;  Victoria,  Vauxhall 
Bridge  Road;  etc. 

New  Jerusalem  or  Swbdenborgian  Churches:  —  Palace 
Gardens  Terrace,  Kensington.  —  Argyle  Square,  King's  Cross.  — 
Camden  Road,  Holloway.  —  College  Chapel,  Devonshire  St.,  Isling- 
ton. —  Services  at  11  and  7. 

Presbyterians:  —  St.  Columbas,  Pont  St.,  Belgravia  (Dr. 
Fleming);  11  and  6.30.  —  Crown  Court  Church,  Crown  Court,  Rus- 
sell St.,  Covent  Garden  (Rev.  Alex.  Macrae);  11.15  and  6.30.  — 
These  two  are  connected  with  the  Church  of  Scotland.  The  follow- 
ing belong  to  the  Presbyterian  Church  of  England  (office,  7  East 
India  Avenue,  E.  C).  —  Regent  Square  Church,  Regent's  Square, 
Gray's  Inn  Road ;  services  at  11  and  7.  —  Marylebone  Church,  Upper 
George  St.,  Bryanston  Square,  Edgware  Road.  —  St.  John^s  Wood 
Presbyterian  Church,  Marlborough  Place,  St  John's  Wood  (Dr.  Munro 

17.  DiyiNE  SERVICE.  71 

Oilson).  —  Trinity  Churchy  Clapham  Road  (Br,  MaeEwan),  —  Welsh 
Calvinist  Chapel,  Cambridge  Circus,  Charing  Cross  Road. 

Roman  Catholics:  —  Weitminster  Cathedral  (p.  250);  services 
at  10.30,  12,  3.15,  and  7.  —  8t  OeorgeTa  Cathedral,  St.  George's 
Road,  Southwark;  various  services.  —  Pro- Cathedral,  High  St., 
Kensington ;  services  at  7, 8, 9, 10, 11,4,  and  7.  —  Oratory  (p.  366), 
Brompton  Road,  beside  the  South  Kensington  Museum ;  services 
at  6.30, 11,  3.30,  and  7.  —  Jesuit  Church  (Immaculate  Conception), 
Farm  St.,  Berkeley  Square;  services  at  7.30,  9.30,  11,  and  4.  — 
St.  Mary  of  the  Angels,  Westmoreland  Road,  Bayswater.  —  St. 
Etheldred(fs,  Ely  Place,  Holborn;  principal  services  at  11.15  and  7. 

—  St.  Patrick's,  Soho  Square.  —  St.  Joseph's,  Highgate  Hill.  — 
St.  Dominic's  Priory,  Southampton  Road,  Kentish  Town,  N.W.  — 
Sacred  Heart,  Quex  Road,  Kilbum.  —  St.  Mary's,  Cadogan  St., 
Chelsea.  —  St.  John  of  Jerusalem,  Great  Ormond  St.,  W.C.  — 
St.  James's,  Spanish  Place,  Manchester  Square.  —  High  Mass  usually 
begins  at  11  a.m.,  and  Vespers  at  7  p.m.  The  Low  Masses  are  at 
7  or  8  a.m.,  and  there  is  usually  an  afternoon  service  also. 

Unitabians  :  —  Little  Portland  Street  Chapel;  services  at  11.15 
and  7  (marble  memorial  of  Dr.  James  Martlneau;  1903).  —  Rosslyn 
Hill  Chapel,  Hampstead;  services  at  11.15  and  7.  —  Essex  Church, 
The  Mall,  Netting  Hill  Gate.  — -  Effra  Road  Chapel,  Brixton.  — 
WandswoHh  Chapel,  East  Hill.  —  Unity  Church,  Upper  St.,  Isling- 
ton. —  Of  floes,  Essex  Hall,  Essex  St.,  Strand. 

The  services  of  the  South  Place  Ethical  Society  are  held  at  the 
South  Place  Institute,  at  11.15  a.m. ;  the  lectures  of  the  West  Lon- 
don Ethical  Society  (Dr,  Stanton  Coit)  are  given  at  the  Kensington 
Town  Hall,  at  11.15  a.m.  —  The  Poativists  meet  at  Essex  Hall, 
Essex  St.,  Strand,  at  7.30  p.m.  —  TheisUc  Church  (Rev.  Charles 
Voysey),  SwaUow  St.,  PiccadiUy;  11  and  7. 

The  headquarters  of  the  Salvaiion  Army  are  at  101  Queen 
Victoria  St.,  E.  C. ;  of  its  Social  Wing  at  20  Whitechapel  Road,  E.  C. 

—  The  Church  Army  has  ita  headquarters  at  130  Edgware  Road. 
Foreign  Ohurohes:  —  Danith  Chvreh  (Lutheran),  King  Street,  Poplar ; 

service  at  11  a.m.  Danish  service  also  at  Karlborough  House  Chapel 
at  4.30  p.m.  —  Dutch  Church  (Reformed  Calvinist),  6  Austin  Friars, 
near  the  Bank:  service  at  11.15 a. m.  —  French  Protestant^  Soho  Square;  ser- 
vices at  11  and  7.  —  French  Protestant  Evangelical  Churchy  Monmouth  Rqad, 
Westhoume  Grove,  Bayswater;  services  at  11  and  7.  —  French  Anglican 
Churchy  233  Shaftesbury  Avenue;  services  at  11  and3.S0.  —  French  Roman 
Catholic  Chapels,  Little  George  Street  (French  &  Portuguese  Embassies), 
and  at  5  Leicester  Place,  Leicester  Square:  various  services.  —  Qertnan 
Lutheran  Church  (lately  in  the  Savoy),  46  Cleveland  Street,  Fitaroy 
Square;  services  at  11  and  6.45.  ~-  German  Lutheran  Churches,  in  Little  ^lie 
Street,  Whitechapel,  and  at  Dalston.  —  Oerman  Reformed  Churchy  'd  Goulston 
Street,  Whitechapel.  —  Oerman  Evangelical  Churches,  Montpelier  Place, 
Brompton,  and  Fowler  Road,  Islington.  —  Oerman  Methodist  Church  (Bdhler- 
kirehe)^  Commercial  Road;  services  at  11  and  6.30.  —  German  Roman  Catholic 
Chapel,  47  Union  Street,  Whitechapel;  services  at  9, 11,  S,  and  7.  —  Oerman 
Synagogue,  see  Jews.  —  Greek  Chapel  (Russian),  82  Welheck  Street,  Caven- 
dish Square;  service  at  11  a.m.  —  Oreek  Church  (St.  Sophia),  Moscow  Road, 
Bayswater;  service  at  11  a.m.  —  Italian  Roman  Catholic  Church  (St.  PeterU), 

72  18.  GUILDS. 

Hatton  Qarden,01erkenwell  Boad,  B.C.^  services  at  8, 11,4,  andT.  —  Nortctgian 
Lutheran  Church  (Ehmezer)^  Bedriff  Boad,  Botherhithe,  S.E. ;  services  at 
10.46  and  5.  —  Swedish  Proteetant  Churchy  Prince's  Square,  8t.  George's 
Street,  Shadwell;  service  at  11  a.m  (p.  142).  —  Swiu  Piroteetant  Church, 
78  EndeU  Street,  Long  Acre ;  service  at  11 

18.  Gnilds,  Charities,  Societies,  Clubs. 

Gaildt.  The  City  Gompaniet  or  Guilds  of  London  were  once 
apwardg  of  one  hundred  in  number ,  about  eighty  of  which  still 
exist ,  though  few  exercise  their  ancient  privileges.  About  forty 
of  them  possess  halls  in  which  they  transact  business  and  hold 
festivities;  the  others  meet  either  in  rooms  lent  to  them  at  the 
Guildhall,  or  at  the  offices  of  the  respective  clerks.  Nearly  all  the 
companies  are  called  Livery  Companies,  and  the  members  are  en- 
titled ,  on  ceremonial  occasions,  to  wear  the  liveries  (gowns,  furs, 
etc.)  of  their  respective  guilds.  Many  of  the  companies  are  ex- 
tremely wealthy,  while  others  possess  neither  halls  nor  alms- 
houses, neither  estates  nor  revenues,  —  nothing  but  ancient 
charters  to  which  they  reverentially  cling.  Some  of  the  guild-houses 
are  among  the  most  interesting  buildings  in  London,  and  are  no- 
ticed throughout  the  Handbook.  The  Twelve  Great  Companies, 
wealthier  and  more  influential  than  the  rest,  are  the  MereerSj 
Orocers,  Drapers,  Fishmongers,  Goldsmiths,  Skinners,  Merchant 
Taylors,  Haberdashers,  Baiters,  Ironmongers,  Vintners,  and  Ooth- 
workers.  Some  of  the  companies  represent  trades  now  quite  ex- 
tinct ,  and  by  their  unfamiliar  names  strikingly  illustrate  the  fact 
how  completely  they  have  outlived  their  original  purpose.  Such 
are  the  Bovjyers,  Broderers,  Oirdlers,  Homers,  Loriners  (saddlers* 
ironmongers).  Patten  Makers,  and  Scriveners. 

Gliarities.  The  charities  of  London  are  on  a  scale  commensurate 
with  the  vastness  of  the  city,  being  no  fewer  than  2000  in  number. 
They  comprise  hospitals,  dispensaries,  asylums ;  bible,  tract,  mis- 
sionary, and  district  visiting  societies;  provident  homes,  orphanages, 
etc.  A  tolerably  complete  catalogue  will  be  found  in  Fry's  Guide  to 
the  London  Charities  (i«.  6d.)  or  Low^s  Handbook  to  the  Charities  of 
London  (Is.).  The  total  voluntary  subscriptions,  donations ,  and 
bequests  to  these  charities  amount  to  about  6,000,0002.  annually, 
or  more  than  12.  for  each  man,  woman,  and  child  in  the  capital.  The 
Institution  of  ^Hospital  Sunday*,  on  which  collections  are  made  in 
all  the  churches  for  the  hospitals ,  produces  a  yearly  revenue  of 
about  70,0002.  The  'Hospital  Saturday  Fund'  is  the  result  of 
regular  weekly  collections  in  factories,  shops,  etc. ;  it  amounts  to 
about  25,0002.  per  annum.  The  following  is  a  brief  list  of  the 
chief  general  hospitals,  besides  which  there  are  numerous  special 
hospitals  for  cancer,  small-pox,  fever,  consumption,  eye  and  ear 
diseases,  and  so  forth. 

18.  CHARITIES.  73 

Charing  Crost^  Agar  Street,  Strand.  —  French  Sotpitaly  172  Shafteabury 
Avenue.  —  Oertnan»  Dalston  Lane,  Dalston.  —  Cfreat  Northern^  Holloway 
Road.  —  Quy^*^  St.  Thomas  Street,  Southwark.  —  lidlian^  10  Queen  Square. 

—  ITtn^'j  CelUffe,  Portugal  Street,  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields.  —  London^  209 
Wliitechapel  Road.  —  London  Homeopathic^  Great  Ormond  Street.  —  Metro- 
politem^  Kingsland  Road,  £.  —  Middlesex,  Mortimer  Street,  Berners  Street. 

—  National  Anti-Vivieeciion,  Albert  Bridge  Road,  Battersea.  —  North  London, 
or  Unitereity  College,  Oower  Street.  —  North-  Wat  London,  18  Kentish  Town 
Road.  —  Poplar,  303  EaU  India  Dock  Road.  —  Royal  Free,  256  Gray's 
Inn  Road.  —  8t.  Bartholomew's,  SmithQeld.  —  St.  Oeorge%  Hyde  Park 
Corner.    —    8t.  Francis  (vegetarian  and  anti-vivisection),  Kew  Kent  Road. 

—  St.  Marp^s^  Praed  St.,  Paddington.  —  St.  ThomasU,  Albert  Embankment. 

—  8eamen*»  ('Dreadnought'),  at  Greenwich  and  at  the  Victoria  and  Albert 
Docks.  —  Temperance,  flampstead  Road.  —  West  London,  Hammersmith 
Boad.  —  Westminster,  Broad  Sanctuary. 

The  following  are  Hospitals  for  Ladibs,  in  which  patients  are  received 
for  a  moderate  charge :  —  Establishment  for  InvaUd  Ladies,  90  Barley  Street 
(l<.-2i.  bs.  6d.  per  week)  \  New  Hospital  for  Women,  Ui  Buston  Road,  with 
lady-doctors ;  Chelsea  Hotpital  for  Women^  Fulham  Road. 

Hospitals  fok  Childscx.  Hospital  for  Sick  Children,  Great  Ormond 
St.  (see  p.  275);  North  Eastern,  Hackney  Road*,  Belgrave  Hospital,  1  Clapham 
Road,  S.W.;  Evelina  Hospital,  Soathwark  Bridge  Road,  S.E. ;  Yictoria 
Hospital,  Tite  St.,  Chelsea. 

University  Settlements.  These  residential  colonies ,  which  are 
intended  to  hring  the  knowledge  and  culture  of  the  educated  classes 
Into  direct  contact  with  the  needs  and  problems  of  the  poor,  for 
the  benefit  of  both,  are  Interesting  to  the  student  of  social  questions. 

The  oldest  and  perhaps  most  characteristic  example  is  Toynhee  Hail 
(p.  144).  Institutions  of  a  similar  kind,  some  of  which  are  connected 
with  partiealar  religious  bodies  and  more  or  less  missionary  in  their  aims, 
are:  Oxford  House  (PJ.  B,52),  Mape  St.,  Bethnal  Green  Road  (Church  of 
England):  Browning  Settlement  (PI.  G,  37),  York  Street,  Walworth  (Congrega- 
tional); Mansfield  House,  89  Barkine  Road,  Canning  Town;  Bermondsey 
Settlement,  Farncombe  St.  (PI.  R,  45,  49),  Jamaica  Road  (Methodist) ;  Passmore 
Edwards  Settlement,  Tavistock  Place  (Pi.  B,  28),  Bloomsbury;  Cambridge 
House,  131  Camberwell  Road,  S.E.  (PI.  G,  40,  39);  Neioman  House,  Kenning- 
ton  Park  Road  (PJ.  G,  34,  33;  Roman  Catholic);  Chalfont  House,  20  Queers 
Square  (Society  of  Friends).  —  The  Women's  University  Settlement,  45  Nelson 
Square  (Pi.  R,34),  Blackfriars  Road,  Cheltenham  College  Settlement,  OldKicholl 
Street  (PI.  B,  48),  Shoreditch,  St.  Margaret's  House,  21  OidfortRoad,  Bethnal 
Green,  the  Canning  Town  Women^s  Settlement,  461  Barkiog  Road,  the  Hoxton 
Settlement,  280  Bleyton  Street,  Nelson  Street,  eic,  are  similar  institutions 
for  women. 

Here,  too,  may  be  mentioned  the  Bowton  Houses,  a  series  of  'Poor 
Han's  Hotels'  (chief  ofdce,  7  Little  CoUege  St.,  Westminster).  The  first 
of  these  was,  on  the  late  Lord  Rowton's  initiative,  opened  at  Vauzhall  in 
1893  and  contains  484  beds.  It  has  been  followed  by  similar  institutions  at 
King's  Cross  (964  beds),  Newington  Butts  (1015  beds),  Hammersmith 
(800  beds),  WMtechapel  (816  beds),  snd  Camden  Town  (1103  beds).  The 
accommodation,  though  simple,  is  clean  and  not  uncomfortable ;  and  the 
charges  are  very  low  (cubicle,  with  use  of  day-rooms,  lavatories,  etc.. 
Id.  per  night  or  '6s.  6d.  per  week;  bedroom  Is.  per  night  or  bs.  per  week). 
The  Mills  Houses  at  New  York  (see  Baedeker's  United  States)  are  Wit  upon 
the  same  lines.  —  Peabody  Fund  and  Ouinness  Trust,  see  p.  117. 

The  London  County  Cooncil  owns  lodginjf-houses  for  men  in  Parker 
St.,  Drury  Lane  (346  bed.««)  and  at  Carrington  House,  Deptford  (802  beds), 
the  charge  at  each  being  6d.  per  night. 

Societies.  The  societies  foi  the  encouragement  of  industry, 
art,  and  science  in  London  are  extremely  numerous,  and  many  of 
them  possess  most  ample  endowments.    The  names  of  a  few  of  the 

74  18.   SOCIETIES. 

most  important  may  be  given  heie ,  some  of  them  being  described 
at  length  in  othei  paits  of  the  Handbook :  — 

Royal  Society y  Royal  Academy,  Society  of  Antiquofiea,  Oeolog- 
ieal  Society  f  Royal  Astronomical  Society,  Linnaean  Society,  Chem- 
ical Society,  British  Aaaoeiation  for  the  Advancement  of  Science,  British 
Academy  for  the  promotion  of  Historical,  Philosophical,  and  PhUo- 
logical  Studies,  aU  in  Bnrlington  House,  Piccadilly  (p.  264).  —  Royal 
Archaeological  Institute,  20  Hanover  Sq[uare.  —  Royal  College  of 
Physicians ,  12  Pall  Mall  East  (p.  163).  —  Royal  College  of  Surgeons, 
89-43  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields  (p.  207).  —  Royal  Geographical  Society^ 
1  Savile  Row,  Burlington  Gardens  (p.  266).  —  Royal  AgHeuUural 
Society,  16  Bedford  Square.  — >  Royal  Asiatic  Society,  22  Albemarle 
St.,  Piccadilly  (p.  266).  —  Royal  Society  of  Literature,  20  Hanoyex 
Square,  W.  —  Royal  College  of  Science ,  Exhibition  Road ,  South 
Kensingston  (p.  342).  —  Society  for  the  Encouragement  of  Arts, 
Manufactures,  and  Commerce,  generally  known  as  the  Society  of 
Arts  Cp.  161),  18  John  St.,  Adelphi,  Strand.  —  Royal  Academy  of 
Music,  4  Tenterden  St.,  Hanover  Square  (p.  268).  —  Royal  College 
of  Music,  Prince  Consort  Road,  South  Kensington  (p.  340).  —  Trinity 
College  (music  and  arts),  13  Mandeville  Place,  Manchester  Square 
(p.  270).  —  Ouildhall  School  of  Music,  John  Carpenter  St.,  E.C. 
(p.  127).  —  Heralds'  ColUge,  Queen  Victoria  St.  (p.  130).  —  In- 
stitute of  Civil  Engineers,  25  Great  George  St.,  Westminster  (p.  216). 
—  Institution  of  Mechanical  Engineers,  Storey's  Gate  (p.  323).  — 
Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects,  9  Conduit  St.,  W.  (good  col- 
lection of  books  on  architecture).  —  Royal  Sanitary  Institute  (with 
Parkes  Museum  of  Hygiene,  p.  269),  74a  Margaret  St.,  Cavendish 
Square.  —  Royal  Institution,  21  Albemarle  St.,  Piccadilly  (p.  266). 
Popular  lectures  on  science,  art,  and  literature  are  delivered 
here  on  Friday  evenings  during  the  Season  (adm.  by  a  member's 
order).  Six  lectures  for  children,  illustrated  by  experiments,  are 
given  after  Christmas.  —  London  School  of  Economics  and  Poli- 
tical Science,  Clare  Market  (p.  210).  —  London  School  of  EtUce 
and  Social  Philosophy ,  Passmore  Edwards  Settlement ,  Tavistock 
Place,  Bloomsbury  (p.  273).  —  Society  of  Authors,  39  Old  Queen 
St.,  Storey's  Gate,  S.W. 

A  very  fall  list  of  Societies  and  Institutions  in  London  will  be  found 
in  Whitaker^s  Almanack  (p.  xxxvi). 

The  Clubs  are  chiefly  devoted  to  social  purposes.  Most  of  the 
club-houses  at  the  West  End,  particularly  those  in  or  near  Pall  Mall, 
are  very  handsome,  and  admirably  fitted  up,  affording  every  possible 
comfort.  To  a  bachelor  in  particular  his  *club'  is  a  most  serviceable  in- 
stitution. Members  are  admitted  by  ballot,  but  candidates  are  reject- 
ed by  a  certain  small  proportion  of  'black  balls*  or  dissentient  votes. 
The  entrance  fee  varies  from  il.  is,  to  42^.,  and  the  annual  subscrip- 
tion is  from  \l.  Is.  to  122. 128.  The  introduction  of  guests  by  a  mem- 
ber is  allowed  in  most,  but  not  in  all  of  the  clubs.  The  cuisine  is  usu- 

18.  CLUBS.  75 

ally  admirable.  The  wine  and  viands,  wUch  are  told  at  little  more 
than  coat  price,  often  attain  a  pitch  of  perfection  unexcelled  by  the 
most  elaborate  and  expensive  restaurants. 

We  append  a  roughly  classified  list  of  the  most  important  clubs : — 

Folitioal.  —  GoHasBVATivK :  Cartton,  94  Pall  Mall,  the  premier  Conser- 
vative Club  (1800  members) $  CUjfCarUWy  24  St.  8within*s  Lane;  ConttrvaHv 
Club,  74  St.  James's  St.  (ISOO  members)}  ConttiMional^  Korthumberland 
Ayenue  (6600  members);  Junior  CarUon,  90-36  Pall  Kali  (2100  members); 
JwUor  Contervaitve,  43  Albemarle  St.  (6600  members);  Junior  Conttittt- 
tional^  101  Piccadilly  (6600  members);  Primrose^  4  Park  Place,  St.  James's 
(5000  members);  8i.  Stephen:*,  1  Bridge  St.,  Westminster.  —  Libbral: 
Brooks's,  60  St.  James's  St.  (Whiff  clab);  dtp  Liberal  Club,  Walbrook; 
Devonshire,  60  St.  James's  St.  (1300  members):  National  Liberal,  White- 
hall Place  (6000 members);  New  R^orm  Club,  lOAdelphl  Terrace;  Reform, 
104  Pall  Mall,  the  premier  Liberal  Club  (1400  members).  —  The  8t,  James's 
Chib,  106  Piccadilly,  is  for  the  diplomatic  service  (660  members).  —  The 
ITnited  Empire  Chtb,  117  Piccadilly,  is  for  tariff  reformers. 

Military  and  Naval  and  University  Clubs.  —  Armif  and  Nawji  Club,  36 
Pall  Mall  (2400  members) ;  ^ttft/tory  Forces,  Whitehall  Cuurt,  S.W. ;  Cavakry, 
127  Piccadilly;  City  UnivorsU^,  60  CornhiU;  Bast  India  United  Service,  16 
St.  James's  Square  (2600  members) ;  Onards'  Club,  70  Pall  Mall ;  Junior 
Armif  and  Navy,  10  St.  James's  St.  (3000  members);  Junior  Naval  and 
Jfilitary,  97  Piccadilly  ;/«n<or  UniUd  Service,  11  Charles  St.  (3000  members); 
Naval  and  Military,  94  Piccadilly  (2q(X)  members) ;  New  Oxford  and  Cambridge, 
68  Pall  Mall ;  Nem  (hUversity,  67  St.  James's  St. ;  Oxford  and  Cambridge,  71-76 
Pall  Mall;  tMted  Service^  116  Pall  Mall  (1600  members;  members  must  not 
hold  lower  rank  than  major  in  the  army  or  commander  in  the  navy) ;  United 
University,  1  Suffolk  Street. 

Literary,  Dramatic,  Artistic  Olubs,  etc.  —  Arts  Club,  40  Dover  St., 
Piccadilly;  Arundei,  1  Adelphi  Terrace.  —  Athenaeum  aub,  107  PaU  Mall, 
the  club  of  the  Merati ;  1300  members.  (Distinguished  strangers  visiting 
London  may  be  elected  honorary  members  of  the  Atheneenm  during  their 
temporary  residence  in  London.)  —  Authors',  4  Whitehall  Court,  S.W.; 
Burlington  Fine  ArU  Club,  17  Savile  Bow ;  Camera,  38  Charing  Cross  Road ; 
Criekton,  89  King  St.,  Covent  G^arden;  Carrick  0M>,  18  and  16  Garrick  St., 
Covent  (harden,  for  literary  men  and  actors  (660  members) ;  Green  Room,  46 
Leicester  Square;  0.  P.  Club,  Piazza,  Covent  Garden;  Playgoers',  6  Clement's 
Inn;  Preu  Club,  7  Wine  Office  Court,  Fleet  St.;  Royal  Societies'  Club,  63 
St.  James's  St.  (1700  members);  Savage  Club,  6  Adelphi  Terrace;  Yorick, 
29  Bedford  St.,  W.C. 

Sporting  Olnba.  —  Alpine  Club,  23  Savile  Bow ;  AutomobUe,  119  Piccadilly 
(over  3000  members ;  about  to  remove  to  the  old  War  Office  in  Pall  Mall, 

S262);  Badminton,  100  Piccadilly  (1(X)0  members;  sporting  and  coaching); 
aths  Club,  34  Dover  St.  and  (for  ladies)  16  Berkeley  St.  (for  swimming, 
etc.;  3000  members,  including  600  ladies);  Golfers',  2a  Whitehall  Court; 
Isthmicm,  106  Piccadilly;  Kennel  Club,  7  Grafton  St.,  W. ;  Motor,  Coventry 
St.,  W.;  National  Sporting  Club,  43  King  St.,  Covent  Garden;  Nimrod,  12 
St.  James's  Square;  JMnee's,  Knightsbridge  (rackets  and  tennis,  skating); 
Queen's,  Weei  Kensington  (tennis,  rackets,  etc.);  Royal  London  Yacht,  2 
Savile  Bow;  Royal  Thames  Yacht,  7  Albemarle  St.;  Sports.  8  St.  James's 
Square;  Turf,  85  Piccadilly  (whist  and  other  card  games);  Victoria,  18 
Wellington  St.,  Strand.  —  Hurlingham  Club,  see  p.  388;  Ranelagh  Club,  see 
p.  386.  —  Comp.  pp.  61-56. 

Social  and  General  Olubs.  —  Albemarle,  13  Albemarle  St.  (about  to  re- 
move to  37  Dover  St.),  for  ladies  and  gentlemen  (800  members);  Almack's,  30 
Berkeley  St.,  W.;  Arthur's,  69  St.  James's  St.;  Australasian,  24  St.  Mary 
Axe,  "£,.0.',  Bachelors',  8  Hamilton  Place;  Blenheim,  12  St.  James's  Square; 
Boodle's,  SB  St.  James's  St.  (chiefly  for  country  gentlemen) ;  CaHedonian,  SO 
Charles  St.,  S.W. ;  CiJly  Athenaeum,  Angel  Court,  E.G.;  City  of  London,  19  Old 
Broad  St.,  City;  Cocoa  Tree,  6)  St.  James's  St. ;  Colonial  Club,  Whitehall  Court, 

76  19.    GENERAL  HINTS. 

Charing  Gross;  Eccentric^  21  Shaftesbury  Ayennet  Oemum  Athenatum,  93 
Mortimer  St.;  Gruham^  1  Gresham  Place,  City;  Orotvmor^  68a  Piccadilly 
(3000  members);  Junior  Athenaeum,  116  Piccadilly;  Martborouffh,  63  Pall 
Hall ;  National,  i  Whitehall  Gardens ;  New,  4  Grafton  St. ;  Orientai,  18  Hanover 
Square;  Orleans,  29  King  St.,  St.  Jamea's  (admits  ladies  as  guests) ;  Portland^ 
OSt.  Jamea's  Square  (whist);  PraWt,  14  Park  Place,  S.W.;  Raleigh,  16  Re- 
gent St.;  SaviU  Cktb,  107  Piccadilly,  W. ;  Sesame,  28  Dover  St.,  for  ladies 
and  gentlemen  (1150  members);  Thatched  House,  86  St.  Jameses  St.;  Trav- 
ellers", 106  Pall  Hall  (800  members;  each  member  must  have  travelled  at 
least  1000  miles  from  London);  Union  Club,  Trafalgar  Square,  comer  of 
Cockspur  St. ;  Wellington,  1  Grosvenor  Place;  ir«f»n<rM<«r, 3  Whitehall  Court ; 
White's  Club,  37  St.  James's  St.;  Whitehall  Club,  Whitehall  Court,  S.W. ; 
Windham  Club,  13  St.  James's  Square. 

Ladies'  Glubt.  —  Alexandra,  12  Grosvenor  St.  (830  members) ;  Alliance, 
37Clarges  St. ;  Ladies^  Army  and  Navy,  2  Burlington  Gardens;  Ladies*  Athe- 
naeum, a  Dover  St. ;  Ladies'  Empire,  69  Grosvenor  St. ;  Empress,  35  Dover  St. ; 
Qreen  Park,  10  Grafton  St. ;  Grosvenor  Crescent,  15  Grosvenor  Crescent;  Ladies^ 
Imperial,  17  Dover  St. ;  Lyceum,  128  Piccadilly;  New  Century,  Hay  Bill  Lodge, 
Hay  Hill,  Berkeley  Square ;  New  County,  21  Hanover  Square;  New  Victorian, 
30  Sackville  St. ;  Pioneer,  6  Grafton  St. ;  Sandringham,  38  Dover  St. ;  Ladies^ 
University,  4  George  St.,  Hanover  Square;  Writers',  10  Norfolk  St.,  Strand.  — 
Society  of  American  Women  in  London,  5a  Pall  Mali  East.  —  The  Albemarle,  the 
Sesame,  and  the  Baths  Clubs  (see  p.  75  and  above)  are  for  ladies  and  gentlemen. 

The  Royal  Colonial  Institute,  Northumberland  Avenue,  founded  in  1863 
for  the  purpose  of  'providing  a  place  of  meeting  for  all  gentlemen  con- 
nected with  the  Colonies  and  British  India'  (3800  members),  offers  many 
of  the  advantages  of  a  good  club.  —  The  American  Society  in  London  (141 
Southampton  Row,  W.  C.)  has  for  its  object  *lhe  promotion  of  patriotic 
and  social  life  amongst  Americans  residing  in  London,  and  the  fostering 
of  the  sentiments  of  mutual  respect  and  affection,  which  bind  together  the 
peoples  of  America  and  Great  Britain'.  —  The  Foreign  Missions  Club,  149 
Highbury  New  Park^  is  intended  for  missionaries  and  those  interested  in 
their  work. 

19.  General  Hints. 

Some  of  the  following  remarks  may  be  deemed  Buperfluous  by 
many  readers  of  this  Handbook ;  but  a  few  observations  on  English 
or  London  peculiarities  may  not  be  unacceptable  to  the  American, 
the  English-speaking  foreigner,  or  the  provincial  risitor. 

In  England  Sunday ,  as  is  well  known,  is  observed  as  a  day  of 
rest  and  of  public  worship.  Shops,  places  of  amusement,  and  the 
City  restaurants  are  closed  the  whole  day,  while  other  restaurants 
are  open  from  1  to  3,  and  from  6  to  11  p.m.  only.  Many  museums 
and  galleries,  however,  are  now  opened  on  Sun.  (see  p.  82).  Many 
places  of  business  are  closed  from  1,  2,  or  3  p.m.  on  Saturday  till 
Monday  morning.  Among  these  are  all  the  banks  and  Insurance 
offices  and  practically  all  the  wholesale  warehouses. 

Like  *a'ii  vousplatV  in  Paris,  Hf  you  please  or  ^please'  is  generally 
used  in  ordering  refreshments  at  a  caf^  or  restaurant,  oi  in  making 
any  request.  The  English  forms  of  politeness  are,  however,  by  no 
means  so  minute  or  ceremonious  as  the  French.  For  example,  the 
hat  Is  usually  raised  to  ladies  only,  and  is  worn  in  public  places, 
such  as  shops,  caf^s,  music-halls,  and  museums.   It  should,  how- 

19.  GENERAL  HINTS.  77 

ever,  be  removed  ia  the  presence  of  ladies  in  a  hotel-lift  (oleyator). 
—  The  fashionable  hour  for  paying  visits  In  London  is  between  4 
and  6  p.m.  The  proper  mode  of  delivering  a  letter  of  Introdaction 
is  in  person,  along  with  the  bearer  s  visiting-card  and  address;  bnt 
when  this  is  rendered  Inconvenient  by  the  greatness  of  distance  or 
other  canse,  the  letter  may  be  sent  by  post,  accompanied  by  a 
polite  explanation. 

The  usual  dinner  hour  of  the  upper  classes  varies  from  7  to  8 
or  even  9  p.m.  A  common  form  of  invitation  is  *eight,  for  half- 
past  eight',  in  which  case  the  guest  should  arrive  not  later  than 
the  latter  hour.  Gentlemen  remain  at  table ^  over  their  wine,  for  a 
short  time  after  the  ladles  have  left. 

Foreigners  may  often  obtain,  through  their  ambassadors,  per- 
mission to  visit  private  collections  which  are  not  open  to  the  or- 
dinary English  tourist. 

We  need  hardly  caution  newcomers  against  the  artiflces  of  pick- 
pockets and  the  wiles  of  impostors,  two  fraternities  which  are  very 
numerous  in  London.  It  Is  even  prudent  to  avoid  speaking  to 
strangers  in  the  street.  All  information  desired  by  the  traveller 
may  be  obtained  from  one  of  the  policemen,  of  whom  about  16,000 
(about  260  mounted)  perambulate  the  streets  of  the  Metropolis.  If 
a  policeman  Is  not  readily  found,  application  may  be  made  to  a 
postal  letter  carrier,  to  a  commisslonnaire,  or  at  a  neighbouring 
shop.  A  considerable  degree  of  caution  and  presence  of  mind  is 
often  requisite  in  crossing  a  crowded  thoroughfare,  and  In  entering 
or  alighting  from  a  train  or  omnibus.  The  ^rule  of  the  road'  for 
foot-passengers  In  busy  streets  is  to  keep  to  the  right  Poor  neigh- 
bourhoods should  be  avoided  after  nightfall.  Strangers  are  also  warned 
against  Mock  Auctions^  and  indeed  should  neither  buy  nor  sell  at 
any  auction  without  the  aid  of  an  experienced  friend  or  a  trust- 
worthy broker. 

*Bule  of  the  road'  for  vehicles,  see  p.  63. 

Addbbssbs  of  all  kinds  may  be  found  In  KtUxps  Post  Office 
Directory^  a  thick  volume  of  3500  pages,  which  may  be  seen  at  all 
the  hotels  and  caf^s  and  at  most  of  the  principal  shops.  The  ad- 
dresses of  residents  at  the  "West  End  and  other  suburbs  may  also 
be  obtained  from  Boyle  8  Court  Guide,  Webster  s  Royal  Red  Book, 
the  Royal  Blue  Book,  or  Kelly's  Suburban  Directory,  and  those  of 
city  men  and  firms  in  Collingridges  City  Directory.  —  Information 
about  those  who  are  prominent  In  politics,  literature,  art,  etc.  as 
well  as  about  the  celebrities  of  *Soclety'  may  be  obtained  in  Who's 
Who,  an  annual  publication. 

A  useful  adjunct  to  most  houses  In  the  central  parts  of  London 
la  a  Cab  Whistle,  one  blast  upon  which  summons  a  four-wheeler, 
two  a  hansom,  three  a  taxicab. 

Among  the  characteristic  sights  of  London  is  the  Lord  Mayor's 
Show  (9th  Nov.),  or  the  procession  in  which  —  maintaining  an 


ancient  and  picturesque ,  though  uEcless  custom  —  the  newly- 
elected  Lord  Mayor  moTes,  amid  great  pomp  and  ceremony,  through 
the  streets  from  the  City  to  the  Courts  of  Justice,  in  order  to  take 
the  oath  of  office.  It  is  followed  by  the  great  dinner  in  the  Guild- 
hall (p.  108). 

20.   Preliminary  Bamble. 

Nothing  is  better  calculated  to  afford  the  traveller  some  insight 
into  the  labyrinthine  topography  of  London,  to  enable  him  to 
ascertain  his  bearings,  and  to  dispel  the  first  oppressive  feeling  of 
solitude  and  insignificance,  than  a  drive  through  the  principal 
quarters  of  the  town. 

The  outside  of  an  omnibus  affords  a  much  better  view  than  a 
cab  (fares,  see  p.  18),  and,  moreover,  has  the  advantage  of  cheap- 
ness. If  the  driver,  beside  whom  the  stranger  should  sit,  happens 
to  be  obliging  (and  a  small  gratuity  will  generally  make  him  so), 
he  will  afford  much  useful  information  about  the  buildings,  monu- 
ments ,  and  other  sights  on  the  route ;  but  care  should  be  taken 
not  to  distract  his  attention  in  crowded  parts.  Bven  without  such 
assistance,  however,  our  plan  of  the  dty,  if  carefully  consulted, 
will  supply  all  necessary  information.  If  ladies  are  of  the  party,  an 
open  Fly  (see  p.  19)  is  the  most  comfortable  conveyance. 

Taking  Hyde  Park  Comer,  at  the  W.  end  of  Piccadilly,  as  a  con- 
venient starting-point,  we  mount  one  of  the  numerous  omnibuses 
which  ply  to  the  Bank  and  London  Bridge  and  traverse  nearly 
the  whole  of  the  quarters  lying  on  the  N.  bank  of  the  Thames. 
Entering  Piccadilly,  we  first  pass,  on  the  right,  the  Green  Park, 
beyond  which  rises  Buckingham  Palace  (p.  323).  A  little  farther  to 
the  £.,  in  the  distance,  we  descry  the  campanile  of  Westminster  Ca- 
thedral (p.  250)  and  the  towers  of  Westminster  Abbey  (p.  225)  and 
the  Houses  of  Parliament  (p.  217).  At  the  end  of  the  Green  Park, 
on  the  light,  is  the  Hdtel  Ritz}  farther  on,  on  the  left,  rises  the 
massive  new  Piccadilly  Hotel.  In  Regent  Street  on  the  right,  at 
some  distance  off,  rises  the  York  Column  (p.  261).  Passing  Pic- 
cadilly Circus  with  the  Shaftesbury  Memorial  (p.  266),  we  drive  to 
the  right  through  the  Haymarket,  near  the  end  of  which  are  the 
Haymarket  Theatre  (p.  45)  on  the  left,  and  His  Majesty's  Theatre 
(p.  46)  and  the  Carlton  Hotel  on  the  right.  We  now  come  to  Tra- 
falgar Square,  with  the  Nelson  Monument  (p.  162)  and  the  Na- 
tional Gallery  (p.  165).  On  the  right,  in  the  direction  of  White- 
hall, we  observe  the  old  statue  of  Charles  I.  (p.  164).  Passing 
Charing  Cross,  with  the  large  Charing  Cross  Hotel  on  the  right,  we 
enter  the  Strand,  where  the  Adelphi, Vaudeville,  Lyceum,  Gaiety,  and 
other  theatres  lie  on  our  left,  and  the  Savoy  and  Terry's  theatres  on 
our  right  (pp.  44-47).  On  the  left  is  Southampton  Street,  leading  to 
Covent  Garden  (p.  210),  and  on  the  right  Wellington  Street,  with  Som- 


erset  House  (p.  159)  neai  the  corner,  leading  to  Waterloo  Bridge 
(p.  160).  Near  the  middle  of  the  Strand  we  reach  the  church  of  St. 
Mary  le  Strand  (p.  159),  to  the  N.  of  which  lie  Aldwych  and  Kings- 
way  leading  to  Holhom  (p.  158),  and  farther  on  is  St.  Clement  Danes 
(p.  157).  On  the  left  we  see  the  extensive  Law  Courts  (p.  155). 
Passing  the  site  of  Temple  Bar  (see  p.  155),  we  now  enter  the  City 
proper  (p.  xxix).  On  the  right  of  Fleet  Street  are  several  entrances  to 
the  Temple  (p.  152),  while  on  the  left  rises  the  church  of  St.  Dun- 
stan  in  the  West  (p.  149).  At  the  end  of  Farringdon  Street,  diverg- 
ing  on  the  left,  we  notice  the  Holbom  Viaduct  Bridge  (p.  98) ;  on 
the  right,  in  New  Bridge  Street,  is  the  Ludgate  Hill  Station.  We 
next  drive  up  Ludgate  Hill,  pass  St.  Paul's  Cathedral  (p.  85)  on 
the  left,  and  turn  to  the  left  to  Cheapside,  noticing  the  monument 
of  Sir  Robert  Peel  (p.  95),  to  the  N.  of  which  is  the  General  Post 
Office  (p.  95).  In  Cheapside  we  observe  Bow  Church  (p.  107)  on 
the  right,  and  near  it  the  OuUdhall  (p.  108)  at  the  end  of  King 
Street  on  the  left.  Quitting  Cheapside,  we  enter  the  Poultry,  in 
which  the  Mansion  House  (p.  112)  rises  on  the  right.  Opposite  the 
Mansion  House  is  the  Bank  of  England  (p.  113),  and  before  us  is 
the  Royal  Exchange  (p.  115),  with  Wellington's  Statue  in  front. 
We  then  drive  through  King  William  Street,  with  the  Statue  of 
William  IV.,  observing  the  Monument  (p.  123)  on  the  left. 

We  now  quit  the  omnibus,  and  walk  along  Lower  Thames  Street, 
passing  Billingsgate  (p.  124)  and  the  Custom  House  (p.  124),  to  the 
Tower  (p.  131).  We  then  cross  the  Tower  Bridge  (p.  140)  and 
walk  back  along  Tooley  Street ,  on  the  S.  side  of  the  river,  to  St 
Saviour's  Church  (p.  375)  and  London  Bridge  (p.  122).  Hence  we  may 
reach  Oxford  Circus  by  omnibus  via  Cheapglde  and  Holborn  or,  if 
we  are  fortunate  enough  to  find  the  steamers  plying  (comp.  p.  38), 
we  may  ascend  the  river  by  steamer,  passing  under  the  Cannon 
Street  Station  Railway  Bridge,  Southwark  Bridge  (with  St.  Paul's 
rising  on  the  right),  the  Chatham  and  Dover  Bridge,  and  Black- 
friars  Bridge.  Between  Blackfriars  Bridge  and  Westminster  runs 
the  Victoria  Embankment  (p.  125).  On  the  right  are  the  Temple 
(p.  152)  and  Somerset  House  (p.  159).  The  steamer  then  passes 
under  Waterloo  Bridge  (p.  160),  beyond  which,  to  the  right,  on 
the  Embankment,  stands  Cleopatra's  Needle  (p.  126),  with  the 
huge  Savoy  and  Cecil  Hotels  rising  behind.  We  alight  at  Charing 
Cross  Pier,  adjacent  to  the  Charing  Cross  Railway  Bridge,  and 
re-embark  in  a  Chelsea  Boat,  which  will  convey  us  past  Montague 
House  (p.  215),  New  Scotland  Yard  (p.  216),  Westminster  Bridge 
(p.  216),  and  the  Houses  of  Parliament  (p.  217),  behind  which 
is  Westminster  Abbey  (p.  225).  Farther  on  appears  the  campanile 
of  Westminster  Cathedral  (p.  250).  On  the  left  is  the  Albert 
Embankment,  with  St.  Thomas's  Hospital  (p.  379) ;  and,  farther  on, 
Lambeth  Palace  (p.  379)  with  the  Lollards'  Tower.  Passing  under 
Lambeth  Bridge,  we  see  the  Tate  Gallery  (p.  251)  on  the  right. 


We  then  reach  Vauxhall  Bridge.  From  Yaiixhall  the  traveller  may 
walk  or  take  a  tramway-car  to  Victoria  Station,  whence  an  omnibus 
will  convey  him  to  Oxford  Street. 

[Failing  the  steamer,  we  proceed  on  foot  from  the  N.  end  of 
London  Bridge  vil  Upper  Thames  Street  to  Blackfriars  Bridge. 
Thence  a  tramway  runs  along  the  Victoria  Embankment  to  West- 
minster Bridge,  beyond  which  the  excursion  must  be  finished  on 
foot  or  by  cab.  Passing  between  the  Houses  of  Parliament,  on  the 
left,  and  St.  Margaret's  Church  (p.  224)  and  Westminster  Abbey 
on  the  right,  we  follow  Abingdon  Street  and  Millbank  through  a 
squalid  district  now  undergoing  Improvement  to  Lambeth  Bridge 
and  thence  skirt  the  river,  passing  the  Tate  Gallery,  to  Vauxhall 

Those  who  have  time  for  a  longer  excursion  may  proceed  from 
the  Tower  up  Seething  Lane  to  the  Fenchurch  Street  Station  of  the 
London  ^  Blackwall  Railway,  whence  a  train  carries  them  to  Black- 
wall.  Thence  after  inspecting  Blackwall  Tunnel  (p.  143)  we  return, 
if  possible  by  steamer  (p.  38),  to  London  Bridge,  and  proceed  as 

In  order  to  obtain  a  view  of  the  quarters  on  the  right  (S.)  bank 
of  the  Thames,  or  Surrey  side,  we  take  a  light-green  Atkis  omnibus 
(not  a  City  Atlas)  at  Oxford  Circus  (Plan  R,  23),  and  drive  through 
Regent  Street,  Regent's  Quadrant,  Piccadilly  Circus,  Regent  Street 
(continued),  Waterloo  Place  (with  the  Crimean  Monument  and  the 
York  Column),  Pall  Mall  East,  and  Charing  Cross  to  (right) Whitehall. 
Here  we  observe,  on  the  left,  the  War  Office  (p.  212)  and  White- 
hall Banqueting  Hall  (p.  214),  and  on  the  right  the  Admiralty,  the 
Horse  Guards  (p.  212),  and  the  Government  Offices.  Our  route  next 
lies  through  Parliament  Street,  beyond  which  we  pass  Westminster 
Abbey  (p.  226)  and  the  Houses  of  Parliament  (p.  217)  on  the  right. 
The  omnibus  then  crosses  Westminster  Bridge  (p.  216),  with  the 
Victoria  Embankment  on  the  left,  and  the  Albert  Embankment  and 
St.  Thomas's  Hospital  on  the  right.  Traversing  Westminster  Bridge 
Road,  we  observe,  on  the  right,  Christ  Church  (p.  881).  In  Lam- 
beth Road  we  perceive  the  Church  of  St.  George  (p.  381),  the 
Roman  Catholic  Cathedral  of  Southwark,  and,  opposite  to  it,  Beth- 
lehem Hospital  (p.  331).  Farther  on  we  reach  St.  George's  Circus, 
with  Its  clock-tower  (p.  382).  A  little  to  the  S.  of  this  point,  we 
arrive  at  the  Elephant  and  Castle  (on  the  right),  where  we  alight, 
to  resume  our  journey  on  a  blue  Waterloo  omnibus.  This  takes  ua 
through  London  Road  to  Waterloo  Road,  to  the  right  of  which 
are  the  Surrey  Theatre  (Blackfriars  Road),  Magdalen  Hospital,  and 
the  Royal  Victoria  Coflfee  Music  Hall  (p.  48),  and  on  the  left  the 
South  Western  Railway  Station.  We  then  cross  Waterloo  Bridge 
fp.  160),  drive  along  Wellington  Street,  passing  Somerset  House 
(p.  159),  and  turn  to  the  left  Into  the  Strand,  which  leads  us  to 
Charing  Cross. 

21.    DISPOSITION  OP  TIME.  81 

Our  first  cariosity  having  thus  been  gratified  by  a  general  survey 
of  London,  we  may  now  devote  our  attention  to  its  collections, 
monuments,  and  biddings  in  detail. 

21.  Disposition  of  Timo. 

Tbe  most  indefatigable  sigbt-seex  will  take  at  least  three  weeks 
to  obtain  even  a  superficial  acquaintance  with  London  and  its  objects 
of  interest.  A  plan  of  operations,  prepared  beforehand,  will  aid  him 
in  regulating  his  movements  and  economising  his  time.  Fine  days 
should  be  spent  in  visiting  the  docks,  parks,  gardens,  and  environs. 
Excursions  to  the  country  around  London,  in  particular,  should  not 
be  postponed  to  the  end  of  one's  sojourn,  as  otherwise  the  setting 
in  of  bad  weather  may  altogether  preclude  a  visit  to  the  many 
beautiful  spots  in  the  neighbourhood.  Fuller  particulars  of  many 
excursions  which  can  be  made  from  London  in  the  course  of  a  long 
day,  though  hardly  included  in  its  environs,  will  be  found  in  Bae- 
deker's Handbook  to  Oreat  Britain,  Rainy  days  had  better  be  devoted 
to  the  galleries  and  museums. 

The  following  list  shows  the  days  and  hours  when  the  principal 
collections  and  other  sights  are  accessible.  In  winter  (Oct.  to  April 
inclusive)  the  collections  close  at  the  earlier  hours  shown  in  the 
accompanying  table  ^  in  summer  at  the  later  hours.  The  morning 
and  late  afternoon  hours  may  be  appropriately  spent  in  visiting  the 
principal  churches,  many  of  which  are  open  the  whole  day,  or  in 
walking  in  the  parks  or  in  the  Zoological  and  the  Botanical  Gardens, 
while  the  evenings  may  be  devoted  to  the  theatres.  The  best  time 
for  a  promenade  in  Regent  Street  or  Hyde  Park  is  between  6  and 
7  o'clock,  when  they  both  present  a  remarkably  busy  and  attractive 
scene.  When  the  traveller  happens  to  be  near  London  Bridge  (or  the 
Tower  Bridge)  he  should  take  the  opportunity  of  crossing  it  in  order 
to  obtain  a  view  of  the  Port  of  London  and  its  adjuncts,  with  its 
sea-going  vessels  arriving  or  departing,  the  Innumerable  river-craft 
of  all  sizes,  and  the  vast  traffic  In  the  docks.  A  trip  to  Gravesend 
(see  p.  389)  should  by  all  means  be  taken  in  order  to  obtain  a  proper 
view  of  the  shipping,  no  other  port  in  the  world  presenting  such 
a  sight. 

The  data  in  the  accompanying  table  (pp.  82,  83),  though  care- 
fully revised  down  to  1908,  are  liable  to  firequent  alteration.  The 
traveller  is,  therefore,  recommended  to  consult  one  of  the  principal 
London  newspapers  •  with  regard  to  the  sights  of  the  day.  Our  list 
does  not  include  parks,  gardens,  and  other  places  which,  on  all 
week-days  at  least,  are  open  to  the  public  gratis.  The  double  asterisks 
indicate  those  sights  which  should  on  no  account  be  omitted,  while 
those  next  in  importance  are  denoted  by  single  asterisks.  These 
indications,  in  conjunction  with  the  special  tastes  and  interests  of 
each  individual,  will  help  the  hurried  visitor  to  make  good  use  of 
Babdeskr*8  London.   15th  Edit.  6 



Carlyle'8  House  (p.  368)   .  .  . 

Charterhonse  (p.  103) 

Chelsea  Hospital  (p.  867)  .  .  . 
•Crystal  PaUce  (p.  400).  .  .  . 
•Dulwich  Gallery  (p.  897).  .  . 
Foundling  Hospital  (p.  274)  . 
Oreenwieh  HospiUl  (p.  892).  . 
Guildhall,  Picture  Gal.  (p.  110) 

— ,  Museum  (p.  110) 

•Hampton  Court  Palace  (p.  406) 
Imperial  Institute  (p.  841)  .  . 
•Kensington  Palace  (p.  828).  . 
•Kew  Gardens  (p.  418)  .... 
Leighton  House  (p.  339)    .   .  . 

Monument  (p.  123) 

Museum,  Bethnal  Green  (p.  146) 

— ,  ••British  (p.  290) 

— ,  Geological  (p.  268)  .... 
— ,  •Natural  History  (p.  842)  . 

— ,  Soane  (p.  206) 

— ,  «*South  Kensington  (p.  346) 

— ,  United  Service  (p.  214)  .   . 
♦•National  Gallery  (p.  165)  .  . 
• of  British  Art  (Tate  Gal- 
lery, p.  261)  

••-  Portrait  Gallery  (p.  197)  . 

•Parliament,  Houses  of  (p.  217) 

Royal  Academy,  Summer  £x- 

hib.  (pp.  60,  265) 

— ,  Winter  Bxhib.  (p.  60).  .  . 
^,  Gibson  and  Diploma  Gal. 

(pp.  50,  266) 

RoyalOollege  of  Surgeon8(p.207) 
"•St.  Paul's  Cathedral  (p.  86) . 
Society  of  Arts  (p.  161) .  .  .  . 
"Temple  Church  (p.  163)  .  .  . 
•Tower  (p.  131) 

**WAllace  Collection  (p.  276) 

••Westminster  Abbey  (p.  226) 

•Zoological  Gardens  (p.  286)  . 









2  till  dusk 

2  tiU  dusk 
2.30  till  dusk 

2  till  dusk 







(see  p.  286) 

10  till  dusk 
104, 5,  6 
10^1,  2-7 

10  till  dusk 

104,  6 
104,  5 

11  till  dusk 



)  104,  4.30, 
)  5,  5.30,  6 






10  till  dusk 
10-4,  5,  6 
10-1,  2-7 

10  till  dusk 

10-4, 5,  6 

11  till  dusk 
10-4, 5,  6 



10-4,  4.30,  6, 



10-4, 6, 6 


11-4,  5 


9  till  dusk 



104,5  • 


9  till  dusk 

9  till  dusk 


10  till  dusk 
104,  5,  6 
10-1,' 3-7 

10  till  dusk 



11  till  dusk 
8-6, 9-4 
10-4,  5, 6 



104,  4.30, 5, 

5.30,  6 


104, 6,  6 


114,  5 

114,  5,  6 

9  tUl  dusk 





9  till  dusk 
9  till  dusk 

9  till  dusk 





9  till  dusk 
9  till  dusk 






Admisaioii  free  except  when  other- 
wise stated. 

10  till  dusk 


10  till  dusk 

Admission  If.,  on  Sat.  6<l. 




Great  Hall  closed  12-3. 

10-1,  a-7 

10-1,  2-7 

10-1,  2-7 

10  till  dusk 

10  till  dusk 


Adm.  Is. 






Donation  expeeted. 




Mnsenm  and  Ghapel  closed  on  San. 











Gardens  open  daily  until  dusk. 







Closed  Good  Friday,  Christmas  Day. 




Hothouses  open  from  1  p.m. 

11  till  dusk 

11  till  dusk 


Adm.  Is.;  free  on  Sat. 




Adm.  3d. 


104, 5,  6 


Adm.  6<l.  on  Wed. ;  other  days  free. 




Some  galleries  close  at  4  or  6  p.m. 




Closed  from  10th  Aug.  to  10th  Sept. 



104,  4.30,  6, 

Also  on  Sat.  and  Hon.  till  8p.m.  from 

6.30,  6 



May  1st  to  July  15tii,  and  till  7  p.m. 
Arom  July  16tii  till  Aug.  81st. 




From  March  to  Aug.  inclusive;  from 
Sept.  to  Feb.  on  application. 




Adm.  Qd.  Tues.,Wed.,  Frid.;  otiier 
days  free.  Bxhib.  Gall,  always  free. 




Adm.  6<f. 




Adm.  6<l.  on  Thurs.  A  Frid. ;  closed 
on  Sun.  in  winter  (Kor.  to  March). 




Adm.  6d.  on  Tues.  A  Wed. ;  closed 
on  Sun.  in  winter. 




Adm.  6tf.  on  Thurs.  A  Frid. ;  closed 
on  Sun.  in  winter. 




Tickets  gratis. 




From  1st  Mon.  in  May  to  Ist  Mon. 
in  Aug.  Adm.  Is. 

9  till  doflk 

9  till  dUBk 

9  till  dusk 

From  1st  Mon.  in  Jan.  to  1st  Mon. 
in  Mar.  Adm.  Is. 







By  special  permission. 




Crypt  Qd.;  Whispering  Gallery  6d. 










Armoury  and  Crown  Jewels  6<l.  each  -, 
free  on  Mon.  A  Sat. 




Adm.  6d.  on  Tues.  A  Frid.  \  closed 
on  Sun.  in  winter. 

9  till  dusk 

9  tUl  dask 


Adm.  to  chapels  (after  10.30)  6d.  -, 
free  on  Mon.  A  Tues. 

9  till  du8k 

9  tiU  duBk 


Adm.  U,;  on  Mon.  6d. 



his  time.  The  movement  for  the  Sunday  opening  of  museums,  gal- 
leries, and  other  large  public  collections  has  recently  made  great 
strides  in  London;  and  that  day  need  no  longer  count  as  practically 
a  dki  non  in  the  trayeller's  itinerary. 


1.  St.  Paul's  Cathedral. 

The  City,  already  noticed  in  the  Introdnction  as  the  commercial 
centre  of  London,  has  sometimes  also  been  not  unaptly  termed  its 
capital.  In  the  yery  heart  of  it,  conspicnously  situated  on  a  slight 
eminence ,  stands  London's  most  prominent  building ,  *St.  Paul's 
Cathedral  (PI.  R,  39;  ///). 

Some  authorities  maintain  that  in  pagan  times  a  temple  of  Diana 
occupied  the  site  of  St.  Panics,  bat  Sir  Christopher  Wren  rejected  this 
idea.  Still  the  spot  most  at  least  have  been  one  of  some  sanctity,  to  judge 
from  the  cinerary  urns  and  other  vessels  found  here,  and  Wren  was  of 
9pinion,  from  remains  discovered  in  digging  the  foundations  of  the  present 
edifice,  that  there  had  been  a  charch  on  this  spot  built  by  Christians  in 
the  time  of  the  Romans,  and  demolished  by  the  Pagan  Saxons.  It  is 
believe^  to  have  been  restored  by  Ethelbert,  King  of  Kent,  about  A.D. 
610.  This  building  was  burned  down  in  961 ,  and  rebuilt  within  a  year. 
It  was  again  destroyed  by  fire  in  1087,  but  a  new  edifice  was  at  once 
begun,  though  not  completed  for  about  200  years.  This  church,  Old  St. 
Paulas,  was  590  ft.  long  (30  ft.  longer  than  Winchester  Cathedral,  now  the 
longest  church  in  England),  and  in  1816  was  famished  with  a  timber  spire, 
covered  with  lead,  4B0ft.  high  according  to  Wren^s  estimate,  though  earlier 
authorities  state  it  to  have  been  520  ft.  in  height  (i.;  8  ft.  higher  than 
Cologne  Cathedral).  The  spire  was  injured  by  lightning  in  1445,  but  was 
restored,  and  it  continued  standing  till  1561,  when  it  fell  a  prey  to  the 
flames.  The  church  itself  was  damaged  by  this  fire,  and  fell  into  a  very 
dilapidated  condition.  The  8.W.  tower  was  called  the  Lollards*  Tower 
(comp.  p.  379).  Before  the  building  of  the  Lady  Chapel,  which  was  con- 
secrated in  1340,  the  choir  had  been  adjoined  by  the  charch  of  St.  Faith; 
this  name  was  afterwards  applied  to  the  erypt  beneath  the  new  choir 
(comp.  p.  93),  which  was  used  by  the  congregation  on  the  demolition 
of  their  church.  Some  scanty  remains  of  the  old  chapter-house  and  cloisters 
may  be  seen  beside  the  S.  wall  of  the  present  nave;  and  close  to  the  N.E. 
angle  of  the  choir  are  the  foundations  of  the  celebrated  Cross  of  St.  Paul 
(Powle's  Cross),  where  sermons  were  preached,  papal  bulls  promulgated, 
heretics  made  to  recant,  and  witches  to  confess,  and  where  the  Pope's  con- 
demnation of  Luther  was  proclaimed  in  the  presence  of  Wolsey.  The  cross 
and  adjacent  pulpit  were  removed  by  order  of  parliament  in  1643. 

The  subterranean  portions  of  the  half-ruined  church  were  used  as  work- 
shops and  wine-cellars.  A  theatre  was  erected  against  one  of  the  outer 
walls,  and  the  nave  was  converted  into  a  public  promenade,  the  once 
famous  PauVs  Walk.  The  Protector  Somerset  (in  the  reign  of  Edward  VI.) 
went  so  far  as  to  employ  stones  from  the  ancient  edifice  in  the  con- 
strnction  of  his  palace  (Somerset  House,  p.  169).  In  the  reign  of  Charles  I. 
an  extensive  restoration  was  undertaken,  and  a  beautiful  portico  built  by 
Inigo  Jones.  The  Civil  War,  however,  put  an  end  to  this  work.  After 
the  Restoration,  when  the  cnurch  was  about  to  be  repaired,  its  remains 
were  destroyed  by  the  Great  Fire  of  1666  (p.  123),  though  the  ruinous  nave 
was  used  for  service  until  1673.  —  Among  the  numerous  historical  remi- 
niscences attaching  to  Old  St.  Paul's,  we  may  mention  that  it  was  the 
burial-place  of  a  long  series  of  illustrious  persons,  and  the  scene  of  Wy- 
cliffe^s  citation  for  heresy  in  1337,  and  of  the  burning  of  Tyndale's  Kew 
Testament  in  1527.  —  The  farm  of  Tillingham  in  Essex  has  belonged  to 
St.  Paul's  since  the  7th  cent.,  representing  perhaps  the  most  ancient  tennr^ 
in  the  conntry. 

86  1.    ST.  PAUL'S  CATHEDRAL.         The  City. 

The  present  clmicli,  designed  by  Sir  Christopher  Wren,  and 
begun  in  1675,  was  opened  foi  dlyine  senice  on  Dec.  2nd,  1697, 
and  completed  in  1710.  The  greater  part  of  the  cost  of  construction, 
which  may  be  estimated  at  about  850,000{.,  was  defrayed  by  a  tax 
on  coal  entering  the  port  of  London.  Being  thus  erected  from  public 
funds,  St.  PauVs,  unlike  other  cathedrals,  is  not  vested  in  the  Dean 
and  Chapter  but  in  three  trustees,  of  whom  the  Lord  Mayor  is  one, 
the  others  being  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  and  the  Bishop  of 
London,  Sir  Christopher  Wren  receiyed  during  the  building  of  the 
cathedral  a  salary  of  2002.  a  year. 

The  church,  which  resembles  St.  Peter's  at  Rome,  though  much 
smaller,  is  in  the  form  of  a  Latin  cross.  It  is  500  ft.  in  length  and 
118  ft.  broad,  and  the  transept  is  250  ft.  long.  The  inner  dome  is 
225  ft.,  the  outer,  from  the  payement  to  the  top  of  the  cross,  364  ft. 
in  height.  The  diameter  of  the  drum  beneath  the  dome  is  about 
112  ft,  of  the  dome  itself  102  ft.  (37  ft.  less  than  that  of  St.  Pe- 
ter's). In  the  original  model  the  plan  of  the  building  was  that  of 
a  Greek  cross,  haying  oyer  the  centre  a  large  dome,  supported  by 
eight  pillars ;  but  the  court  party,  which  was  fayourable  to  Roman 
Catholicism,  insisted  on  the  erection  of  the  cathedral  with  a  long 
naye  and  an  extensiye  choir,  suitable  for  the  Romish  ritual. 

The  church  is  so  hemmed  in  by  streets  and  houses  that  it  is 
difficult  to  find  a  point  of  yiew  whence  the  colossal  proportions  of 
the  building  can  be  properly  realised.  The  best  idea  of  the  ma« 
jestic  dome,  allowed  to  be  the  finest  known,  is  obtained  from  a 
distance,  e.g,  from  the  Thames  below  Blackfriars  Bridge  (view  from 
the  bridge  itself  now  somewhat  interfered  with).  St.  Paul's  is  the 
largest  church  in  Christendom  but  four,  viz,  St.  Peter's  at  Rome, 
and  the  Cathedrals  of  Milan,  Seville,  and  Florence. 

ExTEBiOK.  It  is  interesting  to  note  the  union  of  classic  details 
and  style  with  the  essentially  Gothic  structure  of  St.  Paul's.  It 
has  aisles  lower  than  the  nave  and  surmounted  by  a  triforium,  just 
as  in  regular  Gothic  churches.  But  the  triforium,  though  on  a  large 
scale,  is  not  shown  from  the  naye ;  while  the  lowness  of  the  aisles 
is  dissimulated  on  the  outside  by  mas  king-walls,  which  preserve  the 
classical  appearance  and  conceal  the  flying  buttresses.  Mr.  Somers 
Clarke,  however,  has  pointed  out  that  these  masking-walls  are  much 
more  solid  than  would  be  required  for  a  mere  screen  and  that  they 
are  of  structural  Importance  in  resisting  some  of  the  thrust  of  the 
dome.  The  West  Facade,  towards  Ludgate  Hill,  was  brought  better 
to  view  in  1873  by  the  removal  of  the  railing,  though  on  the 
three  other  sides  the  church  is  still  surrounded  by  high  and  heavy 
railings.  In  front  of  this  facade  rises  a  Statue  of  Queen  An,ne^ 
with  England,  France,  Ireland,  and  America  at  her  feet;  the 
present  statue,  erected  in  1886,  is  a  replica  of  the  original  by 
Bird  (1712).  An  inscription  in  the  pavement,  at  the  foot  of  the 
flight  of  .22  marble  steps   ascending  to  the  portals,  records  that 

The  City.         1.  BT.  PAUL'S  CATHEDRAL.  87 

Queen  Yictoria  here  retnmed  thanks  in  1897 ,  on  the  sixtieth  an- 
niyeisary  of  her  accession  to  the  throne.  The  facade,  180  ft.  in 
hieadth,  presents  a  donhle  portico,  the  lower  part  of  which  con- 
sists of  12  conpled  Corinthian  columns,  50  ft  high,  and  the  npper 
of  8  Composite  columns,  40  ft.  high.  On  the  apex  of  the  pediment 
above  the  second  row  of  columns,  which  contains  a  relief  of  the 
Oonrersion  of  St.  Paul  by  Birdj  rises  a  statue  of  St.  Paul  15  ft. 
in  height,  with  St.  Peter  and  St.  James  on  his  right  and  left.  On 
each  side  of  the  facade  is  a  eampaniU  tower,  222  ft.  in  height, 
with  statues  of  the  four  Eyangelists  at  the  angles.  The  one  on  the 
N.  side  contains  a  fine  peal  of  12  bells,  hung  in  1878,  and  the 
other  contains  the  largest  bell  in  England  ('Great  Paul*),  hung  in 
1882  and  weighing  more  than  16  tons.  Each  arm  of  the  transept 
is  terminated  by  a  semicircular  portico,  crowned  with  flye  statues 
of  the  Apostles,  by  Bird  (those  on  the  S.  are  copies  erected  in 
1900).  Oyer  the  S.  portico  is  a  phosnix,  with  the  inscription  'Re- 
surgam',  by  Cibber ;  oyer  the  N.  portico,  the  royal  arms.  In  reference 
to  the  former  it  is  related,  that,  when  the  position  and  dimensions 
of  the  great  dome  had  been  marked  out,  a  labourer  was  ordered  to 
bring  a  stone  from  the  rubbish  of  the  old  cathedral  to  be  placed 
as  a  guide  to  the  masons.  The  stone  which  he  happened  to  bring 
was  a  piece  of  a  grayestone  with  nothing  of  the  inscription  remain- 
ing saye  the  one  word  ^Resurgam'  (^I  shall  rise  again')  in  large 
letters.  At  the  E.  end  the  church  terminates  in  a  circular  projection 
or  apse.  The  balustrade,  about  9  ft.  high,  on  the  top  of  the  N.  and 
S.  walls  was  erected  contrary  to  the  wishes  of  Wren,  and  is  con- 
sidered by  modem  architects  a  mistake.  A  drum  in  two  sections, 
the  lower  embellished  with  Corinthian,  the  upper  with  Composite 
columns,  bears  the  finely-proportioned  double  Dome^  the  outer  part 
of  which  consists  of  wood  ooyered  with  lead.  The  Lantern  aboye  it 
is  supported  by  a  hollow  cone  of  brickwork  resting  upon  the  inner 
dome.  The  ball  and  cross  surmounting  the  lantern  were  placed  by 
Cookerell  in  1821  to  supersede  the  originals  by  Francis  Bird.  The 
ball  is  6  ft.  in  diameter,  and  can  hold  seyeral  persons  at  once. 

The  church  is  open  daily  from  9  a.xn.  to  5  p.m.  The  usual  Entbances 
are  on  the  W.  and  N.  The  monuments  in  the  nave  and  transepts  may  be 
inspected,  free  of  charge,  at  any  time,  except  during  divine  service, 
which  takes  place  daily  at  10  a.m.  (choral)  and  4  p.m.  (choral)  in  the 
choir,  and  on  Sundays  at  8  a.m.,  iO.SO  a.m.  (fine  music),  3.15  p.m.,  and 
7  p.m.  On  week-days  Holy  Communion  is  celebrated  at  8  a.m.  and  a 
short  sermon  preached  at  1.16  p.m.  in  St.  Dunstan's  chapel.  The  choir  is 
open  to  visitors  (free)  between  11  and  3.30  and  after  evening-service,  the 
entrance  being  by  the  gate  of  the  S.  ambulatory.  Tickets  admitting  to 
the  Library,  the  Whispering  Gallery,  and  the  Stone  Gallery  (6d.)  and  to 
the  *Crypt  and  Vaults  (6d.)  are  obtained  in  the  S.  transept.  Tickets  ad- 
mitting to  the  Golden  Gallery  (Is.)  and  to  the  Ball  (1«.)  are  obtained  from 
the  keeper  in  the  Stone  Gallery.  —  The  church  has  been  lighted  by  elec- 
tricity since  Easter,  1903. 

The  Intekiob  is  imposing  from  the  beauty  and  yastness  of  its 
proportions,  but  strikes  one  as  somewhat  bare.    Though  it  is  eyi^ 

88  1.    ST.  PAUL'S  CATHEDRAL.         The  CUy, 

dent  from  the  care  with  irhioh  the  caryed  stone  enrichments  are 
executed  that  Wren  did  not  contemplate  decorating  the  entire  in- 
terior in  the  rich  style  of  the  Italian  churches  of  the  day,  it  is  prob- 
able that  he  intended  some  portions  to  be  adorned  in  colour.  But 
with  the  exception  of  Thomhill's  grisailles  (see  below),  practically 
nothing  was  done  in  this  direction  until  about  1860,  when  a  Decor- 
ation Completion  Fund  was  founded,  mainly  through  the  exertions 
of  Dean  Milman  (p.  89),  for  the  embellishment  of  the  interior 
with  marble,  gilding,  mosaics,  and  stained  glass.  The  decoration  of 
the  dome  was  practically  completed  in  1863-94,  that  of  the  choir  (see 
p.  90)  in  1891-97.  The  dome  is  adorned  with  eight  scenes  from  the 
life  of  St.  Paul  in  grisaille  by  ThorhhiUj  restored  in  1864,  but  hardly 
visible  from  below  (see  p.  92).  In  the  niches  aboye  the  Whisper- 
ing Gallery  are  marble  statues  of  the  Fathers  of  the  Church.  The 
eight  large  mosaics  in  the  spandrels  of  the  dome,  executed  by  Sal- 
viatij  represent  St.  Matthew  and  St.  John,  designed  by  0.  F,  WatUy 
St.  Mark  and  St.  Luke,  by  Brittany  and  Isaiah,  Jeremiah,  Ezeklel, 
and  Daniel,  by  A.  Stevent.  On  the  lower  quarter-domes  at  the  shorter 
sides  of  the  octagon  supporting  the  dome  are  mosaics  by  Bichmond 
(comp.  p.  90):  N.E.  the  Crucifixion;  N.W.  the  Ascension ;  S.W. 
the  Entombment;  S.E.  the  Resurrection.  On  the  last  piers  in  the 
naye  hang  two  allegorical  paintings  (PI.  12)  by  0,  F.  Watts:  *Time, 
Death,  and  Judgment',  on  the  N.  side,  ^Peace  and  Goodwiir  on  the 
S.  side.  The  ^Light  of  the  Worlds  by  Holman  Hunt,  also  is  to  be 
hung  in  St.  Paul's.  —  The  Organ,  one  of  the  finest  in  Great  Britain, 
is  divided  into  two  parts,  one  on  each  side  of  the  choir,  with  connect- 
ing mechanism  under  the  choir  flooring.  The  builder,  JB.  WtUts,  in 
constructing  it,  used  some  of  the  pipes  of  the  old  organ  by  Father 
Smith  or  SchmitZy  which  dated  back  to  1694.  —  Above  the  N.  door 
is  a  copy  of  the  celebrated  inscription  (PL  13)  in  memory  of  Sir 
Christopher  Wren  (original,  see  p.  93). 

The  numerous  monuments  of  celebrated  Englishmen  (chiefly 
naval  and  military  officers),  which  make  the  church  a  kind  of 
national  Temple  of  Fame  (though  second  to  Westminster  Abbey, 
p.  225),  are'  very  rarely  of  artistic  value. 

The  Grand  Entbancb  (W.)  is  a  favourable  point  for  a  survey  of 
the  whole  length  of  the  nave.  The  N.W.  or  St,  Dunstan's  Chapel,  to 
the  left,  is  handsomely  decorated  with  marble.  The  mosaic,  repre- 
senting the  Three  Maries  at  the  Sepulchre  on  Easter  Morn,  was 
executed  by  Salviatij  and  commemorates  Archdeacon  Hale.  The 
stained-glass  window  is  a  memorial  of  Dean  Mansel  (1868-71). 
Then  to  the  left,  in  the  N.  Aislb  :  — 

L.  Lord  Leighton  (PI.  8;  1830-96),  7th  President  of  the  Royal 
Academy }  bronze  recumbent  figure  upon  a  sarcophagus-tomb,  by 
Brock;  unveiled  in  1902.  —  Behind  is  the  Crimean  Cavalry  Mon- 
ument, in  memory  of  the  officers  and  men  of  the  British  cavalry 
who  fell  in  the  Crimean  war  (1854-56). 

ifl  «0 1«  eo  d>  S  ;j  ^]  cj 

The  City,         1.    ST.  PAUL'S  CATHEDRAL.  89 

L.  MaJoT'Oeneral  Sir  Hirherl  Stewart ,  who  died  in  1886  of 
wounds  receiyed  at  the  battle  of  Abu-kra,  in  the  Sudan ;  bronze 
medallion  and  reliefs  by  Boehm. 

L.  MajOT'Oeneral  Charles  Oeorge  Gordon  (PI.  5),  killed  at  Khar- 
toum in  1885;  sarcophagus-tomb,  with  bronze  efflgy  by  Boehm, 

B. ,  beneath  the  central  arch  of  the  aisle :  *Monnment  to  the  Dukt 
of  Wellifhgton  (d.  1862),  by  Stevens.  The  bronze  figure  of  Wellington 
rests  on  a  lofty  sarcophagus,  overshadowed  by  a  rich  marble  canopy, 
with  12  Corinthian  columns.  AboTO  are  colossal  groups  of  Valour 
and  Cowardice,  Truth  and  Falsehood.  The  monument  is  crowned  by 
an  equestrian  efflgy  in  accordance  with  Stevens's  original  design. 

L.  William,  Lord  Melbourne  (d.  1848),  and  IVederick,  Lord 
Melbourne  (d,  1853),  by  Marochetti. 

In  the  N.  Tsamsbpt  :  — 

L.  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  (PI.  11 ;  d.  1792),  the  celebrated  painter, 
statue  by  Flaxman.  Upon  the  truncated  column  to  his  left  is  a  me- 
dallion portrait  of  Michael  Angelo. 

L.  Admiral  Lord  Rodney  (d.  1792),  by  Rossi.  At  his  feet  is 
History  listening  to  the  Goddess  of  Fame  (on  the  right),  who  re- 
counts the  Admiral's  exploits. 

L.  Lieutenant'Oeneral  Sir  Thomas  Picton  (killed  at  Waterloo 
in  1815),  by  Oahagan.  In  front  of  his  bust  is  a  Goddess  of  Victory 
presenting  a  crown  of  laurels  to  a  warrior ,  upon  whose  shoulder 
leans  the  Genius  of  Immortality. 

R.  Admiral  Earl  St.  Vir^cent  (d.  1823),  the  victor  at  Cape  St. 
Vincent;  statue  by  Baily. 

L.  General  WiUiam  Francis  Patrick  Napier  (d.  1860),  the  his- 
torian of  the  Peninsular  War,  by  Baily. 

L.  Sir  Charles  James  Napier  (d.  1853) ;  statue  by  Adams ,  *a 
prescient  General,  a  beneficent  Governor,  a  justMan'(comp.  p.  163). 

R.  Admiral  Lord  Duncan  (d.  1804),  who  defeated  the  Dutch 
in  the  naval  battle  of  Camperdown ;  statue  by  Westmaeott. 

L.  General  Sir  WiUiam  Ponsoriby  (d.  1815) ,  *who  fell  glor- 
iously in  the  battle  of  Waterloo',  by  Baily. 

L.  Admniral  Charles  Napier  (d.  1860),  commander  of  the  Eng- 
lish Baltic  fleet  in  1854,  with  portrait  in  relief,  by  Adams. 

L.  Henry  HaUam  (d.  1859),  the  historian ;  statue  by  Theed. 

B.  Sir  Arthur  Sullivan  (d.  1900),  bronze  relief  by  W.  Goscombe 

L.  Dr.  Samuel  Johnson  (PI.  7j  d.  1784),  statue  by  Bacon. 

We  have  now  arrived  at  the  Chois  (adm.,  see  p.  87),  the  en- 
trance to  which,  however,  is  on  the  other  side,  beyond  the  hand- 
some pulpit  of  coloured  marbles,  erected  in  memory  of  Captain 
Fittgerald.   In  the  S.  Amhilcttory  are  the  following  monuments :  — 

Henry  Hart  Milman,  Dean  of  St.  Paul's  (d.  1868) ;  sarcophagus 
and  recumbent  figure,  by  Williamson.  —  On  the  wall  at  each  end 
of  this  monument  are  fragments  of  stone  believed  to  have  belonged 

90  1.  ST.  PAUL'S  CATHEDRAL.         The  City. 

to  the  Temple  at  Jerasalem.  — ^Archbishop  Temple  (6..  1903)|  bronze 
relief  by  Pomeroy, 

Opposite,  Mandell  Creightonj  Bishop  of  London  (d.  1901),  bronze 
statue  by  H.  Thomycroft, 

Dr.  Donnty  the  poet,  Dean  of  St.  Paul's  from  1621  till  his  death 
in  1631,  a  scnlptared  fi^re  in  a  shrond,  in  a  niche  in  the  wall,  by 
NiehoUu  Stone  (the  only  uninjured  monument  from  old  St.  PauVs). 

Charles  J,  Blomfieldy  Bishop  of  London  (d.  1857) ;  saroophagus 
with  recumbent  figure,  by  O.  Richmond, 

John  Jackson^  Bishop  of  London  (d.  1884) ;  by  Woolner, 

Reginald  Heher,  BishoD  of  Calcutta  (d.  1826),  by  Chantrey.  The 
relief  represents  the  prelate  confirming  converted  Indians. 

The  Aps«,  behind  the  reredos,  is  fitted  up  as  the  Jesus  Chapel; 
the  altar-piece,  in  a  marble  frame,'  is  a  copy  of  the  Christ  appearing 
to  St.  Thomas,  by  Cima  da  Conegliano,  in  the  National  Gallery 
(p.  177).  To  the  right  is  the  recumbent  marble  statue  of  Canon 
Liddon  (PI.  9;  d.  1890),  by  BodUy  ^  Oamer, 

The  Reredos,  behind  the  main  altar,  is  an  elaborate  white  Parian 
marble  structure  in  the  Italian  Renaissance  style,  designed  by 
Messrs,  BodUy  ^  Gamer  and  unveiled  in  1888.  The  sculptures,  by 
Guellemin,  represent  the  chief  events  in  the  life  of  Christ ;  at  the 
top  are  statues  of  the  Risen  Saviour,  the  Virgin  and  Child,  St.  Paul, 
and  St.  Peter.  The  two  massive  latten  candlesticks  (PI.  4)  before 
the  altar  are  copied  from  four  old  ones  now  in  St.  Bavon's,  Ghent 
(see  Baedeker's  Belgium  and  HoUand[).  The  latter  were  executed 
by  Bendetto  da  Rovezzano  as  decorations  for  the  unfinished  tomb 
of  Henry  VIII.  at  Windsor  and  were  sold  under  the  Commonwealth. 
The  Choir  Stalls  are  by  Orinling  Oibbons,  and  some  of  the  iron  work 
by  Tijou  (p.  410). 

The  vaalting  and  walls  of  the  choir  have  been  decorated  in  glass 
(smalto)  mosaic  from  designs  by  Sir  W.  B.  Richmond.  On  the  central  panel  on 
the  roof  of  the  apse  is  Christ  enthroned  \  to  the  right  and  left  are  Recording 
Angels.  On  the  panels  below  the  stone  ribs  of  the  roof  in  the  apse  and 
the  adjoining  bay  are  six  figures  of  Virtues,  vu.  (beginning  to  the  N.), 
Hope,  Fortitude,  Charity,  Truth,  Chastity,  and  Justice.  The  upper  windows 
of  the  apse  represent  the  Four  and  Twenty  Elders  of  the  Revelation,  with 
angels.  In  the  adjoining  bay  are  panels  with  Noah's  Sacrifice  (S.)  and 
Helchizedek  blessing  Abraham  (N.)^  the  larger  panels  above  these  re- 
present the  Sea  giving  up  its  Dead.  —  In  the  choir  proper  the  chief  features 
of  the  mosaic  decoration  are  the  saucer-domes  above  each  of  the  three 
bays.  That  in  the  easternmost  bay  represents  the  Creation  of  the  Birds, 
while  the  subjects  of  the  other  two  are  the  Creation  of  the  Fishes  and  the 
Creation  of  the  Beasts.  On  the  four  pendentives  in  each  bay  are  Herald 
Angels,  with  extended  arms.  In  the  spaces  between  the  clerestory  windows 
on  the  If.  side  are  the  Delphic  and  Persian  Sibyls,  Alexander  the  Great, 
Cyrus,  Abraham  and  the  Angels,  and  Job  and  his  three  Friends  j  on  the 
S.  side  are  David,  Solomon,  Aholiab,  Besaleel,  Moses,  and  Jacob.  On  the 
spandrels  of  the  arches  of  the  E.  bay  are  Angels  with  the  Instruments  of 
the  Passion ;  on  the  spandrels  of  the  central  bay,  the  Temptation  (S.)  and 
the  Annunciation  (N.);  on  the  spandrels  of  the  W.  bay.  Expulsion  from 
Paradise  (S.)  and  Creation  of  the  Firmament  (N.).  The  rectangular  panels 
above  the  organ  represent  Adam  and  Eve  in  the  Garden  of  Eden.  The 
clerestory  windows  also  were  desig^ed  by  Sir  W.  B.  Richmond. 

The  CUy.         1.    ST.  PAUL'S  CATHBDBAL.  91 

The  mosaics  are  executed  in  the  style  of  the  early  mosaicists,  and  not 
after  the  smooth  modem  method.  Their  general  effect  certainly  adds 
largely  to  the  richness  and  warmth  of  the  choir;  but  comparatiTely  few  of 
thdr  details  can  be  satisfactorily  distinguished  from  below  under  ordinary 
conditions  of  light.  The  glass  tesserss  were  furnished  by  Mutn.  Fneell 
of  Whitefriars,  and  the  whole  work  was  executed  by  British  workmen. 

LeaTing  the  passage  round  the  choir,  we  tarn  to  the  left.  Close 
by  is  the  entrance  to  the  Crypt  (see  p.  93).   Then  *— 

In  the  S.  T&ANSBPT :  — 

L.  John  Howard  (PI.  6;  d.  1790),  the  philanthropist;  statne  by 
Bacon,  Howard  died  at  Cherson  in  the  S.  of  Russia ,  while  on  a 
journey  undertaken  ^to  ascertain  the  cause  of  and  find  an  efficacious 
remedy  for  the  plague'.  This  monument  was  the  first  admitted  to 
new  St.  Paul's. 

L.  Admiral  Earl  Howe  (d.  1799),  by  Flaxman.  Behind  the 
statue  of  the  hero  is  Britannia  in  armour ;  to  the  left  Fame  and 
Victory ;  on  the  right  reposes  the  British  lion.  —  Adjoining  — 

L.  Admiral  Lord  CoUingwood  (d.  1810),  Nelson's  companion 
In  arms  (p.  94),  by  Westmaeott. 

L.  Joseph  MaUord  WiUiam  Turner  (d.  1851),  the  celebrated 
painter ;  statue  by  MaedoweU. 

Opposite  the  door  of  the  S.  transept,  in  the  passage  to  the  naye, 
against  the  great  piers :  — 

L.  *Admiral  Lord  Nelson  (d.  1805),  by  Flaxman.  The  want 
of  the  right  arm ,  which  Nelson  lost  at  Cadiz,  is  concealed  by  the 
cloak ;  the  left  hand  leans  upon  an  anchor  supported  on  a  coiled-up 
cable.  The  cornice  bears  the  inscription  ^Copenhagen  —  Nile  — 
Trafalgar',  the  names  of  the  Admiral's  chief  victories.  The  pedestal 
is  embellished  with  figures  in  relief  representing  the  German 
Ocean,  the  Baltic  Sea,  the  Nile,  and  the  Mediterranean.  At  the  foot, 
to  the  right,  couches  the  British  lion ;  while  on  the  left  is  Britannia 
inciting  youthful  sailors  to  emulate  the  great  hero. 

R.  Marquis  Comwallis  (d.  1805),  first  Goyernor-Qeneral  of 
India,  in  the  dress  of  a  knight  of  the  Garter ;  at  the  base,  to  the  left, 
Britannia  armed,  to  the  right  two  fine  Indian  river-gods,  by  Rossi. 

The  W.  portion  of  the  S.  transept  is  now  used  as  the  Baptistery, 
and  contains  the  font.  —  To  the  W.  of  the  door :  — 

L.  Bronze  memorial  to  the  colonial  troops  who  fell  in  the  South 
African  War  (1899-1902),  by  Princess  Louise,  Duchess  of  ArgyU. 

L.  Lieutenant'Oeneral  Sir  John  Moore  (d.  1809),  by  the  younger 
Bacon.  The  general ,  who  fell  at  Corunna ,  is  being  interred  by 
allegorical  figures  of  Valour  and  Victory,  while  the  Genius  of  Spain 
erects  his  standard  over  the  tomb. 

L.  Sir  AsUey  Paston  Cooper  (d.  1842) ,  the  surgeon,  by  Baily. 

L.  Lieutenant- Oeneral  Sir  Ralph  Abercromhy  (d.  1801),  by 
Westmaeott,  The  general,  mortally  wounded  at  the  battle  of  Aboukir, 
falls  from  his  rearing  horse  into  the  arms  of  a  Highland  soldier. 

L.  Sir  William  Jones  (d.  1794),  the  orientalist,  who,  in  Dean 

92  1.    ST.  PAUL'S  CATHEDRAL.  I7mj  City. 

Milman's  words,  first  opened  ^the  poetry  and  wisdom  of  our  Indian 
Empire  to  wondering  Enrope' ;  statne  by  Bacon. 

In  the  S.  AisLB  :  — 

L.  Thomas  Fanshaw  Middleton  (d.  1822),  the  first  English 
bishop  in  India,  by  Lough,  The  prelate  is  represented  in  his  robes, 
in  the  act  of  blessing  two  young  heathen  conyerts.  —  The  bas-re- 
liefs by  Colder  Marshall  and  Woodington,  in  this  and  the  following 
recesses,  originally  embellished  the  S.W.  chapel  (see  below),  in 
which  the  Wellington  Monument  (p.  89)  was  at  first  erected. 

The  chapel  at  the  S.W.  end  of  the  nave,  once  the  diocesan  con- 
sistorial  court  and  afterwards  the  baptistery,  has  since  1906  been 
redecorated  and  used  as  the  Chapel  of  the  Order  of  SS.  Michael  and 
Oeorge,  an  order  (founded  in  1861 ;  enlarged  in  1868)  specially  as- 
sociated with  the  colonial  empire.  Above  the  Burmese  teak  stalls  of 
the  Knights  Grand  Cross  are  displayed  their  banners.  The  King's 
stall  is  in  the  centre  of  the  W.  end. 

The  wooden  screen  between  the  chapel  and  the  naye  was  carved 
by  Orinling  Oibbons. 

At  the  end  of  the  nave  is  the  Crimean  Monumentj  to  the  memory 
of  the  officers  of  the  Coldstream  Guards  who  fell  at  Inkerman  in  1854, 
a  relief  by  Maroehetti^  with  the  colours  of  the  regiment  hung  above. 
Another  relief,  opposite,  by  W.  Goscomhe  John^  commemorates  the 
officers  and  men  of  the  same  regiment  who  fell  in  South  Africa  in 

In  the  S.  aisle,  near  the  S.  transept,  is  the  entrance  to  the  Uppbk 
Pasts  of  the  church  (admission,  see  p.  87).  Ascending  about  110 
shallow  steps,  we  reach  a  gallery  (the  triforium  of  the  S.  aisle),  in 
which  are  carved  fragments  of  old  St.  Paul's,  some  18th  cent,  leaden 
cisterns,  and  designs  for  mosaic  adornments  by  Poynter  and  Leigh- 
ton.  A  room  at  the  end  contains  the  Library  (12,000  volumes; 
portrait  of  the  founder.  Bishop  Compton;  autographs  of  Wren,  Laud, 
Cranmer,  etc.).  The  flooring  consists  of  artistically  executed  mosaic 
in  wood. 

The  large,  self-supporting,  winding  staircase,  called  the  Oeometrical 
Siairccue  or  Dean"*  Staircase^  which  ascends  in  the  S.W.  tower  to  the  library, 
is  interesting  only  on  account  of  its  age.  This  staircase,  the  Oreai  Bell 
(cast  in  1716;  88  steps),  and  the  large  Clock  (constructed  in  1703;  13  steps 
more),  in  the  S.W.  tower,  are  now  not  shown  without  special  permission. 
The  minute  hand  of  the  clock  is  nearly  10  ft.  long. 

Returning  to  the  beginning  of  the  gallery,  we  ascend  to  the 
Whispering  GaUery^  in  the  interior  of  the  cupola  (260  steps  from 
the  floor  of  the  church),  which  is  remarkable  for  a  curious  echo. 
A  slight  whisper  uttered  by  the  wall  on  one  side  of  the  gallery  is 
distinctly  audible  to  an  ear  near  the  wall  on  the  other  side,  a  dis- 
tance of  108  ft.  in  a  direct  line,  or  160  ft.  round  the  semicircle. 
This  is  the  best  point  of  view  for  Thornhiirs  ceiling-paintings,  and 
from  it  we  also  obtain  a  fine  survey  of  the  interior  of  the  church. 

The  subjects  of  Thornhiirs  paintings  are  as  follows:  —  1.  Conversion 
of  St.  Paul;  2.  Elymas  the  sorcerer^  3.  St.  Paul  atLystraj  4.  The  Gaoler 

The  City.  1.  ST.  PAUL'S  CATHEDRAL.  93 

at  Philippi;  5.  St.  Paul  preaching  at  Athens ;  6.  Books  of  magic  burned 
at  Ephesus;  7.  St.  Paul  before  Agrippa;  8.  Shipwreck  at  Malta. 

From  this  point  a  flight  of  118  steps  leads  to  tlie  *8tone  Qcd- 
Uryy  an  outer  gallery,  enclosed  by  a  stone  parapet,  wMch  rnns 
round  the  foot  of  the  outer  dome.  This  gallery  commands  an  ad- 
mirable view  of  the  city.  The  survey  is  still  more  extensive  from 
the  outer  Oolden  QalUry  above  the  dome  and  at  the  foot  of  the  lan- 
tern, to  which  a  winding  staircase  ascends  in  the  inside  of  the  roof. 
The  Ball  (adm.,  see  p.  87)  on  the  lantern  is  45  ft.  higher  (616  steps 
from  the  tesselated  pavement  of  the  church). 

On  the  E.  side  of  the  S.  transept  is  the  door  (PI.  b)  leading 
down  into  the  •Obtpt,  which  extends  under  the  entire  church.  At 
the  foot  of  the  staircase  are  busts  of  Sir  John  Macdonald  (1815-91), 
premier  of  Canada,  and  Sir  Harry  Parkes  (d.  1885).  Straight  in  front 
is  the  S.  choir-aisle,  in  the  last  window-recess  of  which  is  the  plain, 
flat,  tombstone  of  Sir  Christopher  Wrer^,  the  architect  of  St.  Paul's 
(d.  1723).  On  the  wall  above  is  the  original  tablet  with  the  in- 
scription containing  the  celebrated  words  ^Lector,  H  monumentum 
requiris,  circumspice\  This  tablet  formerly  stood  at  the  entrance  to 
the  choir,  in  the  upper  church.  On  the  walls  near  Wren's  tomb 
are  memorials  to  Sir  Edwin  Landaeer,  Randolph  CcUdecott ,  Frank 
HoU,  and  Archibald  Forbes.  In  the  flooring  are  the  memorial  slabs 
of  many  celebrated  artists,  which  have  earned  the  name  of  Painters' 
Comer'  for  this  part  of  the  crypt.  Among  these  are  Benjamin 
West;  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds;  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence;  John  Opie; 
J.  3f.  W.  Turner  (buried,  at  his  own  dying  request,  near  Rey- 
nolds); Sir  Edgar  Boehm;  Lord  Leighton;  and  Sir  John  Millais, 
John  Rennie,  builder  of  Waterloo  Bridge ;  Robert  Milne,  who  built 
several  other  London  bridges ;  Dean  Newton,  William  Babington, 
Sir  Asiley  Cooper,  and  Sir  WUliam  Jones  also  repose  here.  Canon 
Liddon,  Dean  Milman,  Bishop  Creighton,  and  Sir  Arthur  Sullivan 
(d.  1900)  are  buried  farther  to  the  N.E.  —  The  E.  end  of  the  crypt, 
used  for  occasional  services  (Church  of  St.  Faith ;  p.  85),  contains 
a  few  mutilated  monuments  from  the  earlier  building  (t.e.  prior  to 
1666).  The  window  above  the  altar  is  a  copy  of  Reynolds's  window 
at  New  College,  Oxford  (see  Baedeker's  Great  Britain").  The  fine 
mosaic  pavement,  like  that  in  other  parts  of  the  crypt,  was  executed 
by  female  convicts  from  Woking.  —  The  W.  portion  of  the  crypt 
is  usually  shown  by  an  attendant  (no  fee).  Beneath  the  chancel- 
arch  stands  the  sarcophagus  of  Wellington  (d.  1852),  consisting  of 
a  huge  block  of  porphyry ,  resting  on  a  granite  base.  Adjacent  is 
the  sarcophagus  of  Sir  Thomas  Picton  (see  p.  89),  who  fell  at 
Waterloo  in  1815.  Farther  on,  exactly  under  the  centre  of  the 
dome,  is  the  black  marble  sarcophagus  of  Nelson  (d.  21st  Oct., 
1805),  containing  an  inner  coffln  made  of  part  of  the  mainmast  of 
the  French  flag-ship  L'Orient,  which  was  blown  up  at  Aboukir. 
This  sarcophagus,  the  work  of  Bendetto  daRovezzano,  was  originally 

94  1.  ST.  PAUL'S  CATHEDRAL.  The  City. 

oidered  by  Card.  Wolsey  for  himself  (comp.  p.  405).  The  smaller 
saroophagQS  on  the  S.  is  that  of  Nelson's  comrade,  Admiral  Colling^ 
wood  (d.  1810),  while  on  the  N.  is  that  of  the  Earl  ofNorthesk 
(d.  1831).  To  the  S.W.  is  the  tomb  of  Lord  Napier  of  Magdaia 
fd.  1890).  On  the  walls,  a  little  farther  on,  are  memoiials  to  the 
Rt  Hon,  William  Dalley  (d.  1888),  Attorney  General  of  New  South 
Wales;  Sir  BartU  Frere  (d.  1884);  George  Cruikihank  (d.  1878); 
W.  E.  Henley  (d.  1903);  Sir  George  Grey;  Charles Reade  (d.  1884), 
and  Sir  Waller  Besant  (d.  1901).  —  At  the  extreme  W.  end  of  the 
crypt  is  the  car  nsed  at  the  Duke  of  Wellington's  fnneral.  It  was 
cast  from  guns  captured  in  the  Tictories  of  the  *Iron  Duke'. 

In  May  an  annual  festiyal  is  held  in  St.  Paul's  for  the  beneflt 
of  the  sons  of  deceased  clergymen.  Adm.  by  tickets,  procured  at  the 
Corporation  House,  2  Bloomsbury  Place,  Bloomsbury  Square,  W.O. 
On  St.  Paul's  Day  (Jan.  25th)  a  selection  from  Mendelssohn's  *St. 
Paul*  is  performed  with  orchestra  and  choir;  and  Bach's  Passion 
Music  is  given  on  the  Tuesday  of  Holy  Week. 

The  clerical  establishment  of  the  cathedral  consists  of  the  Dean, 
four  Canons,  30  Prebendaries,  12  Minor  Canons,  and  6  Vicars  Choral. 
Sydney  Smith  and£.  H.  Barham,  author  of  the  *Ingoldsby  Legends*, 
were  canons  of  St.  Paul's.  —  For  a  full  account  of  this  noble  church, 
see  Dean  Mllman's  'Annals  of  St.  Paul's'  (1868),  W.  Longman's 
*The  Three  Cathedrals  dedicated  to  St.  Paul'  (1878),  and  works  by 
Dr.  W.  Sparrow  Simpson. 

The  street  round  the  cathedral,  called  St,  Pauts  Churchyard^ 
was  in  the  16th  cent,  open  to  Paternoster  Row,  with  a  few  inter- 
yening  buildings,  all  belonging  to  the  precincts.  These  disappeared 
in  the  Great  Fire. 

Dean's  Yard,  near  the  S.W.  oomer  of  the  cathedral,  leads  to  the 
S.,  past  the  Deanery,  to  the  Choir  House,  with  a  choristers'  school, 
in  Great  Carter  Lane.  A  tablet  on  the  W.  wall  of  the  archway  lead- 
ing from  Carter  Lane  into  Bell  Yard  commemorates  Shakspeare's 
association  with  the  Bell  Tavern,  formerly  on  this  site.  On  the  E., 
to  the  N.  of  Knightrider  Street,  is  the  district  still  known  as  DoctoriT 
CommoThs,  though  the  old-fashioned  ecclesiastical  and  nautical 
tribunals,  described  in  *David  CopperAeld',  have  been  removed  to 
the  Law  Courts  (p.  155)  and  the  buildings  demolished  in  1862-67. 
The  Will  Office  is  now  at  Somerset  House  (p.  159),  though  marriage- 
licenses  are  still  issued  here. 

Celebrated  coffee-houses  in  the  Churchyard,  where  authors  and  book- 
sellers used  to  meet,  were  St.  Paul's  Coffee  House,  near  the  archway  lead- 
ing to  Doctors'  Commons;  Child*s  Coffee  House,  a  great  resort  of  the  clergy 
and  literati;  and  the  Queen^s  Arms  Tavern,  often  visited  by  Dr.  Johnson. 
Among  the  famous  eighteenth  century  publishers  of  St.  Paul's  Churchyard 
may  be  mentioned  Johnson,  Hunter,  and  Eivlngton.  At  the  comer  next 
Ludgate  Hill  is  the  site  of  the  shop  (rebuilt  in  1885)  of  John  Newbery,  the 
bookseller,  immortalized  by  Ooldsmlth,  Johnson,  and  W.  Irving.  Newbery 
was  the  first  publisher  to  issue  books  for  children,  and  Goldsmith  ia  said 
to  have  written  ^Goody  Two  Shoes'  for  him,  as  well  as  to  have  shared  in 
the  preparation  of  the  original  ^Rhymes  of  Mother  Goose'. 


2.  General  Post  Office.    St.  Giles.  Holborn. 

Paternoster  Row,  PeeVa  Statue,  Cethtral  Criminal  Court,  8t.  Se^ 

LeaTing  8t,  Paul's  Churchyard^  on  the  N.  side  of  the  chtiTeh, 
we  enter  Fatemoeter  Bow  (so  called  from  the  prayer-hooks  or 
rosaries  formerly  sold  in  it),  long  the  chief  seat  of  the  pnhlishers 
and  booksellers.  To  the  W.,  in  Stationers'  Hall  Gonrt,  off  Lndgate 
Hill,  is  situated  Stationers'  Hall,  the  gnlldhonse  of  the  booksellers 
and  stationers. 

This  company  is  one  of  the  few  London  guilds  the  majority  of  whose 
members  actaally  practise  their  nominal  craft  The  society  lost  its  mon- 
opoly of  publishing  almanacks  in  1771,  but  still  carries  on  this  business 
extensively.  The  company  distinguished  itself  in  1631  by  printing  a  Bible 
with  the  word  'noV  omitted  from  the  seventh  commandment.  Every  work 
published  in  Qreat  Britain  tnust  be  registered  at  Stationers'  Hall  to  secure 
the  copyright.  The  registers  go  back  to  1667.  The  hall  contains  por- 
traits of  Richardson,  the  novelist  (Master  of  the  Company  in  1764),  and 
his  wife,  Prior,  Steele.  Bunyan,  and  others ;  also  Wisfs  painting  of  King 
Alfred  sharing  his  loat  with  the  pilgrim  St.  Guthbert,  and  a  stained-glass 
window  in  memory  of  Cazton,  placed  here  in  1894. 

At  the  E.  end  of  Paternoster  Bow,  at  the  entrance  to  Cheapside 
(p.  106),  rises  the  Statue  of  Sir  Bobert  Feel  (d.  1850),  by  Behnes, 

In  St.  Martin's  le  Grand,  which  rnns  hence  to  the  K. ,  are  the 
buildings  of  the  Ctoneral  Post  Office.  Immediately  to  the  K.,  on  the 
E.  side  of  the  street,  Is  the  Gbnbbal  Post  Offiob  East  (PI.  R,  39, 
and  III;  comp.  p.  39),  built  in  the  Ionic  style  in  1825-29,  from 
designs  by  Smirke,  In  this  building,  390  ft.  in  length,  all  the  ordi- 
nary business  of  a  post- office  is  carried  on,  and  correspondence 
received  for  London  and  abroad  is  sorted  and  dispatched.  The 
public  Telegraph  Office  also  is  in  this  building.  Parcels  are  received 
here ,  but  are  at  once  sent  on  to  the  Parcel  Post  Office  at  Mount 
Pleasant,  Farringdon  Road  (p.  152).  To  the  S.  of  the  portico  is 
the  ^Poste  BestarUe^  Office,  This  is  the  headquarters  of  the  London 
Postal  District,  and  the  vast  Oity  correspondence  is  all  dealt  with 
here ,  while  the  provincial  correspondence  is  dealt  with  at  Mount 
Pleasant  The  Returned  Letter  Office  is  at  Mt.  Pleasant,  where 
boards  are  exhibited  with  lists  of  persons  whose  addresses  have 
not  been  discovered. 

Opposite  to  the  General  Post  Office  East  stands  the  Gbnbbal 
Post  Officb  West,  containing  the  Telegraph  Department,  This  im- 
posing building  was  erected  in  1870-73  at  a  cost  of  485,000^.  The 
large  Telegraph  Instrument  Galleries,  measuring  300  by  90  ft., 
should  be  visited  (admission  by  request  from  a  banker  or  other  well- 
known  citizen).  They  contain  500  Instruments  with  their  attend- 
ants. On  the  sunk-floor  are  four  steam-engines  of  50  horse-power 
each,  by  means  of  which  messages  are  forwarded  through  pneu- 
matic tubes  to  the  other  offices  in  the  City  and  Strand  district. 

The  vast  and  ever-growing  business  of  the  General  Post  Office 

96  2.    ST.  GILES.  The  CUy, 

fonnd  itself  straitened  for  room  even  in  these  huge  bnildings,  and 
the  Qenbeal  Post  Oppicb  North  was  built  in  1890-96  to  the  N.  of 
Angel  Street.  The  building,  which  is  connected  with  the  Telegraph 
Office  by  a  covered  bridge,  is  designed  in  the  classic  style  by 
Henry  Tanner , .  and  accommodates  the  Office  of  the  Postmaster 
General,  and  the  staffs  of  the  Secretary,  the  Solicitor,  and  the 
Comptroller  and  Accountant  General  of  the  post-office.  On  the  roof 
is  a  restaurant  for  the  use  of  the  clerks.  The  site  and  building  cost 
571, 660^  —  Immediately  to  the  W.  of  this  building,  on  part  of 
the  site  of  Christ's  Hospital  (p.  97),  still  another  large  block,  to 
be  known  as  King  Edward's  Building^  is  in  course  of  erection  for 
postal  purposes. 

Aldersgate  Street  (PI.  R,  39, 40;  II T)  runs  due  N.  from  St.  Martin's 
le  Grand  to  the  Aldersgate  Street  Station  (Metropolitan;  p.  31), 
situated  to  the  S.E.  of  the  Charterhouse  (p.  102). 

The  old  residences  in  this  street,  including  Shaftesbury  House  and 
Lauderdale  House,  have  all  disappeared.  Milton  lived  for  a  time  in  Lamb 
Alley  (now  Maidenhead  Court),  Aldersgate  Street,  and  afterwards  in  Jewin 
Street,  a  side-street  to  the  E.  John  Wesley  ^found  assurance  of  salvation' 
at  a  meeting  in  Aldersgate  Street  (May  24th,  1788). 

To  the  N.  of  the  General  Post  Office  North,  on  the  right,  is  the 
church  of  St.  Botolph  Without  Aldersgate  (PI.  R,39,40;  III),  the 
small  cemetery  of  which  has  been  laid  out  as  a  public  garden, 
familiarly  known  as  the  ^Postmen's  Park'.  The  arcade  here  (the  gift 
of  Mr.  G.  F.  Watts)  was  erected  *in  commemoration  of  heroic  self- 
sacrifice',  instances  of  which  are  recorded  on  tablets  within.  — 
Little  Britain,  skirting  the  N.  side  of  this  garden,  leads  to  Smith- 
field  (p.  100). 

Jewin  Street  leads  to  the  E.  from  Aldersgate  Street  to  Redcross 
Street  and  (to  the  right)  Fore  Street,  in  which  rises  the  late-Perpen- 
dicular church  of  St.  Giles  (PI.  R,  40),  Cripplegate,  built  at  the 
end  of  the  14th  cent.,  and  much  injured  by  a  fire  in  1545;  open 
10-4,  Sat.  10-1  (entered  by  the  N.  door  in  Fore  Street;  W.  front 
approached  by  an  archway  of  1660).  —  Near  the  N.  door  a  Statue 
of  Miltort^  with  reliefs  from  'Comus'  and  Paradise  Lost'  on  the 
pedestal,  by  Horace  Montford,  was  erected  in  1904.  In  the  church- 
yard is  an  old  bastion  of  London  Wall  (p.  xxiv). 

This  church  contains  the  tombs  of  John  Milton  (d.  1674),  who  wrote 
^Paradise  Lost*  in  a  house  in  this  parish  (comp.  above),  now  pulled  down ; 
Foxe  (d.  1587),  the  martyrologist  (tablet  by  the  N.W.  window)  j  Frobisher 
(d.  1594),  the  voyager  (tablet  on  the  N.  wall,  behind  the  organ);  and 
Speed  (d.  1629 ;  effigy  under  the  clock),  the  topographer.  Oliver  Cromwell 
was  married  in  this  church  (Aug.  22nd,  1620),  and  the  parish- register  contains 
an  entry  of  the  burial  of  Daniel  Defoe  (d.  1731).  Hilton  is  commemorated 
by  a  good  bust,  by  Baeon  (1793),  now  placed  on  a  cenotaph  of  1862  ^  and 
his  supposed  resting-place  is  marked  by  a  stone  in  front  of  the  chaiicel- 
rail.  The  monument  of  Constance  Whitney  (d.  1628;  X.  wall)  has  given 
rise  to  a  baseless  legend  that  she  was  buried  alive  and  resuscitated  by  the 
attempt  of  a  thief  to  steal  her  ring.  The  wooden  pulpit,  screen,  and  font- 
cover  were  carved  by  Qrinling   OibboTU.    The  window  at  the  W.  end   of 

The  City,      2.  CENTRAL  CRIMINAL  GOLRT.  97 

the  S.  aisle  commemorates  Edward  Alleyn,  founder  of  Dulwich  Collee;e 
(p.  397).    Ck)mp.  /.  /.  Baddtley'i  ^Church  and  Parish  of  St.  Giles'  (1886). 

To  the  B.  of  St.  Giles,  running  K.  from  Fore  Street  to  Chiswell  Street, 
is  Milton  StruL  better  known  as  the  *Grub  Street*  of  Pope  and  his  con- 
temporaries.  Parallel  with  Fore  Street,  on  the  S.,  is  London  Wall  (p.  1(^). 

To  the  W.  of  the  General  Post  Office  East  is  the  busy  Nbwoatb 
St&bbt,  leading  to  Holbom  and  Oxford  Street.  This  neighhonrhood 
was  long  the  quarter  of  the  butchers.  In  Panyer  AlUy,  the  first 
cross-lane  to  the  left,  once  Inhabited  by  basket-makers,  is  an  oM 
relief  of  a  boy  sitting  upon  a  ^panier',  with  the  inscription: 
When  ye  have  sought  the  city  round, 
Yet  still  this  is  the  highest  ground. 

August  the  27th,  1688. 

King  Edward  Street,  at  the  corner  of  which  is  the  Post  Office 
Station  of  the  Central  London  Railway  (p.  34),  leads  to  the  right 
past  Chriit  Chureh,  built  by  Wren  in  1687-1704  and  containing  the 
remains  of  Richard  Baxter  (d.  1691).  The  interior  was  re-arranged 
in  1896.  The  'Spital  Sermon*,  preached  here  annually  on  Easter 
Tuesday,  is  attended  in  state  by  the  Lord  Mayor  and  aldermen. 

On  the  N.  side  of  ITewgate  Street,  just  beyond  the  church,  formerly 
stood  ChrUCs  Bospital,  a  famous  school  founded  by  Edward  VI.  (1663)  on 
the  site  of  a  monastery  of  the  Grey  Friars  (iSth  cent.).  The  school,  was 
remoTed  in  Hay,  1803,  to  Horsham  in  Sussex  (see  Baedeker"*  QreeU  BriUntn) 
and  its  site  devoted  to  other  purposes  (comp.  pp.  96,  101).  Among  the 
celebrated  men  who  were  educated  at  Christ's  Hospital  we  may  mention 
William  Camden,  Stillingaeet,  Hiddleton,  Dyer,  Samuel  Richardson  (?), 
S.  T.  Coleridge,  Charles  Lamb,  Leigh  Hunt,  and  Sir  Henry  Sumner  Maine. 

Farther  on,  on  the  left,  is  Warwick  Lane,  leading  from  New- 
gate Street  to  Paternoster  Row  (p.  95).  On  the  wall  of  the 
first  house  on  the  right  is  a  curious  relief  of  1668,  representing 
Warwick,  the  *King-maker'.  Farther  on  is  the  Cutlers'  Hall  (1887). 

At  the  W.  end  of  Newgate  St.,  at  the  corner  of  Old  Bailey,  ri^es 
the  imposing  new  building  of  the  Central  Criminal  Court  (PI.  B, 
25;  //),  designed  by  Mr.  E.  W,  Mount ford^  and  opened  in  1905. 
The  ground- floor  is  in  massive  rustica  work;  the  upper  stories  are 
articulated  with  tall  columns ;  while  oyer  all  rise  a  tower  and  dome, 
surmounted  by  a  statue  of  Justice.  Above  the  main  portal  in  Old 
Bailey  is  the  inscription :  'Defend  the  children  of  the  poor  and 
punish  the  wrongdoer.'  —  This  court  (*01d  Bailey  Court')  is  the 
tribunal  for  crimes  and  misdemeanours  committed  within  the  city 
and  county  of  London,  the  county  of  Middlesex,  and  some  parts  of 
Essex,  Kent,  and  Surrey.  It  consists  of  two  divisions,  for  the  trial 
of  grave  and  petty  offences  respectively.  The  trials  are  public,  but 
as  the  courts  are  often  crowded,  a  fee  of  l-5s.,  according  to  the 
Interest  of  the  case,  must  generally  be  given  to  the  door-keeper  to 
secure  a  good  seat.  At  great  trials,  however,  tickets  of  admission 
are  usually  Issued  by  the  aldermen  and  sheriffs. 

The  building  occupies  the  site  of  NeagoAe  Prison ,  once  the  principal 
prison  of  London,  begun  in  1770  by  Oeorge  Donee.  Newgate  was  partly  destroyed 
in  17t0,  before  its  completion,  by  the  Gordon  rioters,  but  was  restored  in 

Babdrkeu's  London.    16lh  Edit.  7 

98  2.    HOLBORN  VIADUCT.  The  City, 

1783.  It  was  pulled  down  in  1902  (relica,  Me  p.  110).  The  public  place  of 
execution,  which  was  formerly  at  Tyburn  near  the  Marble  Arch  (p.  S26) 
was  from  1788  tUl  1868  in  front  of  17ewgate.  From  1868  to  1901  executions 
took  place  within  the  prion^  they  now  occur  atHoUoway  Prison.  Among 
the  famous  or  notorious  prisoners  once  conflned  in  old  Kewgate  were  George 
Wither,  Anne  Askew,  Daniel  Defoe,  Jack  Sheppard,  Titus  Oates.  Lord  George 
Gordon  (who  died  here  of  the  gaol  distemper  in  1798),  and  William  Penn.  — 
Old  London  Wall  had  a  gateway  at  the  bottom  of  Newgate  Street  and 
remains  of  the  Roman  town-wall  were  discovered  in  1902  beneath  the  prison. 

On  the  opposite  side  of  Old  Bailey  is  the  Band  of  Hope  Jubilee 
Building.  No.  68,  near  Lndgate  Hill,  was  the  house  of  the  infamous 
thief-catcher  Jonathan  Wild,  wlio  -was  himself  hanged  in  1725. 

Obliquely  opposite  Newgate,  to  the  N.W.  is  the  Chureh  of 
St.  Sepulchre  (PI.  R,  35;  77),  practically  rebuilt  in  modem  times, 
with  its  square  tower,  where  a  knell  was  tolled  on  the  occasion  of 
an  execution  at  Newgate.  At  one  time  a  nosegay  was  presented  at 
this  ohurch  to  eyery  criminal  on  hig  way  to  execution  at  Tybuin. 
On  the  S.  side  of  the  choir  lie  the  remains  of  the  gallant  Captain 
John  Smith  (d.  1631),  'Sometime  OoTemour  of  Virginia  and  Ad- 
mlrall  of  New  England*.  The  position  of  his  vanished  monument 
is  indicated  by  a  brass  plate  bearing  a  replica  of  the  original  in- 
scription, beginning :  — 

^Here  lyes  one  conqnerM  that  hath  conquered  kings  t* 

Roger  A$cham  (d.  1568),  author  of  'The  Scholemaster*  and  teacher 
of  Queen  Elizabeth,  is  also  buried  here. 

At  this  point,  continuing  Newgate  Street  to  the  W.,  begins  the 
•Holbom  Viaduct  (PI.  R,  35,  36;  77),  a  triumph  of  the  art  of 
modern  street-building,  designed  by  Haywood^  and  completed  in 
1869.  Its  name  is  a  reminiscence  of  the  *HoU-Boume\  the  name 
given  to  the  upper  course  of  the  Fleet  (p.  148),  from  its  running 
through  a  deep  hollow.  This  structure,  465  yds.  long  and  27  yds. 
broad,  extending  from  Newgate  to  Hatton  Garden,  was  constructed 
in  order  to  overcome  the  serious  obstruction  to  the  traffic  between 
Oxford  Street  and  the  City  caused  by  the  steep  descent  of  Holbom 
Hill.  Externally  the  viaduct,  which  is  constructed  almost  entirely 
of  iron,  is  not  visible,  as  rows  of  buildings  extend  along  either 
side.  Beneath  the  roadway  are  vaults  for  commercial  purposes,  and 
subways  for  gas  and  water  pipes,  telegraph-wires,  and  sewage, 
while  at  the  sides  are  the  cellars  of  the  houses.  —  On  the  left  is 
the  Holbom  Viaduct  Station  of  the  South  Eastern  and  Chatham 
Railway  (p.  28),  and  above  it  is  the  Holbom  Viaduct  Hotel  (p.  8). 
The  iron  *Bridge  over  Farringdon  Street  (which  traverses  Holborn 
Valley,  p.  148)  is  39  yds.  long  and  is  supported  by  12  columns  of 
granite,  each  4  ft.  in  diameter.  On  the  parapet  are  bronze  statues 
of  Art,  Science,  Commerce,  and  Agriculture;  on  the  comer- 
towers,  statues  of  famous  Lord  Mayors.  Flights  of  steps  descend 
in  the  towers  to  Farringdon  Street. 

To  the  left,  beyond  the  bridge,  are  the  City  Temple  (Congrega- 
tional church;  Rev.  R.  J.  Campbell;  see  p.  69)  and  St.  Andrew's 

The  City.  2.    HOLBOBN.  99 

Church,  the  Utter  ereeted  In  1686  by  Wren.  Col.  HutcMnson  wib 
married  at  St.  Andrew's  to  Lncy  Apsley  in  1638;  Kiohard  Savage 
was  baptiied  here  on  Jan.  18ih,  1696-97 ;  William  Hazlitt  was  mar- 
ried here  (May  Ist,  1808),  with  Charles  Lamh  as  best  man;  and 
Benjamin  Disraeli  (Lord  Beaconsfleld)  was  christened  here  on  July 
31st,  1817,  at  the  age  of  twelve  years. 

A  little  farther  on  is  Holhom  Circus,  embellished  with  an  Equea^ 
trian  Statue  ofPtince  Albert  ^  by  Baeorhf  with  allegorical  figures  and 
reliefs  on  the  granite  pedestal.  Charterhouse  Street  leads  hence  to 
the  N.E.  to  SmUhfieLd  (p.  100)  and  Charterhouse  Square  (p.  102), 
while  Hatton  Oatden  (so  named  from  Sir  Christopher  Hatton,  Queen 
Elizabeth's  Lord  Keeper)  leads  to  the  N.  towards  ClerkenweU  Road, 

17 ear  the  beginning  of  Charterhouse  Street  is  the  entrance  to  Bly  Place, 
formerly  the  site  of  the  celebrated  palace  of  the  bishops  of  Ely,  where  John 
of  Gaunt,  brother  of  the  Black  Prince  and  father  of  Henry  IV.,  died  in  1399. 
The  ehapel  of  the  palace,  known  as  'SljOhapel  (8t.  Ethetdreda's;  see  p.  71), 
escaped  the  fire  of  1666  and  has  been  recently  restored.  It  is  a  good 
specimen  of  i4th  cent,  architecture  and  retains  its  original  oaken  roof. 
The  noble  E.  and  W.  windows  are  splendid  examples  of  tracery,  and  the 
former  is  filled  with  fine  stained  glass.  The  crypt  is  also  worth  rlsiting, 
and  the  quaint  cloister,  planted  with  fig-trees,  forms  a  strangely  quiet 
nook  amid  the  roar  of  Holbom. 

On  the  W.  side  of  Holbom  Circus  begins  Holhom,  leading  to 
Oxford  Street  and  Bayswater ;  see  p.  274.  On  the  S.  side  of  Holbom, 
beyond  Fetter  Lane,  is  Barnard^ s  Jrm,  an  old  inn  of  chancery  (comp. 
p.  151),  purchased  by  the  Mercers'  Company,  which  in  1894  here 
erected  two  large  red  brick  buildings  for  the  Merceri  Schools,  with 
accommodation  for  300  pupils.  The  old  hall  of  the  inn  has  been 
preserved  as  a  dining-room  for  the  boys.  The  Mercers*  Schools  claim 
to  have  been  established  about  the  middle  of  the  15th  cent,  and 
number  John  Colet,  Dean  of  St.  Paul's  (p.  112),  and  Sir  Thomas 
Gresham  (p.  1 12)  among  their  distinguished  scholars.  A  little  farther 
to  the  W.,  opposite  Gray's  Inn  Road,  is  *StapU  In,n,  a  quaint  and 
picturesque  old  inn  of  chancery  (comp.  p.  151),  celebrated,  like 
Barnard's  Inn,  by  Dickens.  The  hall  of  Staple  Inn  has  been  recently 
restored.  Dr.  Samuel  Johnson  wrote  ^Rasselas^  here.  Still  farther 
on  rises  the  facade  (1902)  of  the  Birhbech  Bank,  embellished  with 
busts  of  Canova  and  Lord  Leighton  and  reliefs  of  General  Baden- 
Powell,  Lord  Kitchener,  Lord  Roberts,  and  Viscount  Wolseley.  On 
the  N.  side  of  Holbom,  opposite  the  end  of  Furnlval  Street,  are  the 
offices  of  the  Prudential  Assurance  Co,,  an  imposing  Gothic  building 
in  red  brick,  occupying  the  site  Of  FumivaVs  Inn,  formerly  an  inn 
of  chancery.  Charles  Dickens  was  living  at  Furnival's  Inn  when 
he  began  the  Tickwick  Papers'.  Leather  Lathe,  on  the  E.  side  of 
the  new  block,  is  largely  inhabited  by  Italians  of  the  poorer  classes. 
In  nrooke  Street,  on  the  W.  side,  stood  the  house  (No.  39;  rebuilt) 
in  which  Chatterlon  killed  himself  in  1770.  Opposite  the  N.  end  of 
Brooke  Street  is  St.  Alban's  Church  (PI.  R,  36 :  II),  the  scene  of 
the  labours  of  the  Rev.  A.  H.  Makonochie  (d.  1887)  and  still  noted 


100  3.  SMITHFIELD.  The  aty. 

for  Its  extremely  ritnallstle  sendees.  The  interior  is  adorned  with 
painting,  alabaster,  and  coloured  marble.  The  organ  (by  H.  Willis) 
Is  one  of  the  finest  In  London.  ^-  A  few  yards  to  the  W.  of  Brooke  St. 
is  Gray* 8  Inn  Road,  just  beyond  which  is  Oray^i  Inn  (see  p.  162). 

3.  Smifhfield.  St.  Bartholomew's  Hospital  and  Church. 

From  St.  Sepnlchre^s  Church  (p.  98)  QilUpur  Street  leads  to 
the  N.  to  Smith  field.  To  the  left  diyerges  Cock  Lane,  which  in 
1762  was  the  scene  'of  the  famous  imposture  known  as  the  *Oock 
Lane  Ghost',  which  so  interested  Dr.  Johnson,  Horace  Walpole, 
and  other  men  of  the  time.  At  the  comer  of  Giltspur  Street  and 
Cock  Lane  is  an  inscription  to  the  effect  that  this  was  Pye  Comer, 
where  the  Great  Fire  of  1666  stopped,  having  begun  in  Pudding 
Lane  (p.  123). 

The  market-place  of  Smithfleld  (PI.  R,  36, 40;  Ji),  a  name  said 
to  haye  been  originally  Smooth-field ,  was  formerly  a  tournament 
ground,  and  lay  outside  the  walls  of  London.  Here  Bartholomew 
Fair,  with  Its  revels,  was  held  for  many  ages.  Sham-flghts,  tilts, 
tricks  of  acrobats,  and  even  miracle-plays  were  exhibited.  Smith- 
field  was  the  place  of  public  execution  before  Tyburn,  and  in  1305 
witnessed  the  beheading  of  the  Scottish  patriot,  William  Wallace. 
Wat  Tyler  was  slain  here  in  1381  by  the  then  Lord  Mayor,  Sir 
William  Walworth ;  and  here,  in  the  reign  of  'Bloody  Mary\  many 
of  the  persecuted  Protestants ,  including  Anne  Askew,  Rogers, 
Bradford,  and  Phllpot,  suffered  death  at  the  stake,  while  under 
Elizabeth  several  Nonconformists  met  with  a  similar  fate.  Subse- 
quently, during  a  long  period,  Smithfield  was  the  only  cattle- 
market  of  London.  The  space  having  at  length  become  quite  inade- 
quate, the  cattle-market  was  removed  to  Copenhagen  Fields  (p.  63) 
in  1855,  and  in  1862-68  the  London  Central  Meat  Market  was 
erected  here  on  the  N.  side  of  the  open  space  now  known  as  West 
Smithfield.  The  building,  designed  by  Sir  Horace  Jones,  is  in  a 
pleasing  Renaissance  style,  with  four  towers  at  the  comers.  It  is 
630  ft.  long,  245  ft.  broad,  and  30  ft.  high,  and  covers  an  area  of 
3^2  acres.  The  roof  is  of  glass  and  iron.  A  broad  carriage-road 
intersects  the  market  from  N.  to  S. 

Below  the  building  is  an  extensive  Railway  Depot,  connected  with 
several  nnderground  railways,  from  which  the  meat  is  conveyed  to  the 
market  by  a  lift.  In  the  centre  of  Smithfield  is  a  small  garden,  with  a 
handsome  fountain.  The  road  winding  round  the  garden  leads  down  to 
the  subterranean  area  below  the  market,  which  is  a  sufficiently  curious 
specimen  of  London  underground  life  to  repay  the  descent. 

To  the  W.  of  the  Meat  Market  is  the  London  Central  Potatry  antmh'o- 
vUion  Market^  which  was  opened  for  business  in  1876.  It  is  by  the  same 
architect  and  in  the  same  style  as  the  Meat  Market,  and  measures  260  by 
246  ft.  Still  farther  to  the  W.  (on  the  E.  side  of  Farringdon  Street)  stands 
the  London  Central  General  Market,  erected  in  1836-92,  comprizing  sections 
for  poultry  and  provisions,  fish,  and  fruit,  vegetables,  and  flowers. 

TKe  CUy.    3.  ST.  BARTHOLOMEW'S  CHURCH.  101 

On  the  £.  side  of  Wtst  SmUhfiM  lies  8t  Bartholomew't  HoipiUl 
(PI.  R,  40;  //),  the  oldest  and  one  of  the  wealthiest  henoTolent 
institutions  in  London.  In  1123  Rahere,  a  f aTonrite  of  Henry  I. , 
founded  here  a  priory  and  hospital  of  St.  Bartholomew,  which 
were  enlarged  hy  Richard  Whittington,  Lord  Mayor  of  London. 
The  hospital  was  refounded  by  Henry  Till,  on  the  suppression 
of  the  monasteries  in  1547.  The  main  large  quadrangular  ediilce 
was  erected  by  Oibbt  in  1730-33 ,  and  has  two  entrances.  Aboye 
the  W.  gate,  towards  Smlthfleld,  built  in  1702,  is  a  statue  of 
Henry  YIII.,  with  a  sick  man  and  a  cripple  at  the  sides.  An  in- 
scription on  the  external  wall  commemorates  the  burning  of  three 
Protestant  martyrs  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Mary  (p.  100).  Within 
the  gate  It  the  church  of  8i,  Bartholomew  the  Less,  originally  built 
by  Rahere,  but  fe-erected  In  1823.  The  hospital  ei^oys  a  yearly 
reyenue  of  66,000^,  and  contains  670  beds,  in  which  about  7500 
patients  are  annually  attended.  Relief  is  also  given  to  about  125,000 
casualty  and  out-patients.  Cases  of  accident  are  taken  in  at  any 
hour  of  the  day  or  night,  and  receiye  immediate  and  gratuitous  at- 
tention. The  famous  Medical  School  connected  with  the  hospital  has 
numbered  among  its  teachers  Haryey,  the  discoyerer  of  the  circula- 
tion of  the  blood,  Abemethy,  and  other  renowned  surgeons  and 
physicians.  The  medical  school  was  rebuilt  and  enlarged  in  1876-Sl 
at  a  cost  of  50,000^  It  includes  Anatomieal^  Medical,  and  Chemical 
Theatres,  a  large  Dissecting  Boom,  yarious  Laboratories,  Museums 
of  Af%atomy  and  Botany,  and  a  well-furnished  Library,  Part  of  the 
Christ's  Hospital  property  (p.  97)  was  secured  in  1902  for  the  ex- 
tension and  reconstruction  of  the  hospital,  and  in  1907  a  new  Out^ 
Patient  and  CcuuaUy  Department  was  opened  in  Giltspur  St.,  pro- 
portionate in  size  to  the  enormous  out-patient  practice  of  the  hospital. 

The  great  hall  c  ntains  a  few  good  portraits,  among  which  we  notice 
an  old  portrait  of  Henry  VIII.  (after  Holbein):  Dr.  Badcliffe,  physic'an  to 
Queen  Anne,  by  Kneller;  Perceval  Pott,  for  43  years  Burgeon  to  the  In- 
stitution, by  Sir  Joshua  Reynold;  Abemethy,  the  sui^eon,  by  Sir  Thomas 
Lawrence;  also  a  bust  of  Queen  Victoria,  by  Otuhm  Fard^  and  a  portrait  of 
Edward  VII.,  by  Luke  Ftldee.  In  the  committee-room  is  another  portrait  of 
Henry  VIII.,  attributed  to  Bolbein.  The  paintings  on  the  grand  staircase 
(the  Good  Samaritan,  the  Pool  ofBethesda,  Bahe:e  as  founder  of  the  Hospi- 
til,  and  a  Sick  Man  borne  by  monks)  are  the  work  of  Hogarth^  who  exe- 
cuted them  gratuitously,  and  was  in  return  made  a  Oovemor  for  life. 

The  neighbouring  *Church  of  St.  Bartholomew  tlie  0reat  is 
reached  through  an  inconspicuous  arched  gateway,  richly  ornamented 
with  fine  dog-toothed  moulding,  on  the  N.E.  side  of  West  Smith- 
fleld,  near  the  beginning  of  the  street  known  as  Little  Britain  (p.  96). 
The  church,  chiefly  in  the  Anglo-Korman  style,  Testored  in  lo63-66 
and  again  in  1886  et  seq.,  is  open  daily  from  9.30  to  5.  With  the 
exception  of  the  chapel  in  the  Tower  (p.  134),  which  is  20  years 
earlier,  this  is  the  oldest  church  in  the  City  of  London.  Like  the 
Hospital  (see  aboye)  it  was  founded  by  Rahere  in  1 123,  sixty  years 
before  the  foundation  of  the  Temple  Church  (p.  ^^'^}  f?4rri  '^^tmaST 

102  3.  CHARTERHOUSE.  The  City, 

The  exiftlng  chnrtili,  consisting  merely  of  the  choir,  the  crossing,  and 
one  bay  of  the  nare  of  the  original  Priory  Church,  is  mainly  pure  Nor- 
man work  as  left  1>y  Bahere.  Other  portions  of  the  chnrch  were  alienated 
or  destroyed  by  Benry  VIII.  The  gateway  from  Smithfield  was  the 
entrance  either  to  the  nave,  now  the  graveyard,  or  to  an  inner  court. 
Here  may  be  seen  some  remains  of  the  E.B.  piers  of  the  nave,  which 
was  somewhat  later  than  the  choir.  Early  in  the  15th  cent,  the  apsidal 
end  of  the  choir  was  replaced  by  a  square  ending,  with  two  Perpendicular 
windows,  the  jambs  of  which  still  remain.  The  clerestory  was  rebuilt 
at  the  same  time  and  a  fine  Lady  Chapel  thrown  out  to  the  E.  of  the 
high-altar.  This  chapel  was  long  used  as  a  fringe  manufactory,  being 
mutilated  almost  beyond  recognition;  it  was,  however,  repurchased  in 
1886  for  66001.  and  has  been  restored.  Below  it  is  an  interesting  crypt 
(adm.  6d.).  Prior  BoUon  made  farther  alterations  in  the  i6th  cent,  and 
his  rebus  (a  *bolt*  throueh  a  Hun*)  may  be  seen  at  the  base  of  the  beau- 
tiful oriel  on  the  8.  side  of  the  choir  and  on  the  doorway  at  the  E. 
end  of  the  8.  ambulatory.  The  present  apse  was  built  in  the  recent 
restoration,  from  a  design  by  Sir  Aston  Webb,  &.  A.,  and  has  restored 
the  choir  to  something  of  its  original  beauty.  The  K.  transept  before  its 
restoration  was  occupied  by  a  blacksmith's  forge.  Doors  in  the  transepts 
lead  respectively  to  the  N.  triforium,  containing  a  collection  of  stones 
found  during  the  restoration,  and  to  the  S.  triforium  with  Bolton's  oriel 
(adm.  6d.).  The  modern  iron-work  in  the  arcading  of  the  N.  transept  and 
the  screen  of  the  Lady  Chapel  deserve  notice.  A  c^ood  Norman  doorway 
at  the  W.  end  of  the  church  leads  to  two  bays  of  the  E.  walk  of  the  ori- 
fiinal  cloisters,  rebuilt  with  the  inclusion  of  some  ancient  remains  in  1905 
(adm.  6d.).  These  bays  are  the  only  extant  relics  of  the  secular  buildings 
of  the  priory.  —  Photographs  of  the  church  are  sold  by  the  verger  (prices 
6<f.-2s. ;  description  of  the  church  is.). 

The  Tombs  are  worthy  of  attention.  That  of  the  founder,  on  the  N. 
side  of  the  sanctuary,  with  its  rich  canopy,  is  much  later  than  the  effigy 
of  Rahere  resting  upon  it.  In  the  8.  ambulatory  is  the  handsome  tomb, 
in  alabaster,  of  Sir  Walter  Mildmay  (d.  1GB9),  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer 
to  Queen  Elizabeth  and  founder  of  Emmanuel  College,  Cambridge.  Many 
of  the  epitophs  are  curious;  that  of  John  and  Margaret  Whiting  (1680-81) 
in  a  window-recess,  in  the  N.  aisle,  ends:  — 

*Shee  first  deceased,  Hee  for  a  little  Tryd 
To  live  without  her,  likd  it  not  and  dyd\ 

The  last  line  in  the  epitaph  of  Edward  Cooke  (1662),  to  the  E.  of 
Hildmay's  tomb,  refers  to  the  fact  that  it  is  infcribed  on  a  kind  of  Veeping 
marble'  which  frequently  condensed  moisture.  The  modem  heating  arrange- 
ments of  the  church  have  put  an  end  to  the  phenomenon.  —  At  the  W. 
end  of  the  church  is  a  tasteful  oaken  organ-screen,  erected  in  1839. 

Among  the  notable  men  who  have  lived  in  Bartholomew  Close  are 
Hilton,  Franklin  (working  in  a  printing-office),  Hogarth  (who  was  baptised 
in  the  existing  font).  Dr.  Caius,  and  Washington  Irving. 

GbarteTbonse  Street,  a  broad  and  handsome  thoToughfare  to 
the  N.  of  Smithfield,  leads  from  Holborn  (p.  99)  to  Aldersgate 
Street,  vi&  Oharterhonse  Square.  To  the  N.E.  of  the  last  is  the 
Charterhoase  (corrnpted  from  Chartreuse;  PI.  R,  40),  once  a 
Carthusian  monastery,  or  priory  of  the  Salutation,  founded  in  1371 
on  the  site  of  a  burying-fleld  for  persons  dying  of  the  plague.  After 
Its  dissolution  by  Henry  VIII.  in  1537  the  monastery  passed  through 
various  hands,  including  those  of  Lord  North  and  Thomas  Howard, 
Duke  of  Norfolk,  who  made  it  the  town-house  of  the  Howards. 
Queen  Elizabeth  made  a  stay  of  five  days  at  the  Charterhouse  await- 
ing J^er  conation,  and  her  successor  James  I.  kept  court  here  for 
'AeveraT^ays  on  entering  London.    The  property  was  purchased  in 

The  City,  3.  ST.  JOHN'S  GATE.  103 

1611  by  Thomas  Sutton,  a  wealthy  merchant,  for  his  'Hospital',  i,e 
a  school  for  40  *poor  boys'  and  a  home  foi  80  *poor  men'.  A  curfew, 
tolled  eyery  eyening  at  8  or  9  o'clock,  proclaims  the  number  of  the 
*poor  brethren^  which  owing  to  depreciation  of  agricultural  rents  is 
now  59.  These  are  not  former  pupils  of  the  school ;  the  flctltlous 
Instance  of  Thackeray's  Col.  Newcome,  who  was  both  a  pupil  and 
a  poor  brother,  is  one  which  has  very  rarely  been  paralleled  in  the 
real  history  of  the  Institution.  The  school  was  transferred  in  1872 
to  Godalming  in  Surrey,  where  large  and  handsome  buildings  were 
erected  for  it  (see  Baedeker's  Great  Britain).  The  part  of  the  pro- 
perty thus  vacated  was  sold  to  the  Merchant  Taylors'  Company  for 
their  ancient  school,  now  containing  500  boys.  The  Charterhouse 
School,  which  is  attended  by  500  boys  besides  60  on  the  found- 
ation, boasts  among  its  former  scholars  the  names  of  Barrow, 
Crashaw,  Lovelace,  Steele,  Addison,  Blackstone,  Wesley,  Thomas 
Day  (author  of  *Sandford  and  Merton'),  Grote,  Thirlwall,  Leech, 
Havelock,  and  Thackeray  *,  while  among  the  famous  pupils  of  the 
Merchant  Taylors'  School  are  Edmund  Spenser,  James  Shirley,  and 
Lord  Clive.  Visitors  are  shown  over  the  buildings  by  the  porter 
any  day  except  Sun.  (fee  6(2.,  reduction  for  a  party);  but  the  Great 
Hall  is  closed  from  noon  to*3  p.m.  Visitors  may  attend  service  in 
the  chapel  on  Sun.  at  11  and  on  weekdays  at  9.30  and  6. 

The  ancient  baildings  date  chiefly  from  the  early  part  of  the  i6th 
cent.,  but  have  been  modified  and  added  to  by  Lord  North,  the  Duke  of 
Korfolk,  and  others.  The  Or  eat  Hall  is  considered  one  of  the  finest  spe* 
cimens  of  a  16th  cent,  room  in  London.  The  Oreat  Staircase  and  the 
OreeU  Chamber  upstairs  are,  with  the  exception  of  the  W.  window  of  the 
latter,  just  as  the  Duke  of  Norfolk  left  them  three  centuries  ago.  Part 
of  the  original  Chapel  (1371)  remains,  but  it  was  altered  by  the  monks 
about  1500  and  greatly  enlarged  by  the  Trustees  of  Thomas  Sutton  in 
1612,  when  it  received  its  present  Jacobean  appearance.  It  is  approached 
by  a  cloister  with  memorials  of  Thackeray,  Leech,  Havelock.  John  Hnl- 
lah,  etc.,  and  contains  a  fine  alabaster  monument  of  Sutton  (loll)  and  the 
monuments  of  the  first  Lord  Ellenborongh  by  Ghantrey  and  of  Dr.  Raine 
by  Flaxman.  The  altar-piece  is  a  copy  of  Francla^s  Pieta  in  the  National 
Gallery  (p.  172;  No.  180).  The  initials  of  Prior  Houghton,  who  was  head 
of  the  priory  at  the  dissolution,  may  be  seen  on  the  outer  wall  of  the 
Washhouee  Court.  The  two  quadrangles  in  which  the  Pensioners  and  some 
of  the  officials  reside  were  built  about  1825-40. 

The  Matters  Lodge  contains  several  portraits:  Sutton,  the  founder  of 
the  institution;  Charles  II. ;  George  Villiers,  second  Duke  of  Buckingham ; 
Duke  of  Monmouth ;  Lord  Chancellor  Shaftesbury ;  Lord  Chancellor  Somers ; 
William,  Earl  of  Graven ;  Archbishop  Sheldon ;  Talbot,  Duke  of  Shrews- 
bury; and  the  fine  portrait  of  Dr.  Burnet,  by  Kneller. 

A  little  to  the  W.  of  the  Charterhouse  is  St,  John's  Lane ,  in 
which  is  situated  St.  John'i  jSate  (PI.  R,  36),  an  interesting  relic 
of  an  old  priory  of  the  knights  of  St.  John ,  with  lateral  turrets, 
erected  in  the  late-Gothic  style  in  1504,  by  Prior  Docvcra,  On  the 
N.  side  of  the  gateway  are  the  arms  of  the  priory  and  of  Doowra  j 
and  on  the  S.  side  those  of  England  and  of  France.  The  knights 
of  St.  John  were  suppressed  by  Henry  VIII.,  restored  by  Mary, 
and  finally  dispersed  by  Elizabeth.   The  rooms  above  the  gate  were 

104  3.  BUNHILL  FIELDS.  The  City. 

once  occupied  by  Gaye,  the  foundei  of  the  *  Gentleman's  Magazine' 
(1731),  to  which  Dr.  Johnson  contributed  and  which  had  a  repie- 
sentallon  of  St.  John's  Gate  on  the  coTer;  they  contain  some  in- 
teresting historical  relics.  The  baildlng  Is  now  oecnpied  by  the 
Order  of  St  John,  a  benevolent  association  engaged  in  ambulance 
and  hospital  work,  etc.,  and  visitors  are  admitted  only  with  special 
order  from  the  secretary.  —  In  St.  John's  Square,  to  the  K.  of 
the  gate,  is  St.  John's  Church  (care-taker,  Mrs.  Toms,  112  Olerken- 
well  Road).  The  Norman  crypt  dates  from  the  12-1 3th  cent,  and 
formed  part  of  the  old  priory  church.  It  was  in  this  crypt  that  the 
exposure  of  the  'Cook  Lane  Ghost'  (p.  100)  was  consummated.  In 
the  little  graveyard,  behind  the  church,  are  buried  several  rela- 
tives of  Wilkes  Booth,  the  murderer  of  President  Lincoln. 

Olerkenwell  Road  runs  to  the  W.  from  St.  John's  Square  to  Gray's 
Inn  Road,  with  Gray's  Inn  (p.  152).  The  considerable  district  of 
CUrkenwell,  now  largely  inhabited  by  wateh-makers,  goldsmiths, 
and  opticians,  derives  its  name  from  the  'Clerks' Well'  once  situated 
here,  to  which  the  parish  clerks  of  London  annually  resorted  for 
the  celebration  of  miracle  plays,  etc. 

A  little  to  the  K.,  at  the  corner  of  St.  John  Street  Road  and  Ashby  Street, 
is  the  Martyrs'  Memorial  Church  (,8t.  J'leter't:  PI.  B,  86),  a  fantastic  French 
Gothic  edifice  erected  about  1870,  with  stanies  of  the  Smithfleld  Protestant 
martyrs.  Close  by  are  Northampton  Square  and  Northampton  Institute  (Fl.  B, 
36),  occupying  what  was  once  the  garden  of  the  London  house  of  the 
Harquis  of  Northampton.  The  institute,  opened  in  1897,  is  probably  the 
largest  polytechnic  in  London  (p.  xxxiii).  —  A  little  to  the  E.  runs  Ootwell 
Roady  the  S.  part  of  which,  formerly  named  Goswell  Street,  is  familiar  to 
aU  readers  of  ^Pickwick'.  —  Bwedenborg  died  in  1772  at  26  Great  Bath  Street, 
Olerkenwell  (comp.  p.  142). 

Glerkenwell  Road  is  continued  to  the  E.  by  Old  Street,  from 
which,  on  the  right,  diverges  BunhlU  Row,  at  No.  125  In  which 
John  Milton  once  lived  (tablet).  Here  also  is  the  BnnMll  Fields 
Cemetery  (PI.  R,  40,  44),  also  known  for  a  time  as  TinddW$  Burial 
Ground^  once  the  chief  burial-place  for  Nonconformists,  but 
disused  since  1852.  It  contains  tlie  tombs  of  John  Bunyan  (d. 
1688;  sarcophagus  with  recumbent  figure,  to  the  S.  of  the  central 
walk),  Daniel  Defoe  (d.  1731 ;  obelisk  to  the  N.  of  the  central  walk), 
Dr.  Isaac  Watts  (d.  1748;  altar-tomb  to  the  E.  of  Defoe),  Susan- 
nah Wesley  (d.  1742;  mother  of  John  and  Charles  Wesley),  William 
Blake  (d.  1827),  Dr.  John  Owen  (1616-83),  Henry,  Richard,  and 
William  Cromwell  (descendants,  but  not  sons,  of  the  Protector), 
Thomas  Stothard,  R.  A.  (d.  1834),  etc. 

A  little  to  the  W.  of  this  cemetery  is  the  Friends'  Burial  Ground^  with 
the  grave  of  George  Fox,  founder  of  the  Society  of  Friends  or  Quakers. 

Immediately  to  the  S.  of  Bunhill  Fields  are  the  headquarters  and 
drill-ground  of  the  Honourable  Artillery  Company,  the  oldest  mili- 
tary body  in  the  kingdom. 

The>H.  A.  C,  as  it  is  generally  called,  received  its  charter  of  incor- 
poration, under  the  title  of  the  Guild  or  Fraternity  of  St.  George,  from 
Henry  VIII.  in  1537,  and  its  rights  and  privileges  have  been  confirmed  by 

The  City.  3.  WESLEY'S  HOUSE.  105 

upwards  of  90  royal  warrants,  tbo  last  dated  March,  1889.  The  officers  of 
the  Trained  Bands  and  the  City  of  London  Militia  were  formerly  always 
selected  from  members  of  this  Company.  Since  1680  the  Captain-Oeneral 
and  Colonel  has  always  been  either  the  King  or  the  Prince  of  Wales.  The 
names  of  John  Milton,  Christopher  Wren,  and  Samuel  Pepys  are  on  the 
roll  of  former  members.  The  Company,  which  has  occupied  Its  present 
ground  since  1643,  consists  of  two  batteries  of  field-artillery  and  a  bat- 
talion of  infantry.  It  is  the  only  volunteer  corps  which  indudes  horse- 
artillery.  The*  H.  A.  C.  takes  precedence  after  the  regular  forces,  the  im- 
perial yeomanry,  and  the  militia,  and  is  one  of  the  few  regiments  allowed  to 
march  through  the  City  of  London  with  fixed  bayonets.  The  Ancient  and 
Honourable  Artillery  Companv  of  Boston  (Mass.),  the  oldest  military  body 
in  America,  was  founded  in  1688  by  some  members  of  the  H.  A.  C.  who 
had  emigrated.  The  two  corps  are  aasociated  on  the  friendliest  terms. 
See  the  History  of  ihe  Company,  by  Lt.  Col.  Raikes. 

In  City  Road,  facing  the  £.  entiance  of  Banhill  Fields,  is  Wee- 
ley'i  Chapel  (PL  E,  44).  John  Wesley  (1703-91)  is  buried  in  the 
grayeytid  behind  the  chapel,  and  in  front  of  it  is  his  Statue,  un- 
veiled in  1891.  His  mother  (d.  1742)  and  his  brother  Ghailos  (d. 
1788)  are  commemorated  in  the  chapel.  WcaUy^a  House  (No.  47 
City  Koad),  adjoining  the  chapel  on  the  S.,  is  now  partly  fitted  up 
as  a  Weslby  MusBUM  (daily,  10-4,  3(i.).  Wesley's  sitting-room, 
the  bedroom  in  which  he  died,  and  the  small  adjoining  room  which 
was  the  scene  of  his  private  devotions  are  shown,  containing  furni- 
ture belonging  to  Wesley ,  books,  autographs,  portraits,  and  per- 
sonal relics. 

City  Road  is  continued  on  the  S.  by  Finabury  Pavement  and 
Moorgate  Street  (stations  of  the  Metropolitan  and  the  City  &  S. 
London  Electric  Railway)  to  Lothhury,  near  the  Bank  of  England 
(p.  113).  —  In  Fimbwry  arcus  (PL  R,  44;  77/)  is  the  London  In- 
aUtutUm  (p.  66). 

In  Curtain  Road  (PI.  R,M),  reached  yi&  Castle  Street  and  Scrutton  Street, 
is  the  Church  of  8i.  James,  which  probably  stands  on  or  near  the  site  of 
the  old  Ottrtain  Theatre^  where,  according  to  tradition,  ^Hamlet*  was  first 
performed.  It  is  even  more  probable  that  'Romeo  and  Juliet^  was  also 
played  here  for  the  first  time.  It  is  not  unlikely  that  Shakspeare  acted 
here  in  his  own  plays.  To  commemorate  this  association  a  stained-glass 
window  was  erected  in  1886  at  the  W.  end  of  the  church  by  Hr.  Stan- 
ley Cooper. 

At  No.  14  Blomfleld  Street,  London  Wall  (PL  R,  43, 44),  are  the 
offices  of  the  London  Missionary  Society,  containing  a  small  Museum 
(open  daily,  9.30-6,  on  application).  —  The  vestry  of  the  small 
Church  of  All  HaUows-on-the-  WaU  (PL  R,  43 ;  777),  in  London  Wall, 
is  believed  to  occupy  the  site  of  a  bastion  of  the  Roman  city  wall. 
The  entrance  to  the  pulpit,  by  a  flight  of  steps  leading  direct  from  the 
vestry  through  the  wall  of  the  church,  is  unique  in  London.  A  little 
farther  to  the  W.,  at  the  comer  of  London  Wall  and  Throgmorton 
Avenue,  is  Carpenter's  HaU,  rebuilt  in  1876  and  containing  some 
old  portraits  and  plate  (no  adm.).  Still  farther  to  the  W.  in  London 
Wall,  is  a  small  part  of  the  churchyard  of  St,  AlphagCy  containing  a 
large  and  interesting  fragment  of  London  Wall  (p.  xxiv). 


4.    Cheapside.    Gaildhall.    Mansion  Hoase. 

Goldsmiths'  Hall,    St  Mary  le  Bow.     Oresham  College,    Mercers' 
Hall.   Armourers^  Hall.    St.  Stephen's,  Walbrook. 

From  St.  Paul's  Cliurchyard  Cp.94),  Cheapside  (P1.R,39,  and  III; 
from  the  Anglo-Saxon  ceapian,  *to  sell',  *  to  bargain'),  l)egmmng 
at  PeeVs  Statite  (p.  95),  runs  to  the  E.  and  is  continued  to  the  Man- 
sion House  (p.  112)  by  the  Poultry.  Cheapside,  one  of  the  busiest 
streets  in  the  city,  rich  in  historical  reminiscences,  is  now  lined  with 
handsome  shops.  Its  jewellers  and  mercers  haye  been  famous  from  a 
time  even  earlier  than  that  of  honest  John  Gilpin,  under  whose  wheels 
the  stones  rattled  'as  if  Cheapside  were  mad'.  Cheapside  Cross,  one 
of  the  memorials  erected  by  Edward  I.  to  Queen  Eleanor,  stood  here, 
at  the  end  of  Wood  St.  (p.  107),  till  destroyed  by  the  Puritans  in 
1643 ;  and  the  neighbourhood  was  frequently  the  scone  of  conflicts 
between  the  apprentices  of  the  various  rival  guilds.  To  the  right 
and  left  diverge  several  cross-streets,  the  names  of  which  probably 
preserve  the  position  of  the  stalls  of  the  different  tradespeople  in 
the  far  back  period  when  Cheapside  was  an  open  market.  Land 
here  is  worth  1,000,000^.  per  acre. 

From  the  W.  end  of  Cheapside,  Foster  Lane,  behind  the  General 
Post  Office,  leads  to  the  N.,  passing  St.  Vtdasi's  Church  (rebuilt  by 
Wren  after  the  Great  Fire;  Robert  Herrick  baptized  here  in  1591 ; 
singular  relief  over  the  W.  door),  to  GoIdsmithB'  Hall,  re-erected 
in  the  Renaissance  stylo  by  Hardwick  in  1835.  Visitors,  though 
sometimes  admitted  on  application,  are  advised  to  write  beforehand 
for  permission. 

Chief  object3  of  interest  in  the  interior:  Grand  Staircase,  with  portraits 
of  George  IV.,  by  Northcote;  William  IV.,  by  Hayter;  George  III.  and  his 
consort  Charlotte,  by  Ramxay;  in  the  Committee  Room  (first  floor),  the 
remains  of  a  Roman  altar  found  in  digging  the  foundations  of  the  present 
hall ;  portrait  of  Lord  Mayor  Myddelton,  -who  provided  London  with  water 
by  the  construction  of  the  New  River  (1613),  by  Jansm;  portrait  of  Lord 
Mayor  Sir  Martin  Bowes  (1545),  with  the  goblet  which  he  bequeathed  to 
the  Goldsmiths'  Company  (out  of  which  Queen  Elizabeth  is  said  to  have 
drunk  at  her  coronation,  and  which  is  still  preserved)^  portraits  of  Queen 
Victoria,  by  Hayter;  Prince  Albert,  by  Smith;  Queen  Adelaide,  by  Shee; 
busts  of  George  HI.,  George  IV.,  and  William  IV.,  by  Chantrey;  statues 
of  Cleopatra  and  the  Sibyl,  by  Story.  —  The  Company,  incorporated  in 
1327,  has  the  privilege  of  assaying  and  stamping  most  of  the  gold  and 
silver  manufactures  of  England,  for  which  it  receives  a  small  percentage, 
just  sufficient  to  defray  the  expenses  of  the  officers. 

Opposite  Foster  Lane,  to  the  left,  is  Old  Change,  leading  to 
Cannon  Street  (p.  130).  In  this  street,  at  the  corner  of  Watling 
Street,  is  the  Church  of  St.  Augivstine  (PI.  R,  39;  III),  rebuilt  by 
Wren  in  1683-95.  The  Rev.  R.  H.  Barham,  author  of  the  *Ingoldsby 
Legends',  was  rector  here  from  1842  till  his  death  in  1845. 

To  the  left,  a  little  farther  on  in  Cheapside  fNo.  141),  is  the 
entrance  to  Saddlers*  Hall  (adm.  on  introduction  only).  The  com- 
pany claims  to  be  the  oldest  in  the  City,  but  its  hall  is  modern, 

The  City,  4.    ST.  MARY  LE  BOW.  107 

having  been  rebailt  in  1820  after  a  fire.  Among  its  treasures  are 
a  crimson  velvet  pall  of  the  16th  cent.,  some  fine  old  silver  plate, 
and  portraits  by  Romney  and  Klostermans.  Near  the  comer  of 
Wood  Street,  on  the  left,  still  stands  the  plane-tree  mentioned  by 
Wordsworth  in  his  Toor  Susan*;  it  is  specially  protected  in  the 
leases  of  the  adjoining  houses.  Between  Friday  Street  and  Bread 
Street,  on  the  right,  once  stood  the  Mermaid  Tavern  i,  rendered 
famous  by  the  social  meetings  of  Shakspeare,  Beaumont,  Fletcher, 
Dr.  Donne,  and  other  members  of  the  club  founded  here  by  Ben 
Jonson  in  1603.  John  Milton  was  born  in  Bread  Street  in  1608, 
and  a  tablet  on  the  house  at  the  corner  of  Bread  Street  and  Wat- 
ling  Street  commemorates  his  birth  and  his  baptism  in  the  church 
of  All  Hallows,  formerly  on  this  site.  Sir  Thomas  More  (b.  1480) 
was  bom  in  Milk  Street,  on  the  opposite  side. 

On  the  right  (S.)  side  of  Cheapside,  farther  on,  is  the  church  of 
St.  Mary  le  Bow,  or  simply  Bow  Church  (so  named  after  an  earlier 
church  on  the  same  site  borne  by  stone  arches^  one  of  Wren's  best 
works,  with  a  tower  235  ft.  high.  The  tower,  at  the  top  of  which 
is  a  dragon  9  ft.  long,  is  especially  admirable ;  'no  other  modern  ^ 
steeple*,  says  Fergusson,  'can  compare  with  this ,  either  for  beauty  ) 
of  outline  or  the  appropriateness  with  which  classical  details  are 
applied  to  so  novel  a  purpose*.  The  church  has  a  fine  old  Norman 
crypt.  Persons  born  within  the  sound  of  Bow-bells  are  popularly 
called  Cockneys,  i.e.  true  Londoners. 

A  curious  old  rhyming  couplet  foretold  that:  — 

*When  the  Exchange  grasshopper  and  dragon  from  Bow 
Shall  meet  —  in  London  shall  be  much  woe." 

This  improbable  meeting  actually  took  place  in  1832,  when  the  two 
vanes  were  sent  to  the  same  yard  for  repairs. 

The  eedesiastieal  Court  of  Arches  takes  its  name  from  having  origin- 
ally met  in  the  vestry  of  this  church. 

On  the  W.  wall  of  the  church  is  an  inscription  referring  to  Hilton, 
removed  from  the  church  of  All  Hallows  (see  p.  105)  on  its  destruction. 

To  the  E.  of  St.  Mary  le  Bow  Queen  Street,  on  the  right  (S.), 
leads  to  Southwark  Bridge  (p.  131);  while  King  Street,  on  the 
left  (N.),  leads  to  Oresham  Street  and  the  Guildhall  (p.  108).  In 
Gresham  Street,  to  the  left,  at  the  corner  of  Guildhall  Yard,  stands 
the  Church  of  St,  Lawrence  Jewry  (open  daily,  11-4),  built  by  AVren 
in  1671-80  and  containing  the  tomb  and  monument  of  Archbp. 
Tillotson  (d.  1694),  who  was  lecturer  here  for  30  years.  A  stained- 
glass  window  (unveiled  in  1900)  commemorates  Sir  Thomas  More 
(see  above),  who  is  represented  in  his  chancellor's  robes.  The  Lord 
Mayor  and  Corporation  attend  service  at  this  church  on  Michaelmas 
Day,  before  electing  the  new  Lord  Mayor.  The  fountain  to  the  N. 
of  the  church,  with  sculptures  by  Joseph  Durham  (iSQ&),  commem- 
orates the  pious  benefactors  of  the  parishes  of  St.  Lawrence  Jewry 
and  St.  Mary  Magdalen  from  1375  to  1765. 

t  Some  authorities  believe  this  stood  to  the  N.  of  Cheapside,  ad- 
joining Saddlers'  Hall. 

108  4.  GUILDHALL.  37i«  City, 

The  preaent  OmldliaU  (PI.  R.  39 ;  III),  or  Council  Hall  of  the  City, 
was  originally  erected  in  1411-39  for  the  sittings  of  the  magistrates 
and  municipal  corporation,  on  the  site  of  an  older  hall  used  for  a 
similar  purpose.  It  was  seriously  injured  by  the  great  fire  of  1666, 
but  immediately  restored.  The  unpleasing  front  towards  Guildhall 
Yard  was  erected  in  1789  from  designs  by  the  younger  Danee^  with 
the  exception  of  the  porch,  which  dates  from  1426.  Above  the 
latter  are  the  arms  of  the  city,  with  the  motto,  Domine  dirige  nos. 

The  numerous  pigeons  which  congregate  in  the  nooks  and  crannies 
of  the  Guildhall,  or  fly  about  the  yard,  will  remind  the  traveller  of  the 
famous  pigeons  of  St.  Hark  at  Venice.    They  are  fed  daUy  about  12.30  p.m. 

Gomp.  ^Descriptive  Account  of  the  Ouildhall  of  the  Gitj  of  London*, 
by  John  E.  Price  (folio,  1S86).    Guide  to  the  Guildhall,  6(2.  (1905). 

The  Gbbat  Hall  (open  all  day),  152  ft.  long,  49  V2  ft-  broad,  and 
89  ft.  high,  is  now  used  for  various  municipal  meetings,  the  election 
of  the  Lord  Mayor,  Sheriffs,  and  members  of  parliament,  and  public 
meetings  of  the  citizens  of  London  to  consider  questions  of  great 
social  or  political  interest.  Every  9th  of  November  the  Lord  Mayor 
and  Sheriffs,  on  the  occasion  of  their  accession  to  office,  give  a  great 
public  dinner  here  to  the  members  of  the  Cabinet,  the  chief  civic 
dignitaries,  an^  others,  which  is  generally  attended  by  nearly  1000 
guests.  The  speeches  made  by  the  King's  Ministers  on  this  and 
other  civic  occasions  are  scanned  attentively,  as  often  possessing  no 
little  political  significance.  —  In  this  hall  took  place  the  trials  of 
Anne  Askew  (burned  at  Smithfleld  in  1546),  the  Earl  of  Surrey 
(154TJ,  Lady  Jane  Grey  (1554),  and  others. 

The  open  timber  roof  is  very  handsome;  it  dates  from  a  restora- 
tion of  the  hall  in  1864-70.  The  stained-glass  window  at  the  E.  end 
was  presented  by  the  Lancashire  operatives  in  acknowledgment  of 
the  City  of  London's  generosity  during  the  Cotton  Famine  (1862-65)5 
that  at  the  W.  end  is  a  memorial  of  the  late  Prince  Consort.  The 
subjects  of  the  other  windows  are  taken  from  the  history  of  the 
city.  By  the  N.  wall  are  monuments  to  Lord  Chatham,  by  Bacon; 
Wellington,  by  Bell;  and  Nelson,  by  Smith.  On  the  S.  wall  are 
monuments  to  William  Pitt,  by  Bubb,  and  Lord  Mayor  Beckford, 
by  Moore  (bearing  on  the  pedestal  the  mayor's  famous  address  to 
George  III.,  which  some  writers  affirm  was  never  actually  deliv- 
ered). The  screen  and  gallery  at  the  W.  end  were  designed  by  Sir 
Horace  Jones  in  1864.  The  two  fanciful  wooden  figures  (I4V2  f*. 
high)  above,  carved  by  Saunders  in  1708,  are  called  Oog  (on  the 
left)  and  Magog  (on  the  right).  Their  predecessors,  made  of  wicker- 
work  and  usually  carried  in  the  Lord  Mayor's  procession,  dated  from 
the  reign  of  Henry  V,  and  were  destroyed  in  the  Great  Fire. 

The  legends  concerning  Gog  and  Magog  are  very  contradictoty.  One 
account  decribei  them  as  the  last  survivors  of  a  race  of  evil  gi.ints  in- 
habiting Albion  and  finally  overcome  by  the  Trojans  on  their  arrival  in 
that  island  about  1000  B.C.  Other  authorities  make  them  fight  on  the  side 
of  the  Trojans,  the  legendary  founders  of  London  (^New  Troy*).  Accord- 
ing to  a  third  version  the  figures  represent  Corineus,  a  British  giant,  and 
Gogmagog,  a  rival  slain  by  him  —  the  confusion  of  the  names  be'ng  ex- 

The  City.  4.  GUILDn  ALI .  109 

plained  by  the  lapse  of  time.    The  names  Qog  and  Magog  occur  several 
times  in  the  Bible. 

On  the  N.  side  of  the  Great  Hall  is  the  entrance  to  the  council 
chambers.  Yiritors  apply  for  admission  at  the  keeper's  office,  on 
the  left.  The  yestibnles  contain  bnsts  of  Gobden,  Gladstone,  Bea- 
consfleld,  Granville  Sharp  (by  Chantrey)^  etc.  The  Common  Coun- 
cil Ghambbb,  erected  from  the  plans  of  Sir  Horace  Jones  in  1884, 
is  a  handsomely  decorated  twelve-sided  apartment ,  54  ft.  in  dia- 
meter, covered  vrith  a  dome  surmounted  by  an  oak  lantern,  81^2  f^* 
above  the  floor.  The  clerestory  windows  of  the  dome  represent  the 
cardinal  virtues;  above  are  frescoes  depicting  the  crafts  of  24  of 
the  livery  companies,  surmounted  by  their  arms.  The  chamber  pro- 
per is  separated  from  a  surrounding  corridor  by  richly  carved  screens, 
glazed  with  the  arms  of  the  53  remaining  companies.  Above  the 
corridor  is  the  public  gallery.  The  chamber  contains  a  statue  of 
George  III.,  by  Chantrey,  and  several  royal  busts.  The  Aldbambn's 
Court  Boom  (17th  cent.)  contains  a  ceiling  painted  by  ThomhUl, 
and  carved  panels  and  stained-glasa  windows  exhibiting  the  arms  of 
various  Lord  Mayors.  The  royal  arms  above  the  Lord  Mayor's  chair 
are  believed  to  be  unique  in  including  the  arms  of  Hanover  ensigned 
with  the  'electoral  bonnet'.  The  Old  Council  Chambbs,  now  used 
for  the  sittings  of  the  Lord  Mayor's  Court,  dates  from  1777.  It  con- 
tains portraits,  by  Jos,  Wright^  of  the  judges  who  settled  the  various 
claims  arising  from  the  Great  Fire  in  16B6.  —  The  interesting  old 
Cryvtt  borne  by  clustered  columns  of  Purbeck  marble,  is  now, 
with  the  porch,  almost  the  sole  relic  of  the  original  Guildhall  of 
1411-31  (apply  to  beadle  in  the  great  hall). 

The  Lib&abt  and  the  Musbum  below  it  are  reached  by  a  corridor 
leading  to  the  E.  from  the  porch  of  the  Guildhall.  There  is  another 
entrance  from  Basinghall  Street. 

The  Ouildhall  Library,  or  Fru  Library  of  the  Corporation  of  the  City  of 
London  (open  daily,  10-8,  Sat.  10-6),  conUina  above  134,000  volamefl  and 
pamphlets,  tncludins  several  good  specimens  of  early  printing,  and  a  large 
and  valuable  coUeetlon  of  works  on  or  connected  with  London,  its  history, 
antiquities,  and  famous  citizens.  The  special  collections  include  the  library 
of  the  old  Dutch  Church  in  Austin  Friars  (p.  115),  a  Hebrew  library  (cata- 
logue, 1891),  the  libraries  of  the  Glockmakers*,  Cooks',  and  Oardeners* 
Companies,  a  very  fine  coUeetion  of  maps  and  plans  of  London,  the  Ka- 
tional  Dickens  Library,  the  Cock  Memorial  Library  of  books  by  or  relat- 
ing to  Sir  Thomas  More,  and  the  Willshire  collection  of  prints.  The  frin- 
cipai  Library^  a  handsome  hall  built  in  the  Perpendicular  style  in  1871-72, 
is  100  ft.  long  and  66  ft.  wide,  and  is  divided  into  nave  and  aisles  by  ar- 
cades. On  the  elaborate  timber  ceiling  are  the  arms  of  the  twelve  great 
City  Companies  (p.  72)  and  of  the  Leathersellers  and  Broderers.  The  spandrels 
of  the  arcades  bear  sculptured  heads  of  famous  representatives  of  the  various 
branches  of  literature,  art,  and  science.  The  N.  stained-glass  window  illus- 
trates the  Introduction  of  Printing  into  England;  the  S.  window  is  emblazoned 
with  the  arms  of  21  minor  livery  companies;  while  the  windows  of  the 
aisles  and  clerestory  respectively  display  the  signs  of  the  /.odiac  and  the 
planetary  symbols.  English  and  foreign,  directories  as  well  as  the  leading 
English  newspapers  and  trade  journals  may  be  consulted  in  the  Jfewtpc^Kr 
Roomy  to  the  8.  of  this  hall.  —  At  the  S.  end  of  the  principal  library, 
which  we  traverse  on  our  way  to  the  mu.oeum,  is  a  collection  of  corpora- 

110  4.  GUILDHALL.  The  City) 

tion  and  livery  badges  and  civic  and  other  medals.  —  In  the  following 
room  is  an  interesting  collection  of  ancient  chronometers,  clocks,  watches, 
and  watch-movements,  belonging  to  the  Clockmakers'  Company.  Thence 
we  descend  to  the  museum  by  a  staircase,  on  which  are  three  stone  stafcaes 
from  ihe  facade  of  the  old  Gnildhall  chapel;  a  glass-case  containing  biblio- 
graphical curiosities;  etc. 

The  'Museum  (adm.,  see  p.  82),  on  the  sunk  floor,  contains  a  collec- 
tion of  Roman,  Saxon,  and  mediasval  antiquities  found  in  London.  At  the 
S.  end  are  the  medittval  antiquities,  among  which  is  a  curious  collection 
of  old  London  shop  and  tavern  signs  Cl7th  cent),  including  (at  the  foot  of 
the  staircase)  that  of  the  Boar's  Head  in  Eastcheap  (dated  1668*,  the  tavern 
is  mentioned  by  Shakspeare;  conip.  p.  122).  In  the  8.E.  corner  (above)  are 
figures  of  Raving  and  Melancholy  Madness,  by  C.  O.  (Hhb^^  from  the  entrance 
of  old  Bethlehem  Hospital.  —  The  Roman  antiquities,  in  the  }f.  half  of  the 
museum,  include  a  group  of  the  DesR  Matres,  found  at  Crutched  Friars  \ 
a  hexagonal  funeral  column,  from  Ludgate  Hill;  a  fine  Roman  tesselated 
pavement,  from  Bucklersbury  (1869);  a  sarcophagus  of  the  4th  cent.,  from 
Clapton ;  the  statue  of  a  Roman  warrior  and  some  architectural  antiquities 
found  in  a  bastion  of  the  old  Roman  wall  in  Bishopsgate;  and  a  large 
collection  of  smaller  antiquities :  terracotta  figures,  lamps,  vases,  dishes, 
goblets,  trinkets,  spoons,  pin§,  needles,  etc.  —  Two  table-cases  near  the  stair- 
case contain  autographs,  including  those  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  Cromwell, 
Wellington,  and  Nelson.  Other  cases  contain  excellent  specimens  of  old 
English  pottery ;  and  one  (below  the  window)  has  glass  of  various  periods, 
including  (at  the  top)  a  so-called  *yard  of  ale\  By  a  column  in  the  N.  ar- 
cade are  the  whipping  -  post  and  other  articles  transferred  hither  in  19C2 
from  the  *Black  Museum'  at  Newgate  (p.  97).  *—  Illustrated  catalogue,  2s. 

The  Go&POBATiON  A&t  Galleby  (adm.,  see  p.  82),  entered 
from  Guildhall  Yard  by  a  door  to  the  right  of  the  main  porch,  was 
established  in  1886.  Besides  the  chief  historical  portraits  and  other 
paintings  previously  in  the  possession  of  the  Corporation,  It  in- 
cludes over  100  works  by  Bit  John  Gilbert  (d.  1897),  presented  by 
the  artist  and  his  brother,  and  numerous  otiier  bequests  and  dona- 
tions, the  chief  of  which  is  the  Gassiot  Bequest  of  112  works  of 
modern  British  art,  yalued  at  90,000.'.  Each  picture  bears  the  name 
of  its  artist  and  subject.   We  mention  some  of  the  principal  works. 

Qallrbt  I.  Opposite  the  entrance  is  a  marble  statue  of  Sir  Henry 
Irving,  by  Ontlote  Ford.  To  the  left:  fc'52.  Ed.  Cooke^  Dutch  shipping;  684. 
/.  C.  Hooky  Deep-sea  fishing;  843.  Ooetze^  Portrait  of  J.  L.  Toole,  the  actor; 
W.  J.  MUlkry  828.  Slave-market  at  Cairo,  ♦704.  Gillingham;  •647.  Wm.  Col- 
Kns,  Nutting-party;  734.  Clarkson  Btanfield^  The  Victory  being  towed  into 
Gibraltar;  830.  D.  Maclite.,  Banquet  scene  in  *MacbetV;  •646.  C7o«*i«,  Bor- 
rowdale;  695;  Wlney  Cooper,  Landscape  with  cattle:  •634.  Gilbert^  The  Knight- 
errant  (water  colourV,  Til.  John  Phillip^  Chat  rouna  the  brasero  ^^S7jU>ove), 
Hd.  Armitage^  Herod  s  feast;  722.  Mar  cut  Stone^  On  the  road  from  Waterloo 
to  Paris ;  527.  Gilbert^  Sir  Lancelot  du  Lake.  —  41.  /.  S.  Copley,  Defeat  of 
the  Spanish  floating  batteries  at  Gibraltar  in  1782,  an  immense  canvas  oc- 
cupying the  entire  end  of  the  gallery.  —  660.  Wm.  Dyce^  George  Herbert  at 
Beinerton ;  *720.  D.  Roberts,  Edinburgh  from  the  Calton  Hill ;  •693.  F,  R.  Lee, 
The  miller's  boat;  Sir  John  Millau,  ;702.^y  second  sermon,  *701  (farther 
on).  My  first  sermon;  Slanfield^  7S0.  CT  the  Gulf  of  Venice,  73r.  Men  o'-war 
off  Portsmouth,  •729.  Old  Holland,  733.  On  the  Texel.  Above,  653.  E.  Cooke, 
Salerno;  'eSS.  /.  C.  Hook.  Sea-urchins ;  637.  Alma  Tadema,  The  Pyrrhic 
dance;  710.  John  Phillip,  Faith;  700.  J.  lAnnell,  Sen.,  Changing  pastures; 
727.  Slingeneyer,  A  Christian  martyr;  W.  Collin*,  643.  Barmouth  Sands,  645. 
Shrimp  boys  at  Cromer ;  *t&%.  Sir  John  Gilbert,  A  bishop ;  639.  James  Archer, 
My  great-grandmother. 

We  now  ascend  the  steps  to  the  gallery.  Water-colours  by  Sir  John 
Gilbert  (n2i.  A  standard  bearer);   333.    Walter  Goldtmi'h,  The  Thames   at 

The  City.  4.  GRESHAM  COLLEGE.  Ill 

Bray  s  624.  P/iilip  Norman^  Staple  Inn,  Holborn j  614  (above),  0.  0.  Manton^ 
The  wife  of  Jeroboam  and  the  Blind  Prophet}  773.  H.  T.  WelU^  Quarrymen 
of  Purbeck;  677.  Hon.  John  ColHer.  Glytemnestra. 

Oallbbt  II.  To  the  left:  834.  Hugh  Carter^  Hard  times «  *683.  H. 
Koekkoek,  A  calm ;  693.  Leadtr,  The  eharcbyard  at  Bettws-y-Goed ;  P.  Natmythy 
*706.  The  meeting  of  the  Avon  and  Severn,  707  (farther  on),  Vievr  in 
Hampshire-,  672.  W.  H.  Qore^  'Listed;  "649.  Con$t€ibU.  Fording  the  river: 
^^^emdteer.  The  travelled  monkey?  T.  Webttery  *746^  The  smile,  .•74g. 
•^(flrlLcr  on),  The  frown?  718.  Z).  RobeHs.  88.  Giovanni  e  Paolo,  Venice? 
648.  ColUnM,  The  kitten  deceived?  706.  P,  ITatmyth,  Watermiil,  Carshalton? 
719.  D.  BoberUj  The  Forum  at  Borne.  —  Beyond  the  passage  to  Gallery  III: 
668.  Willem  Otet*^  Charles  V.  and  Jeanne  Vandergeyost  before  the  cradle 
of  tbe'.r  daughter  Marguerite?  678.  KteUf  HaUiceUe^  The  fan  seller?  J.  C. 
Hook,  681.  Caught  by  the  tide,  685.  The  Bonxie,  Shetland?  473.  0,  A.  Storey, 
The  violinist?  666.  Tho*.  Fatd,  A  highland  gipsy?  679.  HcOswette^TYit  Spanish 
letter  writer.  —  '771.  La  Thangue,  Mowing  bracken?  •616.  Wpllie,  Com- 
merce  and  sea  power?  610.  T.  H.  McLacMan,  The  isles  of  the  sea?  618. 
Andrew  C.  Oow,  St.  Paul's  Cathedral  on  Queen  Victoria's  Diamond  Jubilee 
(June  2'2nd,  1897?  numerous  portraits)?  636.  H.  S.  Take,  Ruby,  gold,  and 
malachite  ;^g2Sb^<'^«r^  Ego  et  Rex  Meus.  —767.  Briton  Riviire.  The  Temp- 
tation in  the  Wilderness  ?  636.  Bacon,  The  City  of  London  Imperial  Volunteers' 
return  to  London  from  South  Africa,  on  Oct.  29th,  iWO;  634.  Arnesby 
Brown,  The  river  bank.  —  We  return  to  the  passage  leading  to  Gallery  III. 
On  the  right,  drawings  by  Sir  John  Gilbert.  On  the  left:  718.  Phillip, 
^Dolores':  642.  Bovghton,  Returning  from  church?  644.  Collins,  The  pet 
lamb?  741.  Webster,  The  playground?  Creswick,  668.  Evening,  667.  A  sylvan 
stream?  737.   Titsot,  The  last  evening?  297.  /.  Seymour  Z«ca*,  Flirtation. 

GAI.LBBT  III.  Left,  A.  Viekers,  740,  789.  Landscapes?  728-726  (two  on 
the  opposite  wall),  Alf.  Stevens,  Allegorical  figures  of  the  seaaons?  829. 
OsbomSf  An  October  morning  ?  617.  MeLachlem,  A  shepherdess.  —  741.  Yiekers, 
Haddon  Hall?  695.  0.  J).  Leslie.  Sun  and  moon  flowe-s?  620.  TopJian^  The 
shepherd's  meal?  714.  PMllip,  The  huff.  —  Sir  John  Oilbert,  •638.  The  witch, 
774.  The  ford,  533.  An  armed  host?  667.  Faed,  Forgiven.  —  661.  Byee^ 
Henry  VI.  dunng  the  batUe  of  Towton?  712.  PhttUp,  A  la  Beja?  610.  Gilberty 
War:  After  the  battle?  662.  Aug.  Egg,  Autolycus.  ~  On  the  next  wall  is 
a  case  of  miniatures.  689.  Alma  Tadema,  Pleading.  —  Gilbert,  637.  The 
Battle  of  the  Standardv636.  Charcoal  burners,  636.  Cardinal  WolTey  "going 
in  procession  to  WcstmTnster  Hall.  — 

Gallbbt  IV  contains  chiefly  naval,  military,  and  royal  portraits.  Also 
portraits  of  William  Godwin,  by  Piekersgill;  Charles  Lamb,  by  Wm.  HaxUtt ; 
and  William  Haalitt,  by  E.  F,  Green. 

In  Aldermanbuiy,  to  the  W.  of  the  Guildball,  Is  the  Church  of 
St,  ^ory,  AldermanbuTy ,  containing  the  tomb  of  Lord  Jeffreys 
^.^68yJ,  of  the  'Bloody  Assizes'.  Milton  was  married  here  to  his 
second  wife  in  1656.  Heminge  and  Condell,  Shakspeare's  brother  ■ 
actors,  who  pnblished  the  first  folio  edition  of  his  plays  (1623), 
are  commemorated  by  a  monument  in  the  churchyard  (1896). 

Love  Lane  leads  hence  to  the  W.  to  St.  Alban's  (open  1-2),  a  small  church 
by  Wren  (1686),  with  a  curious  old  hour-glass  fixed  above  the  pulpit.  — 
In  Addle  Street,  to  the  N.  of  Love  Lane,  is  Brewers'  Hall  (daily  11  3,  Sat. 
11-1),  containing  an  ancient  kitchen  and  a  curiously  decorated  leaden 
cistern.  —  Silver  Street  continues  Addle  Street  to  Monkwell  Street,  in 
which  is  situated  the  Barbers^  Hall  (formerly  Barber-Surgeons'  ?  PI.  R.  40, 
///).  Among  the  curiosities  preserved  here  are  a  valuable  work  by  Hol- 
bein (at  least  in  part),  representing  Henry  VIII.  renewing  the  company^s 
charter  in  1611,  and  a  portrait  of  inigo  Jones  by  Van  Dyck  (adm.  on  ap- 
plication to  a  member). 

At  the  comer  of  Basinghall  Street,  to  the  E.  of  the  Guildhall, 
stands  Gresham  College,  founded  by  Sir  Thomai  Oresham  (p.  115) 

112  4.    MANSION  HOUSE.  The  City. 

in  1579  for  the  delWeiy  of  lectaies  by  seyen  pxofessoTB ,  on  law, 
divinity,  medicine,  ihetoric,  geometry,  astronomy,  and  masic. 

The  lectttrM  were  delivered  in  Gresham's  house  in  Bishopagate  Street 
until  1768)  when  it  was  taken  down  and  the  lectare0  were  transferred  to 
the  Boyal  Exchange.  The  present  hall  was  erected  in  1843  out  of  the 
accumulated  capital  of  Gresham's  bequest.  The  lecture-theatre  can  hold 
600  persons.  According  to  Gresham's  will,  some  of  the  lectures  were  to 
be  delivered  in  the  middle  of  the  day,  and  in  Latin,  but  the  speakers 
now  deliver  their  courses  of  four  lectures  each  in  English,  at  6  p.m.  (free). 
-^  The  Boyal  Society  held  its  meetings  at  Oresham  College  from  1860  to 
1710.  It  now  contains  the  head-ofUce  of  the  CUp  and  Guilds  of  London 
Institute  (see  p.  xxxiii). 

From  Gresbam  College  we  return  to  Obeapside  by  Ironmonger 
Lane,  in  wbicb  is  the  entrance  to  Mercers'  Hall  (no  adm.),  tbe  guild- 
bouse  of  tbe  silk  mercers,  rebuilt  in  1884,  tbe  facade  of  wbicb  is  in 
Obeapside.  Tbe  interior  contains  portraits  of  Dean  Colet,  founder 
of  St.  PauVs  Scbool,  and  Sir  Tbomas  Gresbam,  founder  of  tbe  £x- 
cbange,  as  well  as  a  few  relics  of  Sir  Ricbard  Wbittington.  The 
*Legb  Cup'  (1499),  used  at  tbe  Company's  banquets,  is  one  of  tbe 
finest  pieces  extant  of  Englisb  medlsval  plate.  Tbe  cbapel,  wbicb 
is  adorned  witb  modern  frescoes  of  Becket's  Martyrdom  and  the 
Ascension,  occupies  tbe  site  of  tbe  bouse  in  wbicb  Tbomas  Becket 
was  born  in  1119,  and  where  a  hospital  and  cbapel  were  erected  to 
bis  memory  about  tbe  year  1190.  Henry  YIII.  afterwards  granted 
tbe  hospital  to  tbe  Mercers,  who  bad  been  Incorporated  in  1393. 

Old  Jewry ,  to  the  E.  of  Mercers*  Hall ,  derives  its  name  froni 
tbe  synagogue  wbicb  stood  here  prior  to  tbe  persecution  of  the 
Jews  in  1291.  On  its  site,  close  to  tbe  Bank,  now  stands  the  Grocers' 
Hally  tbe  guildbouse  of  tbe  Grocers,  or,  as  they  were  once  called, 
tbe  ^Pepperers'  (adm.  on  written  application  to  tbe  wardens).  This 
company  is  one  of  tbe  oldest  in  London  (incorporated  1345).  At 
No.  26  Old  Jewry  are  the  headquarters  of  the  City  Police.  Old 
Jewry  is  continued  towards  tbe  N»  by  Coleman  Street,  in  Which,  on 
tbe  right,  is  situated  the  Armourera'  Hall  (PI.  R,  40 ;  ///),  founded 
about  1450,  spared  by  tbe  fire  of  1666,  and  rebuilt  in  1840  (adm. 
on  introduction  from  a  member).  It  contains  an  interesting  and 
valaable  collection  of  armour  and  old  plate,  including  a  tilting 
gauntlet  made  to  lock  fast  over  the  spear. 

The  continuation  of  Obeapside  towards  tbe  E.  is  called  the 
PouLTBY,  once  tbe  street  of  tbe  poulterers.  Tbe  modern  terracotta 
panels  on  No.  14  refer  to  royal  processions  that  passed  through  the 
street  in  1546,  1561,  1660,  and  1844.  At  tbe  farther  end  of  the 
Poultry,  on  the  right,  rises  tbe  Mansion  House  (PL  R,  89 ;  II I),  the 
official  residence  of  tbe  Lord  Mayor  during  bis  year  of  office,  erected 
by  Dance  in  1739-52.  Lord  Burlington  sent  in  a  design  by  the 
famous  Italian  architect  Palladio,  which  was  rejected  on  tbe  na'iye 
question  of  one  of  the  aldermen  —  *Who  was  Palladio  —  was  he  a 
freeman  of  the  city?'  Tbe  tympanum  of  tbe  Corlntbian  bexastyle 
portico  contains  an  allegorical  relief  by  Sir  Robert  Taylor, 

The  aty.  5.  BANK  OF  ENGLAND,  113 

In  the  interior,  to  the  left  of  the  entrance,  is  the  Lord  Mayor's  police* 
court,  open  to  the  public  daily  from  12  to  2.  The  state  and  reception 
rooms  are  shown  on  presentation  of  the  visitor's  card  to  the  hall  porter. 
The  principal  room  is  the  Egyptian  Hall^  in  which  the  Lord  Mayor  gives 
his  banquets  and  balls,  said  to  be  a  reproduction  of  the  hall  described 
under  that  name  by  Vitruvius.  It  is  90  ft.  long  and  60  ft.  wide  and  the 
vaulted  ceiling  is  supported  by  fluted  columns.  The  large  windows  are 
filled  with  stained  glass,  and  the  hall  contains  several  pieees  of  modern 
English  sculpture:  *Caractacus  and  the  nymph  Egeria,  hj  Foley;  Genius 
and  the  Morning  Star,  by  Baily ;  Comus,  by  Lough;  Qriselda,  by  Marthail. 
Other  rooms  are  the  Saloon^  adorned  with  tapestry  and  sculpture;  the  State 
Drawing  Rooms;  the  Long  Parlour;  the  Venetian  Parlour  or  Lord  Mayors 
business-room;  the  Old  Ball  Room;  etc. 

The  interioi  of  St.  Stephen's  Clinreli,  Walbrook  (open  1-3  daily, 
except  Sat.),  behind  the  Mansion  House,  with  its  graceful  dome 
supported  by  Oorinthian  columns,  is  considered  one  of  Wrens 
masterpieces,  but  has  been  somewhat  marred  by  alterations.  On 
the  N.  wall  hangs  the  Stoning]  of  St.  Stephen ,  one  of  the  best 
works  of  Benjamin  West,  formerly  over  the  altar.  A  tablet  here 
commemorates  J olvn  Dunstable  (d.  1463),  'the  father  of  English  har- 
mony'. Walbrook  leads  direct  to  Cannon  Street  Station  (p.  32). 

Queen  Victoria  Street  (p.  128)  leads  directly  from  the  Mansion 
House  to  Blackfriars  Bridge  (see  p.  127). 

5,    The  Bank  of  England.    The  Exchange. 

Stock  Exchange.  Merchant  Taylors"  Hall.  St.  Helens  Church.  Com'- 
hill.  Leadenhall  Market.  St.  Andrew^s  Vndershaft.   Corn  Exchange. 

The  space  (PI.  R,  39,  43 ;  ///)  enclosed  by  the  Mansion  House, 
the  Bank,  and  the  Exchange  is  the  centre  from  which  radiate  the 
most  important  streets  of  'the  City'.  It  is  also  the  chief  point  of 
convergence  of  the  London  omnibus  traffic,  which  during  business 
hours  is  enormous.  The  subways  in  connection  with  the  Bank  Station 
of  the  tuBe-railways  (p.  33)  enable  foot-passengers  to  cross  the  street 
in  ease  and  safety. 

Opposite  the  Mansion  House,  and  bounded  on  the  S.  by  Thread- 
needle  Street,  on  the  W.  by  Prince's  Street,  on  the  N,  by  Lothbury, 
and  on  the  E.  by  Bartholomew  Lane,  stands  the  Bank  of  England 
(PI.  B,  39,  43 ;  //i),  an  irregular  and  isolated  building  of  one  story 
The  central  nucleus  of  the  building  was  designed  by  Mr,  Oeorge 
Sampson  and  opened  in  1834,  but  the  edifice  as  now  seen  is  mainly 
the  work  of  Sir  John  Soane^  who  was  architect  to  the  Bank  from  1788 
to  1827.  The  external  walls  are  entirely  devoid  of  windows,  the 
Bank  being,  for  the  sake  of  security,  lighted  from  interior  courts. 
The  only  attractive  portion  of  the  architecture  is  at  the  N.W.  angle, 
which  was  copied  from  the  Temple  of  the  Sibyl  at  Tivoli.  The 
garden-court  in  the  interior  was  formerly  the  churchyard  of  St.  Chris- 
topher-le-Stocks.   The  edifice  covers  an  area  of  about  four  acres. 

The  Bank  was  founded  in  1694,  the  first  suggestion  of  it  appar- 
ently emanating  from  William  Paterson,  a  Scotsman,  though,  perhaps, 

Baedekbb's  London.    15th  Edit.  8 

114  5.  STOCK  EXCHANGE.  The  City, 

his  importance  in  the  matter  has  been  over-estimated.  It  is  a  joint 
stock  bank,  and  vras  the  first  of  the  kind  established  in  the  king- 
dom. Having  exclusive  privileges,  secured  by  Royal  Charter,  it 
continued  to  be  the  only  joint-stock  bank  in  London  till  1834,  when 
the  London  and  Westminster  Bank,  soon  to  be  followed  by  many 
others,  was  established.  The  Bank  of  England  is  the  only  bank  in 
London  which  has  the  power  of  issuing  paper  money.  Its  original 
capital  was  1,200,000^,  which  has  since  been  multiplied  more  than 
twelvefold.  The  number  of  persons  employed  within  its  walls  is 
about  1000.  The  vaults  usually  contain  at  least  20  million  pounds 
sterling  in  gold  and  silver,  while  there  are  over  25  millions  of  pounds 
sterling  of  the  Bank's  notes  in  circulation.  The  Bank  acts  as  the 
agent  of  Government  in  all  business  transactions  connected  with  the 
national  debt  (now  amounting  to  over  774,000,000?.),  receives  and 
registers  transfers  of  stock,  and  pays  the  quarterly  dividends  on  the 
various  kinds  of  stock ;  it  also  carries  on  business  like  other  banks 
in  discounting  bills,  receiving  deposits,  and  lending  money.  It  is 
bound  to  buy  all  gold  bullion  brought  to  it,  at  the  rate  of  Si,  17«. 
9d,  per  oz.  The  government  of  the  Bank  is  vested  in  a  Governor,  a 
Deputy-Governor,  and  twenty-four  Directors. 

The  business  offices  of  the  Bank  are  open  to  the  public  daily  from 
9  to  i.  The  Printing,  Weighing,  and  Bullion  Offices  are  no  longer  shown 
to  visitors. 

The  whole  of  the  printing  for  the  Bank  is  done  within  its  walls,  and  up- 
wards of  50,000  new  bank-notes  are  produced  daily,  their  value  ranging  from 
bl.  to  10002.  The  note  printing-presses  are  exceedingly  interesting.  Postal 
orders  and  Indian  bank-notes  are  also  printed  here.  All  notes  paid  into 
the  Bank  are  at  once  cancelled,  so  that  in  some  cases  the  active  life  of  a 
bank-note  may  not  be  longer  than  a  single  day.  The  cancelled  notes, 
however,  are  kept  for  five  years  in  the  Old  Note  Office^  in  case  they  may 
be  required  as  testimony  in  a  court  of  law.  Every  week  or  so  the  notes 
received  in  the  corresponding  week  five  years  ago  are  burned;  and  the 
furnace  provided  for  this  purpose,  5ft.  in  height  and  10 ft.  in  diameter, 
is  said  to  be  filled  on  each  occasion.  The  stock  of  paid  notes  for  five 
years  amounts  to  about  80  millions,  weighs  90  tons,  and  represents  a  value 
of  1750  millions  of  pounds  sterling*,  if  the  notes  were  joined  end  to  end  they 
would  form  a  ribbon  13,000  H.  long,  while  their  superficial  extent  would 
almost  equal  that  of  Hyde  Park.  The  Weighing  Office  contains  machines 
for  weighing  sovereigns  (33  per  minute),  which  throw  those  of  fuU  weight 
into  one  compartment  and  the  light  ones  into  another.  A  daily  average 
of  gold  to  the  value  of  80,000;.  is  thus  tested.  The  Bullion  Office  is  the 
treasury  for  the  precious  metals.  The  Bank  is  protected  at  night  by  a 
small  guard  of  soldiers,  in  addition  to  a  large  staff  of  superintendents 
and  warders. 

In  Post  Office  Court,  Lombard  Street,  is  the  Bankers^  Clearing  Houee^ 
a  useful  institution  through  which  bankers  obtain  the  amount  of  cheques 
and  bills  in  their  hands  without  the  trouble  of  collecting  them  at  the 
various  banks  on  which  they  are  drawn.  The  bills  and  cheques  received 
by  the  various  bankers  during  the  day  are  here  compared,  and  the 
difference  settled  by  a  cheque  on  the  Bank  of  England.  The  amount 
changing  hands  here  is  enormous,  reaching  in  the  year  ending  Dec.  81st, 
1908,  the  sum  of  12,711,334,000/.  or  423,399,003?.  more  than  in  1905. 

In  Capel  Court,  opposite  the  Bank ,  is  the  Stock  Exchange, 
the  members  of  which,  about  5300  in  number,  are  about  equally 
divided  between  Stock-brokers  and  Stock-Jobbers,  The  jobber'  con- 

The  City,  5.  ROYAL  EXCHANGE.  115 

fines  his  dealings  to  some  particular  group  of  securities ;  the  ^broker* 
is  the  intermediary  between  the  public  and  the  jobbers.  The  Stock 
Exchange  (familiarly  known  in  the  City  as  Hhe  house')  was  estab- 
lished in  1801  and  opened  in  1802.  Strangers  are  rigorously  ex- 

The  Exchange  as  a  building  belongs  to  a  body  of  about  1760  share- 
holders, and  is  managed  by  nine  elected  Managtn  and  Trtuteet^  to  whom 
are  paid  the  entrance  fees  and  annual  subscriptions.  —  The  members  of 
the  Exchange  are  entiiely  distinct  from  these  proprietors  and  appoint  a 
Ccmmittee  for  Oeneral  Purpotes  to  regulate  tie  methods  in  which  business 
is  carried  on.  Members  pay  an  entrance-fee  of  500  guineas  and  nn  annual 
subscription  of  40  guineas,  and  must  find  security  for  1600/.  for  their  first 
four  years.  For  'authorized  clerks^  the  entrance- fee  is  60  guineas  and  the 
annaal  subscription  30  guineas. 

In  Throgmorton  Street,  to  the  N.  of  the  Stock  Exchange,  is  the 
Drapers^  Hall,  dating  originally  from  1667  but  in  great  part  rebuilt 
in  1866-70  ('visitors  usually  admitted  on  presentation  of  visiting- 
card).  It  contains  a  portrait  of  Nelson  by  Sir  WiUiam  Beeeheyy  and 
a  picture  by  Zuechero,  believed  to  represent  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots, 
and  her  sou  James  I.  Adjoining  is  the  Drapers'  Garden,  contain- 
ing one  or  two  old  mulberry-trees.  —  The  Dutch  Church  in  Austin 
Friars,  behind  the  Drapers'  Hall,  dates  from  the  14th  cent,  and 
escaped  the  fire  of  1666.  It  was  restored  in  1863-66,  after  a  fire, 
and  contains  numerous  tombs  of  the  14-l6th  centuries. 

The  Ecyftl  Exchange  (PI.  R,  43 ;  III),  built  in  1842-44  by  Tite, 
is  the  third  building  of  the  kind  on  the  same  site.  The  first  Exchange, 
erected  in  1564-70  by  Sir  Thomas  Gresham,  was  destroyed  in  the 
Great  Fire  (1666),  and  its  successor,  by  Jarman,  was  also  burned 
down  in  1838.  The  present  building  which  cost  about  160,000^.,  is 
preceded  by  a  Corinthian  portico,  and  approached  by  a  broad  flight 
of  steps.  The  group  in  the  tympanum  is  by  Westmaeott :  in  the 
centre  is  Commerce,  holding  the  charter  of  the  Exchange  in  her 
hand;  on  the  right  the  Lord  Mayor,  municipal  officials,  an  Indian, 
an  Arab,  a  Greek,  and  a  Turk ;  on  the  left  English  merchants,  a 
Chinese,  a  Persian,  a  Negro,  etc.  On  the  architrave  below  is  the 
inscription :  ^The  Earth  is  the  Lord's  and  the  fulness  thereof. 

The  interior  of  the  Exchange  forms  a  quadrangular  covered 
court  surrounded  by  colonnades.  The  tesselated  pavement  of  Tur- 
key stone  is  the  original  one  of  Gresham's  Exchange.  In  the  centre 
is  a  statue  of  Queen  Victoria,  by  Hamo  Thomycroft;  in  the  N.E. 
and  S.E.  corners  are  statues  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  by  Watson,  and 
Charles  II.  The  22  panels  of  the  walls  of  the  colonnades  are  to  be 
filled  with  historical  paintings  typifying  Liberty,  Commerce,  and 

Fifteen  of  these  are  completed.  To  the  left  from  the  main  entrance: 
Ancient  Commerce  (Phoenicians  bartering  with  the  Ancient  Britons  in  Corn- 
wall),  by  Lord  Leighton;  London  receiving  its  charter  from  William  the 
Conqueror,  by  Seymour  Lucas;  King  John  sealing  the  lUaf^na  Charta,  by 
Ernest  Normand:  Lord  Mayor  entertaining  five  kings  in  1363,  by  A.  Che- 
vallier  Tayler;  Sir  Richard  Whiitington  dispensing  his  charities,  by  Uen- 
rietia  Rae  (Mrs.  Normand);  Reconciliation  of  the  Skinners^  and  Merchant 


116  5.  LLOYD'S.  The  City, 

Taylors'  Companies  by  the  Lord  Mayor  in  1484,  by  Edwin  A.  Abbey,  R.  A. ; 
Grown  offered  to  Kichard  III.  at  Baynard's  Oastle,  by  8.  Ooeite;  Founda- 
tion of  St.  PaiiVfl  School  in  1509,  by  Wm.  F.  Teames,  R,  A. ;  Queen  Elisabeth 
opening  Gresbam^s  Exchange  in  1571,  by  Ernest  CrofU;  Charles  I.  demand- 
ing the  flye  members  at  Quildhall,  by  8.  J.  Solomon;  The  Fire  of  London, 
by  Stanhope  Forbes;  Granting  the  charter  for  the  foundation  of  the  Bank  of 
England,  by  Oeo.  Sareourt;  Kelson  leaving  England  for  the  last  time,  by 
A.  C.  Qow;  Queen  Victoria  opening  the  present  Exchange,  by  R.  W.  Macbeth ; 
Modem  Commerce,  by  Frank  Brangvfyn. 

The  chief  buBlnesB-lioar  Is  from  3.30  to  4.30  p.m.,  and  the 
most  important  days  are  Tuesdays  and  Fridays.  On  the  front  (£.) 
of  the  campanile  (180  ft.  in  height)  is  a  statue  of  Sir  Thomas 
Gresham,  and  at  the  top  is  a  large  gilded  vane  in  the  shape  of  a 
grasshopper  (Gresham^s  crest).  The  shops  on  the  outside  of  the 
Exchange  greatly  disfigure  the  building.  Nearly  opposite  the  Ex- 
change is  No.  15  Gornhill,  occupied  by  Messrs.  Birch,  confec-> 
tloners,  and  said  to  be  the  oldest  shop  in  London. 

At  the  E.  end  of  the  Exchange  a  staircase,  adorned  with  a 
statue  of  Prince  Albert  by  Lough,  ascends  to  Lloyc^s  Subscription 
Rooms,  commonly  known  as  Lloyd's.  The  name  is  derived  ftom 
a  coffee-house  kept  by  Edward  Lloyd  towards  the  close  of  the  17th 
century  and  frequented  by  men  interested  in  shipping.  Lloyd's  is 
an  association  of  underwriters  (incorporated  in  1871)  for  the  collec- 
tion and  distribution  of  maritime  and  shipping  intelligence  of 
every  kind.  It  has  an  annual  income  of  50,0002.  and  keeps  a  staff 
of  about  1500  agents  in  all  parts  of  the  world,  while  It  maintains 
signal-stations  all  round  the  coast  of  the  United  Kingdom.  It  is  still 
better  known  as  the  great  centre  of  marine  insurance,  each  member 
carrying  on  business  in  this  respect  on  his  individual  responsibility, 
not  in  any  corporate  capacity.  The  newspaper  known  as  ^Lloyd^s 
List'  has  been  published  regularly  since  1721.  —  The  vestibule  is 
adorned  with  a  statue  of  Huskisson  by  Gibson.  On  the  wall  is  a 
tablet  to  the  ^Times'  newspaper,  erected  in  recognition  of  the  public 
service  it  rendered  by  the  exposure  of  a  fraudulent  financial  con- 
spiracy of  gigantic  character.  The  first  room  is  used  by  Under- 
writers and  contains  huge  ledgers  in  which  the  most  detailed  in- 
formation as  to  the  merchant-shipping  of  the  world  is  carefully 
posted  from  day  to  day ;  the  second  is  the  Merchants'  or  Reading 
Room,  with  a  huge  collection  of  provincial  and  foreign  newspapers ; 
the  third  or  ^Captains'  Room'  is  a  restaurant  accessible  only  to  the 
700  members  of  Lloyd's  and  their  friends. 

Lloyd's  must  be  clearly  distinguished  from  Lloyd"*  RegUier  of  British 
and  Foreign  Shipping  (71  Fenchurch  St. ;  p.  121) ,  an  association  of  ship- 
owners, merchants,  and  underwriters,  established  in  1834  with  the  object  of 
securing  an  accurate  classification  of  the  seaworUiiness  of  mercantile  vessels. 
^Lloyd's  Register'  maintains  ship-surveyors  in  every  part  of  the  world  5 
and  Lloyd's  Register  Book  is  published  annually.  Vessels  of  the  best 
description  are  classed  as  A  1. 

In  front  of  the  Exchange  is  an  Equestrian  Statue  of  Wellington, 
by  Chantrey,  erected  in  1844,  beside  which  is  a  fountain  with  a 

The  City.      5.  MERCHANT  TAYLORS'  HALL.  117 

female  figare.  On  the  S.E.  side  of  the  Exchange  is  a  statue  (eieoted 
in  1882)  of  Sir  Rowland  Hill ,  the  inyentor  of  the  cheap  postal 
system.  Behind  the  Exchange  are  a  seated  statne  of  Ptabody 
(d.  1869),  by  Story,  erected  in  1871  by  public  subscription,  and  a 
fountain  with  a  group  by  Dalou  (1879). 

Oeorge  Peabody,  an  American  merobant,  who  earried  on  an  extensive 
busineM  and  spent  mnch  of  his  time  in  London ,  gave  at  different  times 
upwards  of  half  a  million  of  money  for  the  erection  of  suitable  dwellings 
for  the  working  classes  of  the  Metropolis.  The  Peabody  Donation  Fund 
(office,  64  Queen  St.,  E.G.)  is  managed  by  a  body  of  trustees,  now  styled 
the  Governors,  a  royal  charter  having  been  granted  in  1900.  The  number 
of  persons  accommodated  in  the  Peabody  Buildings  is  about  90,000,  each 
family  paying  an  average  weekly  rent  of  about  bs.  2*/i<i.,  which  includes 
the  use  of  baths  and  wash-houses.  The  capital  of  the  fund  now  amounts 
to  over  1,500,000/.  Mr.  Peabody  spent  and  bequeathed  still  larger  sums 
for  educational  and  benevolent  purposes  in  America,  the  grand  total  of 
his  gifts  amounting  to  nearly  2,000,0001.  sterling.  —  The  Gvinneu  Trtut^  a 
similar  fund  established  by  Lord  Iveagh  in  1889  with  a  gift  of  200,0001., 
has  provided  257A  tenements  (5388  rooms)  on  eight  sites  in  different  parts 
of  London,  at  an  average  weekly  rent  of  2t.  i^/id.  per  room. 

Farther  along  Threadneedle  Street,  beyond  Finch  Lane,  is  the 
Merchant  Taylors' Hall,  the  largest  of  the  London  Companies*  halls, 
erected,  after  the  Great  Fire  of  1666,  by  Jarman  (admission  on 
application  to  a  member).  The  company  received  its  first  charter  in 
1327.  The  handsome  hall  contains  some  good  portraits  :  Henry  VIII., 
by  Paris  Bordone ;  Duke  of  York,  by  Lawrence ;  Duke  of  Wellington, 
by  Wilkie;  Charles  I. ;  Charles  II. ;  James  II. ;  William  III. ;  Queen 
Anne ;  George  III.  and  his  consort ;  Lord  Chancellor  Eldon ,  by 
Briggs ;  Pitt,  by  Hoppner.  There  is  also  a  valuable  collection  of  old 
plate.   The  small  but  Interesting  Crypt  was  spared  by  the  Fire. 

Threadneedle  Street  enda  at  Bishopsgate  Street  Within,  in 
which,  near  the  point  of  junction,  is  the  National  Provincial  Bank 
of  England  (No.  112),  which  is  worth  visiting  for  the  beautiful 
interior  of  its  large  hall,  a  remarkable  specimen  of  the  Byzantine- 
Romanesque  style,  with  polished  granite  columns  and  polychrome 
decoration.  Immediately  opposite  is  the  Wesleyan  Centenary  HalL 
Farther  to  the  E.  the  Chartered  Bank  of  India  occupies  the  site  of 
Crosby  HaU, 

Built  in  1466  by  Alderman  Sir  John  Crosby,  and  once  occupied  by  the 
notorious  Duke  of  Gloucester,  afterwards  Richard  III.,  Crosby  Hall  sub- 
sequently belonged  to  Sir  Thomas  More,  and  it  is  mentioned  by  Shakspeare 
in  his  ^Richard  III."  For  a  long  t'me  it  was  used  for  the  reception  of  am- 
bassadors, and  was  considered  the  finest  house  in  London.  During  the 
Protectorate  it  was  a  prison  \  and  it  afterwards  became  in  turn  a  meeting- 
house, a  warehouse,  a  concert  and  lecture  room,  and  finally  a  restaurant. 
It  was  pulled  down  in  1903  (but  comp.  p.  370). 

*St.  Helen's  Clinreli  (open  daily,  except  Sat.,  11.30-4),  the 
^Westminster  Abbey  of  the  City',  was  originally  founded  at  a  very 
early  date  and  afterwards  became  connected  with  a  nunnery  estab- 
lished about  1212  on  the  site  now  occupied  by  St.  Helen's  Place. 
The  present  building,  dating  mainly  from  the  13- 15th  cent.,  was 
restored  in  1891-93  under  the  superintendence  of  Mr.  John  L.  Pear- 

118  5.  ST.  HELEN'S  OHURCn.  The  City. 

son.  It  coneists  of  two  parallel  naves,  122  ft.  long,  together  with 
a  S.  transept,  adjoined  on  the  E.  hy  two  chapels.  The  S.  nave  was 
used  for  parochial  purposes,  while  that  on  the  N.  was  the  ^nuus* 
choir'  or  church.  In  the  N.  wall  of  the  latter  may  still  he  seen  the 
arched  entrance  from  the  nunnery  and  (near  the  E.  end)  a  curious 
hagioscope  or  squint ,  originally  connected  with  the  cloisters.  At 
the  E.  end  of  the  N.  wall  is  an  inscription  (1877)  to  Alherico  Gen- 
tile (d.  1611),  the  Italian  jurist  and  professor  of  civil  law  at 
Oxford,  who  was  burled  near  it.  Close  hy  are  the  flat  tombs  of 
Sir  Thomas  Gresham  (p.  116)  and  Sir  Julius  Csssar  (d.  1636), 
Master  of  the  Rolls  in  the  reign  of  James  I.  The  Latin  inscription 
on  the  latter  is  to  the  effect  that  C»sar  had  given  his  bond  to 
Heaven  to  yield  up  his  soul  willingly  when  God  should  demand 
it.  The  handsomest  memorial  is  perhaps  that  of  Sir  William 
Pickering  (d.  1574),  on  the  N.  side  of  the  chancel.  On  the  S.  side 
is  the  tomb  of  Sir  John  Crosby  (d.  1476;  see  p.  117).  In  the  E. 
chapels  are  tombs  removed  from  the  church  of  St.  Martin  Outwich 
and  several  brasses.  The  stained-glass  windows  are  modern ;  the 
fourth  from  the  W.  end  of  the  nuns'  choir  was  erected  in  1884  to 
the  memory  of  Shakspeare,  who  was  a  parishioner  in  1598  and  is 
rated  in  the  parish  books  for  6l,  13a.  id.  —  In  St.  Helen's  Place 
is  the  modern  Hall  of  the  LeatherselUrs  (no  a  dm.),  a  company  in- 
corporated at  the  end  of  the  14th  century.  The  old  hall,  pulled 
down  in  1799,  was  originally  part  of  St.  Helen's  Nunnery.  Here 
also  (No.  12)  is  the  Consulate  General  of  the  United  States.  —  The 
Church  ofJSt,  EtheWurga^  in  Bishopsgate  (entrance  between  Nos.  52 
and  53),  just  to  the  N.  of  St.  Helen's  Place,  also  escaped  the 
Great  Fire. 

Bishopsgate  Street  Within  is  continued  to  the  N.  by  Bishopsgate 
Street  Without  (i.e.  outside  the  walls),  and  the  site  of  the  gate  which 
gave  name  to  both  is  indicated  by  a  tablet  on  the  house  at  the  cor- 
ner of  Camomile  Street  (PI.  R,  43;  III).  On  the  left  side  of 
Bishopsgate  Without,  opposite  Houndsditch,  is  the  Church  of  St. 
Botolph  without  Bishopsgate  (PI.  R,  43;  III),  rebuilt  in  1725-29. 
John  Keats  was  baptized  here  on  Oct.  31st,  1795.  Farther  on  Bish- 
opsgate Without  passes  (on  the  left)  Liverpool  Street  (station,  see 
p.  26).  On  the  opposite  side  of  the  street,  a  little  farther  on,  is  the 
Bishopsgate  Institute,  opened  in  1894,  with  a  library,  reading- 
room,  etc.  Shoreditch,  the  continuation  of  Bishopsgate  Street,  leads 
to  the  chief  goods-depot  of  the  Great  Eastern  Railway,  beneath 
which  is  a  fish,  fruit,  and  vegetable  market.  The  churchyard  of 
St.  Leonardos,  Shoreditch,  now  opened  in  summer  as  a  public  gar- 
den, is  the  burial-place  of  many  actors,  including  Shakespeare's 
contemporary  Richard  Burbage  (d.  1618).  The  present  church 
dates  from  1740,  but  incorporates  a  chancel  window  of  the  13th 
cent.;  it  was  restored  in  1899.  To  the  E.  lies  Spitalflelds,  with  its 
shoemakers  (see  p.  xxix)  and  bird-fanciers,  beyond  which  is  Bethnal- 

The  City.  5.  CORNHILL.  119 

Oreen  (p.  xxix).  At  No.  204  High  Street,  Shoieditch,  is  the  Standard 
Theatre  (PI.  B,  44),  a  characteristic  'East  End'  place  of  amnsement 
(see  p.  47).  The  Britannia  Theatre  (PI.  B,  44),  in  Hoxton  Street,  lies 
to  the  N.W.,  in  the  crowded  district  of  Hoxton,  Shoreditch  High 
Street  is  continued  due  N.  by  Kingsland  Road  to  Kingsland  and  to 
Daliton,  where  the  Oerman  Hospital  is  situated.  Farther  to  the  N. 
are  Stoke  Newington  and  Clapton  (p.  416). 

The  open  spaces  in  Stoke  Kewington  include  CHuold  Park  (55  acres), 
intersected  by  the  Kew  Biver  (p.  1C6)  and  acquired  for  the  public  in  1889, 
and  ^oit  Newington  Common  (5i/4  acres).  Ahnej/  Park  Cemetery  was  formerly 
the  estate  of  Sir  Thomas  Abney,  with  whom  Dr.  Isaac  Watts  spent  the  last 
thirty  years  of  his  life,  and  contains  a  statue  of  the  hymn-writer  by  Baily. 
Mrs.  Booth,  wife  of  Oen.  Booth  of  the  Salvation  Army,  is  buried  near  the 
upper  end  of  the  cemetery.  Other  famous  names  connected  with  Stoke 
Newington  are  those  of  Edgar  Allan  Poe,  who  was  at  school  here  in 
1817-19  (comp.  his 'William  Wilson  )i  Daniel  Defoe  ^  Thomas  Day,  author 
of  'Sandford  and  Herton";  John  Howard,  the  philanthropist;  and  Bridget 
Fleetwood,  eldest  daughter  of  Oliver  Cromwell.  —  In  Homsey,  to  the  N.W. 
of  Stoke  Kewington,  is  Finsbury  Park  (115  acres). 

In  Comhill,  the  street  which  leads  to  the  E.  straight  past  the 
S.  side  of  the  Exchange,  rises  on  the  right  (S.)  St  Michael's 
Churchy  with  a  large  late-Gothic  tower,  bnilt  by  Wren^  and  restored 
by  Sir  O,  0.  Scott,  Farther  on  is  St.  Peter's  Church,  which,  accord- 
ing to  an  ancient  tablet  preseryed  in  the  vestry,  was  originally 
founded  in  179  A.D.  by  *Lucius,  the  first  Christian  king  of  this 
land,  then  called  Britaine\  The  present  structure  was  built  by  Wren 
in  1680-81.  The  organ  is  by  Father  Smith  (p.  88),  and  its  old 
key-board,  now  in  the  vestry,  was  used  by  Mendelssohn  on  Sept. 
30th,  1840.  Both  churches  are  open  daily  (except  Sat.),  12-2.  Gray, 
the  poet  (1716-71),  was  born  in  the  house  which  formerly  occupied 
the  site  of  No.  41  Cornhill. 

In  Leadenhall  Street,  which  continues  Cornhill,  stands,  on  the 
right  and  near  the  corner  of  Gracechurch  Street,  Leadenhall 
Market,  one  of  the  chief  marts  in  London  for  poultry,  game, 
and  hides  (see  p.  63).  The  old  House  of  the  East  India  Company, 
in  which  Charles  Lamb  (for  33  years),  James  Mill,  and  John  Stuart 
Mill  were  clerks,  stood  at  the  corner  of  Leadenhall  Street  and  Lime 
Street.  On  the  opposite  side  of  Leadenhall  Street,  at  the  corner  of 
St.  Mary  Axe,  is  the  small  church  of  St.  Andrew  TJndershaft  (i.  e. 
under  the  maypole ,  as  the  maypole  which  used  to  be  erected  here 
was  higher  than  the  tower  of  the  church),  a  Perpendicular  building 
of  1520-32,  with  a  turreted  tower  (daily,  12-2).  At  the  end  of  the 
N.  aisle  is  the  tomb  of  Stow,  the  antiquary  (d.  1605).  Near  this 
tomb  is  the  monument  of  Sir  Hugh  Hammersley  (d.  1636),  with 
two  fine  figures  of  attendants,  by  Thomas  Madden.  At  No.  24 
St.  Mary  Axe  is  the  handsome  building  of  the  Baltic  Mercantile 
and  Shipping  Exchange,  opened  in  1903.  —  Still  farther  on  in 
Leadenhall  Street,  on  the  right,  is  the  Church  of  St.  Catherine  Cree 
(dally,  12-2),  with  i^n  interior  by  Inigo  Jones,  being  the  successor 

120  5.  CORN  EXCHANGE.  The  City. 

of  an  older  church  in  which  Holhein  (d.  1 543)  is  said  to  have  been  in- 
terred. The  character  of  the  services  held  here  ky  Archbp.  Laud  in 
1631  at  the  consecration  of  the  church  formed  one  of  the  charges  in 
his  trial.  The  iVeto  Zealand  Chambers  (No.  34)  are  one  of  Norman 
Shaw's  reproductions  of  mediaeval  architecture.  Leadenhall  Street 
is  joined  at  its  E.  end  by  Fenchuroh  Street  (see  below). 

Lombard  Street  and  Fenchurch  Street ,  forming  a  line  on  the  S. 
nearly  parallel  to  Cornhill  and  Leadenhall  Street ,  are  also  among 
the  busiest  thoroughfares  of  the  city.  Lombard  Street  has  been  for 
ages  the  most  noted  street  in  London  for  banking  and  finance,  and 
has  inherited  its  name  from  the  'Lombard'  money-dealers  from 
Genoa  and  Florence,  who,  in  the  14th  and  15th  centuries,  took  the 
place  of  the  discredited  and  persecuted  Jews  of  *Old  Jewry'  as 
money-lenders.  Alexander  Pope  (1688-1744)  was  bom  in  Plough 
Court,  on  the  right  (S.)side  of  Lombard  Street,  in  a  house  demolished 
in  1872.  On  the  N.  side  of  Lombard  Street  is  the  Church  of  St.  Edmur^d 
King  and  Martyr  (open  10-4),  completed  by  "Wren  in  1690,  in  which 
Addison  was  married  to  the  Countess  of  Warwick  on  Aug.  9th,  1716. 
On  the  same  side,  just  beyond  Birclay  &  Co's  bank,  is  the  entrance 
to  All  Hallows  Church  (open  11-4),  also  built  by  Wren,  and  some- 
times referred  to  as  the  *church  invisible',  from  its  retired  position.  — 
Fenchurch  Street  reminds  us  by  its  name  of  the  fenny  character  of  the 
district  when  the  old  church  was  built  (drained  by  the  little  stream 
of  *Langbourue'  running  into  the  *Walbrook')  +.  On  the  N.  side 
of  the  street  was  the  Elephant  Tavern  (rebuilt),  where  Uogarth 
lodged  for  some  time,  and  which  was  once  adorned  with  several  of 
liis  works.  Adjacent  is  the  Ironmongers^  Hall,  whose  company  dates 
from  the  reign  of  Edward  IV.,  with  an  Interesting  interior,  portraits 
of  Izaak  Walton  and  Admiral  Hood,  etc.  (adm.  on  written  applica- 
tion to  the  clerk). 

Fenchurch  Street  is  connected  with  Great  Tower  Street  by 
Mincing  Lane  (so  called  from  the  *mlnchens',  or  nuns  of  St.  Helen's, 
to  whom  part  of  It  belonged),  which  is  the  central  point  of  the 
colonial  wholesale  trade.  The  Clothworkers'  Hall,  in  Mincing  Lane, 
was  built  in  1860  \  the  company,  of  which  Samuel  Pepys  was  master 
in  1677,  was  incorporated  in  the  15th  cent.  (adm.  on  introduction). 
A  little  to  the  E.,  in  Mark  Lane  (originally  Mart  Lane\  is  the 
Corn  Exchange  (PI.  R,  43,  ///;  chief  market  on  Mon.,  ll-3>  The 
fine  Tower  of  All  Hallows  Staining,  behind  the  warehouses  at  the 
N.  end  of  this  lane,  reached  via  Star  Alley  (on  the  W.  side),  is  one 
of  the  oldest  of  the  relics  which  have  survived  the  Great  Fire.  On 
the  E.  side  of  Mark  Lane  is  Hart  Street,  with  the  Church  of  St.  Olave 
(open  12.30  to  3),  interesting  as  having  survived  the  Great  Fire, 
and  as  the  church  once  frequented  by  Samuel  Pepys  (d.  1703).  The 
picturesque  interior  contains  a  number  of  curious  old  tombs,  In- 

f  Mr.  Loftie  thinks  ^fen"  may  be  a  corruption  of  the  An^lo-9axun /o<n 
(ha^),  as  'grace'  in  Grapechurch  Street  in  of  ^rmf. 

The  City.  5.  HOUNDSDITCU.  121 

eluding  those  of  Pepys  and  hU  wife.  A  bust  of  Pepys  was  placed 
on  the  S.  wall  In  1884.  The  skulls  over  the  gate  of  the  churchyard 
in  Seething  Lane  are  said  to  commemorate  the  fact  that  many  per- 
sons who  died  of  the  plague  in  1666  are  buried  here,  but  this 
tradition  is  not  supported  by  the  burials -register  of  the  church. 
In  the  same  street  once  stood  a  monastery  of  the  ^Crossed  Frlars\ 
a  reminiscence  of  whom  still  exists  in  the  adjoining  street  of 
Crutched  Friars. 

Near  the  E.  end  of  Fenchurch  Street  is  Railway  Place,  leading 
to  the  S.  to  Fenehurck  Strtet  Railway  Station  (PI.  R,  48;  I J  J),  for  the 
railways  to  Blackwall  and  Southend  (p.  28).  Farther  to  the  £.,  beyond 
the  church  of  8t.  Katherine  Colemany  rises  the  handsome  new  build- 
ing of  Lloyd's  Register  fp.  116),  completed  in  1901.  The  interior 
decorations  are  very  effective.  At  the  junction  of  Fenchurch  Street 
and  Leadenhall  Street  stands  Aldgate  Pump,  disnsed  since  1876 ;  a 
'draught  (draft)  on  Aldgate  Pump'  used  to  be  a  cant  term  for  a  bad 
bill.  From  this  point  Aldgate  IJigh  Street  runs  K.  to  the  Aldgate 
Station  of  the  Metropolitan  Railway,  passing  the  Church  of  St.  Bo- 
tolph  Aldgate  (PL  R,  47  j  III),  which  is  open  from  12.30  to  1.30  p.m. 
daily.  The  supposed  head  of  the  Duke  of  Suffolk  (beheaded  1554), 
remored  from  Trinity  Church  (see  below)  and  now  preserved  in  this 
church  in  aglas8-ca«e,  is  sometimes  shown  on  application  to  the 

In  Great  Alie  Street  (Pi.  R,  17),  a  little  to  the  S.E.  of  Aldgate  Station, 
once  stood  Ooodmati't  Fields  ThecUre^  in  which  Garrick  made  his  first  ap- 
pearance on  a  London  stage  in  the  character  of  Richard  lit.  (Oct.  19th,  1741). 

On  the  E.  margin  of  the  City  proper  lies  Houmosditcii  (PI.  R,  43^  //7), 
the  quarter  of  Jew  brokers  and  second-hand  dealers,  whence  the  Minorie* 
lead  s)iithwards  to  tbe  Tower  and  the  Thames.  To  the  £.  of  the  Uinories 
rises  the  old  Church  of  the  Holy  Trinity  (PL  R,  47  ^  ///),  once  bslmging  to 
an  abbey  of  Minoresses,  or  nuns  of  the  or  Jer  of  St  Glare,  and  containing 
several  cnrions  old  moouments,  on  one  of  -which  are  the  arms  (stars  and 
stripes)  of  tbe  Washington  family.  The  church  is  now  used  as  a  parish - 
institute  for  St.  B)tolph  Aldgate  (keys  at  No.  17  New  Square,  Winories; 
visitors  are  exp:cted  to  contrlbule  at  least  6d.  to  the  restoration  fund}. 

From  Aldgate  Station  Whiiechapel  High  Street  runs  £.  to  White^^ 
chapel,  see  p.  144. 

6.    London  Bridge.    The  Monument.    Lower  Thames 

Fishmongers' Hall.    St.  Magnus  the  Martyr's.    Billingsgate.   Custom 
House.    Coal  Exchange. 

King  William  Street^  a  wide  thoroughfare  with  handsome  build- 
ings, leads  S.E.  from  the  Bank  to  London  Bridge.  Immediately  on 
the  left,  at  the  corner  of  Lombard  Street,  is  the  church  of  St.  Mary 
Woolnothy  erected  in  1716,  by  Hawksmoor.  It  contains  a  tablet  to 
the  memory  of  Newton,  the  friend  of  Cowper  the  poet  and  once 
rector  of  the  parish,  with  an  epitaph  by  himself.   Newton's  remains, 

122  6.    LONDON  BRIDGE.  The  City. 

however,  were  removed  to  Olney  in  1893.  The  fine  organ  was  orig- 
inally built  by  Father  Schmitz  (1681 ;  comp.  p.  88).  Beneath  the 
church  is  the  Bank  Station  of  the  City  and  S.  London  £lectrlc  Rail- 
way (p.  37).  —  In  St.  Clement's  Lane,  to  the  left,  is  St.  Clement's 
Church  (open  12-3),  built  by  Wren  in  1686  and  containing  a  stained- 
glass  window  and  brass  tablets  commemorating  Thomas  Fuller  (d. 
1661),  Bishop  Pearson  (d.  1686) ,  author  of  the  'Exposition  of  the 
Creed',  and  Bishop  Walton  (d.  1661),  editor  of  the  'Biblia  Poly- 
glotta'.  Purcell  was  organist  in  this  church.  Farther  on,  at  the  point 
where  King  William  Street,  Gracechurch  Street,  Eastcheap,  and 
Cannon  Street  (p.  130)  converge,  on  a  site  once  occupied  by  Fal- 
staff's  ^Boar's  Head  Tavern',  rises  the  Statue  of  William  IV.,  by 
Nixon.  Adjacent  is  the  Monument  Station  of  the  District  Railway 
(p.  32).  To  the  left,  in  Fish  Street  Hill,  is  the  Monument  (see  p.  123). 
On  each  side  of  the  first  arch  of  London  Bridge,  which  crosses 
Lower  Thames  Street  (p.  124),  are  flights  of  stone  steps  descending 
to  the  street  below 

London  Bridge  (PI.  R,  42;  III),  until  1769  (comp.  p.  127)  the 
only  bridge  over  the  Thames  in  London,  and  still  the  most  important, 
connects  the  City,  the  central  point  of  business,  with  the  Borough^ 
on  the  Surrey  (S.)  side  of  the  river  (see  p.  376). 

The  Saxons,  and  perhaps  the  Romans  before  them,  erected  various 
wooden  bridges  over  the  Thames  near  the  site  of  the  present  London 
Bridge,  but  these  were  all  at  different  periods  carried  away  by 
floods  or  destroyed  by  fire.  At  length  in  1176  Henry  IL  instructed 
Peter,  chaplain  of  the  church  of  St.  Mary  Cole,  to  construct  a  stone 
bridge  at  this  point,  but  the  work  was  not  completed  till  1209,  in 
the  reign  of  Henry's  son,  John.  A  chapel,  dedicated  to  St.  Thomas 
of  Canterbury,  was  built  upon  the  bridge,  and  a  row  of  houses 
sprang  up  on  each  side ,  so  that  the  bridge  resembled  a  continuous 
street.  It  was  terminated  at  both  banks  by  fortifled  gates ,  on  the 
pinnacles  of  which  the  heads  of  traitors  used  to  be  exposed. 

In  one  of  the  houses  dwelt  Sir  John  Hewitt,  Lord  Mayor  in  the  time 
of  Qaeen  Elizabeth,  whose  daughter,  according  to  the  romantic  story, 
fell  into  the  river,  and  was  rescued  by  Edward  Osborne,  his  apprentice.  The 
brave  and  fortunate  youth  afterwards  married  the  young  lady  and  founded 
the  family  of  the  present  Duke  of  Leeds. 

The  present  London  Bridge,  about  60  yds.  higher  up  the  river 
than  the  old  bridge  (removed  in  1832),  was  designed  hy  John  Rennie, 
a  Scottish  engineer,  begun  in  1825  under  the  superintendence  of 
his  sons,  Sir  John  and  George  Rennie,  and  completed  in  1831.  The 
original  outlay,  including  the  cost  of  the  approaches,  was  about 
720, 000^.,  and  in  1902-4  the  bridge  was  widened  at  a  cost  of 
100, 000^  The  bridge,  928  ft.  long  and  63  ft.  broad  (54  ft.  untU 
1904),  is  borne  by  flve  granite  arches,  of  which  that  in  the  centre 
has  a  span  of  152  ft.  The  lamp-posts  on  the  bridge  are  cast  of  the 
metal  of  French  cannon  captured  in  the  Peninsular  War. 

It  is  estimated  that,   in  spite  of  the  relief  afforded  by  the 

The  City.  6.    THE  MONUMENT.  123 

Tower  Bridge,  2^2,000  yehicles  and  about  110,000  pedestrians  cross 
London  Bridge  daily,  a  fact  which  may  gi^e  the  stranger  some 
idea  of  the  prodigious  traffic  carried  on  in  this  part  of  the  oity. 
New-oomers  should  pay  a  Tisit  to  London  Bridge  on  a  week-day 
during  business-hours  to  see  and  hear  the  steady  stream  of  noisy 
traffic.  Stoppages  or  'blocks'  in  the  flow  of  Tehicles,  of  course, 
sometimes  take  place ;  but,  thanks  to  the  skilful  management  of 
the  police,  such  interruptions  are  seldom  of  long  duration.  One  of 
the  police  regulations  for  this  and  other  busy  bridges  is  that  slow- 
moYing  yehicles  travel  at  the  sides,  and  quick  ones  in  the  middle. 
London  Bridge  divides  London  into  'aboTo'  and  'below'  bridge. 
Looking  down  the  river  we  survey  the  Port  of  London  (p.  140),  the 
part  immediately  below  the  bridge  being  called  the  Pool.  Sea- 
going vessels  of  the  largest  size  may  ascend  the  river  to  this  point, 
but  the  busiest  and,  most  crowded  part  of  the  port  now  lies  below 
the  Tower  Bridge,  of  which  a  good  view  is  obtained  hence.  Above 
bridge  the  traffic  is  carried  on  chiefly  by  penny  steamboats  and  coal 
barges.  Among  the  buildings  visible  from  the  bridge  are,  on  the 
N.  side  of  the  river ,  the  Tower,  the  Custom  House ,  Billingsgate 
Market,  the  Monument,  St.  Paul's,  a  great  number  of  other  chur- 
ches, and  the  Cannon  Street  Station,  while  on  the  Surrey  side  lie 
St.  Saviour's  Church,  Barclay  and  Perkins's  Brewery,  and  numerous 
great  warehouses.  Near  the  S.  end  of  the  bridge  lies  London 
Bridge  Station  (p.  29). 

An  admirable  survey  of  the  traffic  on  the  bridge  as  well  as  on  the 
river  is  obtained  from  The  Monument  (PL  R,  43;  ///),  in  Fish  Street 
Hill ,  a  little  to  the  N.  This  consists  of  a  fluted  column,  202  ft. 
in  height,  designed  by  Wren,  and  erected  in  1671-77  in  com- 
memoration of  the  Great  Fire  of  London,  which,  on  2nd-7th  Sept., 
1666,  destroyed  460  streets  With  89  churches  and  13,200  houses, 
valued  at  7,335,0002.  The  height  of  the  column  is  said  to  equal 
its  distance  from  the  house  in  Pudding  Lane  in  which  the  fire  broke 
out.  A  winding  staircase  of  345  steps  (adm.  3d.)  ascends  the  column 
to  a  platform  enclosed  by  an  iron  cage  (added  to  put  a  stop  to  sui- 
cides from  the  monument),  above  which  rises  a  gilt  urn  with  blaz- 
ing flames,  42  ft.  in  height.  The  pedestal  bears  inscriptions  and 
allegorical  reliefs. 

Immediately  to  the  W.  of  London  Bridge ,  at  the  lower  end  of 
Upper  Thames  Street  ^  stands  Fishmongers'  Halli  a  guildhouse 
erected  in  1831  on  t]ie  site  of  an  older  building.  The  Company  of 
Fishmongers  existed  as  early  as  the  time  of  Edward  I.  It  originally 
consisted  of  two  separate  trades ,  that  of  the  Salt- Fishmongers  and 
that  of  the  Stock- Fishmongers ,  which  were  united  to  form  the  pre- 
sent body  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIIL  The  guild  is  one  of  the 
richest  in  London ,  possessing  an  annual  revenue  of  50, OOOZ.  In 
politics  it  has  usually  been  distinctively  attached  to  the  Whig  party, 
while  the  Merchant  Taylors  are  recognized  as  the  great  Tory  com- 

124  6.    BILLINGSGATE.  The  City. 

pany.  On  the  landing  of  the  staircase  is  a  statue  of  Lord  Mayor 
Walworth  (a  member  of  the  company) ,  who  slew  the  rebel  Wat 
Tyler  (p.  100).  Among  the  objects  of  interest  in  the  interior  are  the 
dagger  with  which  that  rebel  was  slain ;  a  richly  embroidered  pall 
known  as  'Walworth's  palP  ;  a  chair  made  oat  of  part  of  the  first 
pile  driven  In  the  constraction  of  Old  London  Bridge,  supposed  to 
have  been  submerged  in  the  Thames  for  650  years ;  portraits  of  the 
Margrave  and  Margravine  of  Anspach  by  Bomney,  Earl  St. Vincent 
by  Beecheyj  William  III.  and  his  queen  by  Murray^  George  II.  and 
his  consort  by  Shaxildetony  and  Queen  Victoria  by  Herbert  Smith. 
Yintnen'  Hall  (PI.  R,89;  ///),  68  Upper  Thames  Street,  wa«  built  by 
Wren  in  1671  but  almost  entirely  rebuilt  in  1830-23  (adm.  on  written  intro- 
duction). The  old  Council  Chamber  contains  good  oak-carving.  The  company 
was  incorporated  in  1486-37.  —  Near  the  W.  end  of  Upper  Thames  St.  is 
St.  BmeCt  Church,  built  by  Wren  in  1683,  now  used  as  a  Welsh  Church. 

LowBR  Thames  Stbbbt  runs  eastwards  from  London  Bridge  to 
the  Custom  House  and  the  Tower.  Chaucer,  the  'father  of  English 
poetry',  is  said  to  have  lived  here  in  1379-85.  Close  to  the  bridge, 
on  the  right,  stands  the  handsome  church  of  St.  Magnus  the  Martyr 
(open  12-2),  with  a  cupola  and  low  spire,  built  by  Wren  in  1676. 
Miles  Coverdale,  Bishop  of  Exeter,  author  of  the  ftrst  complete  printed 
English  version  of  the  Bible  (1535),  was  once  rector  of  St.  Magnus 
and  his  remains  were  transferred  hither  in  1840  from  St.  Bartholo- 
mew by  the  Exchange,  when  that  church  was  pulled  down. 

Farther  to  the  E. ,  on  the  Thames,  is  BiUixigsgate  (PL  U,  42,  III; 
80  called  from  a  gate  of  old  London,  named,  as  an  improbable  tra- 
dition says,  after  Belin,  a  king  of  the  Britons),  the  chief  fish-market 
of  London,  the  bad  language  used  at  which  has  become  proverbial. 
In  the  reign  of  Elizabeth  this  was  a  market  for  all  kinds  of  pro- 
visions, but  since  the  reign  of  William  III.  it  has  been  used  for 
fish  only.  Fish  has  been  landed  and  sold  here  from  time  im- 
memorial, though  now  by  far  the  largest  part  of  the  fish-supply 
comes  by  railway:  salmon  from  Scotland,  cod  and  turbot  from  the 
Doggerbank,  lobsters  from  Norway,  soles  from  the  German  ocean, 
eels  from  Holland,  and  oysters  from  the  mouth  of  the  Thames  and 
the  English  Channel.  Oysters  and  other  shell-fish  are  sold  by 
measure,  salmon  by  weight,  and  other  fish  by  number.  The  best 
llsh  is  bought  at  the  beginning  of  the  market  by  the  regular  fish- 
mongers. After  them  come  the  costermongers,  who  are  said  to  sell 
a  tliird  of  the  fish  consumed  in  London.  Billingsgate  wharf  is  the 
oldest  on  the  Thames.  The  present  market,  with  a  figure  of  Bri- 
tannia on  the  apex  of  the  pediment,  was  designed  by  Sir  Horace 
Jones,  and  opened  in  1877.  The  market  begins  daily  at  5  a.m., 
and  is  one  of  the  sights  of  London  (see  p.  63). 

Adjacent  to  the  fish-market  is  the  Custom  Hoase  (PL  R,  42 ; 
7/7),  built  by  Tjaing  in  1814-17,  with  an  Imposing  facade  towards 
the  Thames,  490  ft.  in  length,  by  Sir  li.  Smirke.  Visitors  are  ad- 
mitted to  the  Long  Room  (190  ft.  in  length,  by  66  in  breadth),  in 

The  City.  .   6.  COAL  EXCHANGE.  125 

which  abont  140  clerks  are  at  work.  Between  the  Custom  House 
and  the  Thames  is  a  broad  quay,  which  affords  a  flno  yiew  of  the 
river  and  shipping. 

The  Custom  HooBe  accommodates  about  650  officials,  and  about  800  more 
have  offices  among  the  various  warehouses,  docks,  and  wharves  flanking 
the  river  hetween  Gannon  Street  Station  and  Gravesend.  Qravesend  is 
the  headquarters  of  the  waterguard  force,  which  is  assisted  in  its  work 
by  7  steam-launches  and  1  motor-boat.  The  customs -duties  levied  at  the 
port  of  London  amount  to  about  iSLOOOjOOO/.  a  year,  or  nearly  one-third 
of  the  total  customs-revenue  of  the  United  Kingdom.  In  addition  about 
600,000/.  is  collected  in  the  form  of  excise-duties  and  about  90,000/.  in  the 
form  of  light- dues,  for  Trinity  House  (p.  138).  Confiscated  articles  are 
stored  in  a  warehouse  reserved  for  this  purpose,  and  are  disposed  of  at 
annual  sales  by  auction,  which  take  place  in  Mincing  Lane  and  yield  2000/. 
per  annum. 

The  Coal  Exchange,  opposite,  at  the  corner  of  St.  Mary  at  Hill, 
erected  in  1849  from  plans  by  Bunningj  is  in  the  Italian  style,  and 
has  a  tower  106  ft.  in  height.  Adjoining  it  on  the  E.  is  a  hypo- 
catutf  or  stOTe  of  masonry  belonging  to  a  Roman  bath ,  discoYered 
when  the  foundations  were  being  dug  (^shown  on  application  to 
one  of  the  attendants).  The  circular  hall ,  with  glass  dome  and 
triple  gallery,  is  adorned  with  frescoes  by  F.  Sang^  representing 
the  formation  of  coal  and  process  of  mining.  The  flooring  is  inlaid 
with  40,000  pieces  of  wood,  arranged  in  the  form  of  a  mariner's 
compass.  The  sword  in  the  municipal  coat-of-arms  in  the  centre  is 
said  to  be  formed  of  the  wood  of  a  mulberry-tree  planted  by  Peter 
the  Great  in  1698,  when  he  was  learning  the  art  of  ship-building 
at  Deptfoid.  A  collection  of  fossils,  etc.,  is  shown  in  cases  in  the 
galleries.  —  The  amount  of  coal  annually  consumed  in  London 
alone  at  present  averages  upwards  of  6,000,000  tons. 

To  the  N.  of  the  Custom  House  and  to  the  E.  of  the  Coal  Exchange, 
at  the  convergence  of  St.  Dunstan's  Hill  and  Idol  Lane,  is  the  Church  of 
St.  Dvnttcm't  in  the  East  0*1.  R,  42-,  7/7),  rebuilt  in  1671  by  Wren  and  again 
in  1817-21i  the  square  tower,  ending  in  a  kind  of  lantern-steeple,  is  Wren's 
work  (1699).  The  church  contains  a  number  of  monuments  and  stained 
glass  windows.  In  the  vestry  is  a  model  of  Wren's  church,  carved  in  oak 
and  chestnut.  —  The  CJiurch  of  St.  Mary  at  Hill,  a  little  to  the  W.  of  St. 
Dunstan's,  was  built  by  Wren  in  1672-T7  (tower  modern).  Its  present 
rector,  the  Rev.  W.  Carlile,  is  the  founder  of  the  Church  Army,  and  the 
services  include  many  popular  features.  Adjacent  is  the  dtp  Samaritan 
Office^  a  kind  of  club  lor  the  destitute. 

Lower  Thames  Street  debouches  at  its  E.  end  upon  Tower  Hill 
(p.  138).  —  The  Toiocr,  see  p.  131. 

7.   Thames  Embankment.  Blackfriars  Bridge,  ftueen 
Victoria  Street.    Cannon  Street. 

Cleopatra's  NeedU,    The  Times'  Publishing  Office,  Bible  Society, 

Heralds'  College,   Ijondon  Stone.    Southwark  Bridge, 

The  ^Victoria  Embankment,  which  leads  from  Westminster 

Bridge  (PI.  R,  29;  IV)  towards  the  E.  along  the  N.  bank  of  the 

Thames  as  far  as  Blackfriars  Bridge  (PI.  R,  36;  IT)  and  is  traversed 

126  7.  THAMES  EMBANKMENT.  The  City, 

by  a  tramway  (p.  23),  offers  a  pleasant  approach  to  the  City  and 
the  Tower  to  those  who  have  already  explored  the  Strand  and  Fleet 
Street.  It  was  constructed  in  1864-70,  under  the  superyislon  of 
Sir  Joseph  W,  Bazalgette  (p.  xxxi),  at  a  cost  of  nearly  2,000,000^. 
It  is  about  2300  yds.  in  length,  and  consists  of  a  macadamised 
carriage-way  64  ft.  wide,  with  a  foot  payement  16  ft.  broad  on  the 
land-side,  and  otie  20  ft.  broad  on  the  river-side.  The  whole  of 
this  area  was  once  covered  by  the  tide  twice  a  day.  It  is  protected 
on  the  side  next  the  Thames  by  a  granite  wall,  8  ft.  thick,  for  which 
a  foundation  was  made  by  sinking  iron  cylinders  into  the  river-bed 
as  deeply  as  possible  and  filling  them  with  concrete.  Under  the 
Embankment  run  three  different  tunnels.  On  the  inland  side  is  one 
traversed  by  the  Metropolitan  District  Railway,  while  on  the  Thanoea 
side  there  are  two,  one  above  the  other,  the  lower  containing  one  of 
the  principal  intercepting  sewers  (p.  xxxi),  and  the  upper  one  holding 
water  and  gas  pipes  and  telegraph-vnres.  Rows  of  trees  have  been 
planted  along  the  sides  of  the  Embankment,  affording  a  shady 
promenade.  At  intervals  are  large  openings,  with  stairs  leading  to 
the  floating  steamboat  piers  (p.  38),  which  are  constructed  of  iron, 
and  rise  and  fall  with  the  tide. 

The  principal  approaches  to  the  Victoria  Embankment  are  from 
Blackfriars  Bridge  and  Westminster  Bridge  (p.  216),  from  Hor^  e- 
guards  Avenue,  leading  off  Whitehall,  from  Charing  Cross  (p.  164), 
and  from  Arundel,  Norfolk,  Surrey,  Wellington,  Savoy,  andVilliers 
Streets,  all  leading  off  the  Strand. 

Beginning  at  Westminster  Bridge  (p.  216),  we  see  St.  Stephen's 
Club  to  the  left,  and  a  little  farther  on  pass  New  Scotland  Yard 
(p,  216)  and  Montague  House  (p.  215).  Immediately  above  Charing 
Cross  Bridge  rises  a  lofty  block  of  buildings  containing  the  National 
Liberal  Club  (p.  164).  The  public  gardens  (band  on  summer 
evenings,  except  Thurs.  &  Sat.)  in  front  of  these  are  embellished 
with  bronze  statues  of  William  TyndaUy  the  translator  of  the 
New  Testament,  Sir  BarUe  Frere^  and  General  Outram,  In  the  wall 
of  the  Embankment,  opposite  Northumberland  Avenue,  is  a  mural 
monument  to  Sir  Joseph  Bazalgette  (1819-91 ;  see  above),  by  George 
Simonds.  Below  the  bridge  is  another  public  garden,  with  statues 
of  Robert  Bums  and  Robert  Raikes,  ^he  founder  of  Sunday  schools 
(1790),  a  tasteful  memorial  to  Sir  Arthur  SuUivan  (1842-1900), 
and  a  memorial  fountain  bearing  a  bronze  medallion  of  Henry 
Fawcetty  M.  P.  The  ancient  level  of  the  river  is  indicated  by  the 
beautiful  old  •Watergate  of  York  House,  a  palace  begun  by  Inigo 
Jones  for  the  first  Duke  of  Buckingham  (in  the  N.W.  corner  of  this 
garden).  Another  relic  of  this  palace,  in  which  Francis  Bacon  was 
born,  remains  in  Buckingham  Street  (p.  161),  behind  the  Watergate. 
Above  is  the  Adelphi  Terrace  (p.  161).  On  the  right  of  the  Embank- 
ment, by  the  Adelphi  Steps,  rises  Cleopatra's  Heedle  (PI.  R,  30 ;  Ji), 
an  Egyptian  obelisk  erected  here  in  1878. 

The  City,  7.  BLACKFRIARS  BKIDGK.  127 

This  fftmooa  obelisk  was  presented  to  the  British  Government  by  Mo- 
hammed All,  and  brought  to  this  country  by  the  private  munificence  of 
Dr.  Erasmus  Wilson,  who  gave  10,0001.  for  this  purpose.  Properly  speaking 
Cleopatra^s  Needle  is  the  name  of  the  companion  obelisk  now  in  New  York, 
which  stood  erect  at  Alexandria  till  its  removal,  while  the  one  now  in 
London  lay  prostrate  for  many  years.  Both  monoliths  were  originally 
brought  from  Heliopolis,  which  is  referred  to  in  the  inscription  on  the 
London  obelisk  as  the  ^house  of  the  PhcDnix".  The  obelisk,  which  is  of 
reddish  granite,  measures  68 Vs  ft.  in  height,  and  is  8  ft.  wide  at  the  base. 
Its  weight  is  180  tons.  The  pedestal  of  grey  granite  is  18'Vs  ft.  high,  in- 
cluding the  steps  \  the  inscriptiqps  on  it  summarise  the  ancient  and  modern 
history  of  the  Obelisk.  The  Obelisk  of  Luxor  at  Paris  is  76  ft.  in  height, 
and  weighs  240  tons. 

Two  large  bronze  Sphinxet.  designed  by  Mr.  G.  Vulliamy,  have  been 
placed  at  the  base  of  the  Needle. 

A  little  farther  on,  near  Waterloo  Bridge,  rises  the  Cecil  Hotel 
(p.  4),  an  enormous  building  by  Perry  and  Reed,  occupying  the  site 
of  one  of  the  most  ambitious  enterprises  of  the  notorious  Liberator 
Society.  It  is  adjoined  by  the  5awy  Hotel  (p.  4;  at  the  back  of  the 
Savoy,  p.  160),  beyond  which  stands  the  Medical  Examination  Hall, 
The  latter,  a  building  of  red  brick  and  Portland  stone  In  the 
Italian  style,  erected  in  1886,  contains  a  statue  of  Queen  Victoria, 
by  Williamson  (1889).  Below  the  bridge  are  the  river-facade  and 
terrace  of  Somerset  House  (p.  159).  Farther  on,  near  the  Temple 
Station,  is  a  statue  of  Isambard  Brunei;  and  in  the  adjoining 
gardens  are  statues  of  W,  E,  Forster,  erected  in  1890,  and  of  John 
Stuart  Mill^  erected  In  1878.  At  the  from  the  gardens  are  bronze 
copies  of  two  Wrestlers^  from  Herculaneum.  Behind  Forster's  statue  is 
the  tasteful  building  occupied  by  the  Education  Committee  (p.  xxxii) 
of  the  County  Council.  Then  follows  the  Temple  (p.  152),  with  its 
modern  Gothic  Library  and  its  Oardern.  Farther  to  the  E.,  beyond 
two  palatial  blocks  of  offices,  are  the  buildings  of  the  Metropolitan 
Asylums  Board  and  the  Thames  Conservancy ;  immediately  adjoin- 
ing the  latter  is  the  Gothic  building  (1886)  of  Sion  College  and 
Library  (see  p.  65 ;  visitors  admitted  on  application),  beyond  which 
is  the  City  of  London  School  (1883),  of  which  Sir  J.  R.  Seeley  was 
an  alumnus.  To  theN.,  in  Tallis  Street,  is  the  Ouildhall  School 
of  Music  (over  3000  pupils),  erected  by  the  Corporation  of  London  in 
the  Italian  style  in  1886.  In  Tudor  Street,  in  the  rear  of  this  building, 
Is  the  City  of  London  School  for  Oirls ;  and  at  the  corner  of  Tudor 
Street  and  Bridewell  Place  is  the  JnstituU  of  JournalisU  (1902). 
The  Embankment  ends  at  Blackfriars  Bridge,  at  the  N.  end  of 
which  is  a  statue  of  Queen  Victoria,  by  Birch  (1897).  Adjacent  is 
De  Keyser's  Royal  Hotel  (p.  8). 

AU)9rt  Embankment^  aee  p.  379  \  Chtlsea  Embanktnent^  see  p.  367. 

BlackfriarB  Bridge  (PI.  R,  34, 35 ;  /i),  an  iron  structure,  built 
by  Cubitt  in  1864-69,  occupies  the  site  of  a  stone  bridge  dating 
from  1769,  the  piers  of  which  had  given  way.  The  bridge,  which 
consists  of  five  arches  (the  central  having  a  span  of  185  ft.)  sup- 
ported by  granite  piers,  is  1272  ft.  in  length,  including  the  abut- 

128  7.  TIMES  OFFICE.  The  CUy, 

ments.  Widened  in  1907-8  it  is  now  the  broadest  bridge  across 
the  Thames  (105  ft.).  The  original  cost  of  construction  amounted  to 
400,000^.  The  dome  of  St.  Panrs  is  seen  to  adyantage  from  this  bridge 
(comp.,  however,  p.  86),  which  also  commands  an  excellent  view 
otherwise.  Just  below  Blackfriars  Bridge  is  the  South  Eoftem  and 
Chatham  Railway  Bridge ,  and  just  above  is  the  tunnel  by  which, 
the  WaUrloo  ^  City  Railway  (p.  38)  passes  under  the  river. 

The  bridge  derives  its  name  from  an  ancient  Monastery  of  the  Black 
Friars,  situated  on  the  bank  of  the  rive1^  and  dating  from  1276,  where 
several  parliaments  once  met,  and  where  Cardinals  Wolsey  and  Cam- 
pegglo  pronounced  sentence  of  divorce  against  the  unfortunate  Queen 
Catharine  of  Aragon  in  1529  (^King  Henry  VIII.*  ii.  4).  Shakspeare  once 
lived  at  Blackfriars,  and  in  1599  acted  at  a  theatre  which  formerly  occu- 
pied part  of  the  site  of  the  monastery,  and  of  which  the  name  Plaphonte 
Yard  is  still  a  reminiscence.  In  KKJ?  Ben  Jonson  was  also  a  resident 
here,  and  Van  Dyck  lived  at  Blackfriars  from  1632  till  his  death  in  1641. 

In  New  Bridge  Street,  which  leads  straight  to  the  N.  from  Black- 
friars Bridge,  immediately  to  the  right,  is  the  Blackfriars  Station 
of  the  Metropolitan  District  Railway  (p.  32);  and  farther  on,  beyond 
Queen  Victoria  Street  (see  below),  is  the  large  Ludgate  Hill 
Station  of  the  South  Eastern  and  Chatham  Railway  (p.  28),  oppo- 
site which,  on  the  left,  the  prison  of  Bridewell  (so  called  from  the 
old  *miraculous'  Well  of  St.  Bride  or  St.  Bridget)  stood  down  to 
1864.  The  site  of  the  prison  was  once  occupied  by  Bridewell 
Palace,  iu  which  Shakspeare  lays  the  3rd  Act  of  his  'Henry  Vlll.' 
New  Bridge  Street  ends  at  Ludgate  Circus,  at-  the  E.  end  of  Fleet 
Street  (p.  148),  the  prolongation  to  the  N.  being  called  Farringdon 
Street  (see  p.  98).  To  the  E.,  opposite  Fleet  Street,  diverges  Lud- 
gate Hill,  leading  to  St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  and  passing  under  tbe 
viaduct  of  the  South  Eastern  and  Chatham  Railway  (p.  27). 

QuBBN  VicTOEiA  Stebet,  a  broad  and  handsome  thoroughfare, 
1/3  M.  in  length,  constructed  at  vast  expense ,  leads  straight  from 
Blackfriars  Bridge,  towards  the  £.,  to  the  Mansion  House  and  the 
Bank.  To  the  right,  at  its  W.  end,  is  the  large  St.  PauVs  Station 
of  the  South  Eastern  and  Chatham  Railway.  In  Water  Lane,  to 
the  left,  stands  Apothecaries'  Hall,  built  in  1670,  and  containing 
portraits  of  James  I.,  Charles  I.,  and  others  (adm.  on  written  ap- 
plication to  the  clerk).  The  Society  of  Apothecaries,  consisting 
almost  entirely  of  medical  men,  grants  a  diploma  for  the  practice 
of  medicine  and  surgery  and  certificates  to  dispense  medicines.  The 
pure  drugs  prepared  in  the  chemical  laboratories  at  the  back  of 
the  Hall  are  largely  uFed  in  hospitals  and  the  colonies.  On  the  left 
side  of  Queen  Victoria  Street,  farther  on,  is  the  Office  of  The  Times 
(PI.  R,  35 ;  If),  a  handsome  building  of  red  brick.  The  tympanum 
bears  an  allegorical  device  with  allusions  to  times  past  and  future. 
Behind  the  Publishing  Office,  in  Printing  House  Square  (so  called 
from  the  former  office  of  the  king's  printers),  is  the  interesting 
Printing  Office,  Tickets  of  admission  to  see  the  printing  of  the 
second  edition  of  the  paper  at  midday  on  any  day  except  Sat.  are 

The  CUy.  7.  BIBLE  SOCIETY.  ^         129 

issued  on  written  application  to  the  Manager,  enclosing  a  reference 
fo  some  well-known  person  or  firm  in  London.  Applications  from 
toreigners  should  he  certified  hy  their  emhassy  or  legation.  Visitors 
should  be  careful  to  attend  at  the  hour  named  in  the  order.  No 
fewer  than  20,000  copies  can  he  struck  oflf  in  an  hour  by  the 
wonderful  mechanism  of  the  Walter  press,  and  perhaps  60,000  are 
issued  daily.  The  continuous  rolls  or  webs  of  paper,  with  which 
the  machine  feeds  itself,  are  each  4  miles  in  length,  and  of  these 
28  to  30  are  used  in  one  day.  The  finished  and  folded  copies  of 
Th€  Times  are  thrown  out  at  the  other  end  of  the  machine.  The 
type-setting  machines  also  are  of  great  interest.  The  guide  explains 
all  the  details  (no  gratuity).  The  Times  celebrated  its  centenary 
in  1888. 

Printing  House  Square  stands  on  a  corner  of  old  London  which 
for  many  ages  was  occupied  by  frowning  Norman  fortresses.  Part 
of  the  castle  of  Mountiitchet,  a  follower  of  the  Conqueror,  is  said  to 
have  stood  here ;  and  the  ground  hetween  the  S.  side  of  Queen 
Victoria  Street ,  or  Earl  Street ,  and  the  Thames  was  the  site  of 
Baynard*8  Castle  (mentioned  in  ^Richard  1II\)  with  its  extensive 
precincts,  which  replaced  an  earlier  Roman  fortress,  and  probably 
a  British  work  of  defence.  Baynard's  Castle  was  presented  by  Queen 
Elizaheth  to  the  Earls  of  Pembroke,  and  continued  to  be  their  resi" 
dence  till  its  destruction  in  the  Great  Firet. 

Farther  on  in  Queen  Victoria  Street  is  the  church  of  St.  Andrew 
hy  the  Wardrobe  (open  12-2),  rehuilt  by  Wren  in  1692.  This  church 
was  called  St.  Andrew's-juxta-Baynard's-Castle  until  the  reign  of 
Edward  III.,  hy  whom  the  office  of  the  King's  Great  Wardrobe  was 
transferred  to  a  house  near  Puddle  Dock  in  the  vicinity.  The 
wardrobe  was  a  depository  for  state-garments.  Adjacent,  on  the  E., 
rises  the  large  hullding  occupied  by  the  British  and  Foreign  Bible 
Society,  opened  in  1869.  The  numher  of  Bibles,  Testaments,  etc. 
issued  hy  this  important  society  now  amounts  to  over  five  and  a  half 
millions  a  year.  The  total  number  of  copies  issued  since  its  foundation 
in  1804  is  over  200,000,000,  printed  in  409  different  languages  and 
dialects.  The  annual  income  of  the  society  from  suhscriptions  and 
the  sale  of  Bibles  is  about  230,000/.  Visitors  (daily,  except  Sat  and 
Mon.)  are  shown  the  library,  containing  a  unique  collection  of 
Bibles  and  Portions  of  the  Scriptures  in  12,000  vols.,  in  more  than 
500  different  languages,  including  fine  copies  of  famous  and  scarce 
editions  of  early  printed  English  Bibles ;  and  the  Codex  Zacynthius, 
a  palimpsest  of  the  Gospels  hrought  from  Zante.  The  committee- 
room  contains  a  portrait  of  Lord  Shafteshury,  by  Millais,  and  Luther's 
first  study  of  the  Bihle,  a  large  painting  hy  E.  M,  Ward,  —  Farthef 

t  TMs  is  the  ordinary  account,  bat  it  is  dispnted  by  Mr.  Loftie,  who 
maintains  that  the  later  house  knoWn  as  Baynard's  Castle  did  not  occupy 
the  site  of  the  original  fortress  of  that  name.  See  his  ^London'  (in  thh 
^Historic  Towns  Series'-,  1887). 

Bj,Ri>bs£b's  London.    10th  Edit.  9 

130  7*   CANNON  STREET.  The  City. 

to  the  E.,  on  the  same  side  of  the  street,  are  the  large  balldings  of 
the  Post  Office  TeUphone  Department  (p.  42). 

To  the  left,  farther  on  in  Queen  Ylotoria  Street,  is  Heraldg'  Col- 
lege, or  the  College  of  Arms  (rebuiU  in  1683),  anciently  the  town 
house  of  the  Earls  of  Derby.  The  library  oontaius  a  number  of  inter- 
esting objects ,  Including  a  sword,  dagger,  and  ring  belonging  to 
James  IV.  of  Scotland,  who  fell  at  Flodden  in  1513 ;  the  Warwick  roll, 
a  series  of  portraits  of  the  Earls  of  Warwick  from  the  Conquest  to  the 
time  of  Richard  111.  (executed  by  Rous  at  the  end  of  the  15th  cent. ) ; 
genealogy  of  the  Saxon  kings,  from  Adam,  more  curious  than  trust- 
worthy, illustrated  with  drawings  of  the  time  of  Henry  VIII. ;  por- 
trait of  the  celebrated  Talbot,  Earl  of  Shrewsbury,  from  his  tomb 
in  old  St.  Paul's.  The  college  also  contains  the  official  records  of 
the  nobility  and  gentry  of  England  and  other  valuable  genealogical 
collections.   Visitors  require  an  introduction. 

The  office  of  Earl-Mar«hal,  president  of  Heralda'  College,  is  hereditary 
in  the  person  of  the  Duke  of  ITorfolk.  The  college  consists  of  three 
kings-at-arms,  Garter,  Clarenceux,  and  Norroy  —  six  heralds,  Lancaster, 
Somerset,  Richmond,  York,  Windsor,  and  Chester  —  and  four  pursuiyants. 
Rouge  Croix,  Bluemantle,  Portcullis,  and  Rouge  Dragon.  The  main 
duty  of  the  corporation  is  to  make  out  and  preserve  the  pedigrees  and 
armorial  bearings  of  noble  families  and  to  conduct  such  royal  ceremonials 
as  are  in  the  department  of  the  Earl-Marshal.  It  also  grants  arms  and 
records  royal  warrants  of  precedency  and  changes  of  name. 

On  the  S.  side  of  Queen  Victoria  Street,  farther  on,  are  the  head- 
quarters of  the  Salvation  Army,  and  on  the  N.  side  are  the  churches 
of  St.  Nicholas  Cole  Abbey  and  St.  Mary  Aldermaryy  two  of  Wren's 
reconstructions.  Nearly  opposite  the  latter  of  these,  in  which  Milton 
was  married  to  his  third  wife  (Feb.  24th,  1663),  Queen  Victoria 
Street  intersects  Gannon  Strbbt,  the  most  direct  route  between 
St.  Paul's  Churchyard  and  London  Bridge,  and  Queen  Street  (p.  107), 
leading  from  Cheapside  to  Southwark  Bridge  (p.  131).    Near  the 
intersection,  facing  Bread  Street,  is  St,  Mildred? e  Church,  built  by 
Wren  (1683)  and  containing,  like  many  others  of  the  City  churches, 
some  very  handsome  woodwork.   Shelley  married  Mary  Godwin  at 
this  church  on  Dec.  30th,  1816.    Gannon  Street,  which  is  ^3  M. 
long,  was  constructed  at  a  cost  of  589,470/.,  and  opened  in  1854. 
This  street  contains  the  Cannon  Street  (p.  32)  and  Mansion  House 
(p.  32)  stations  of  the  Metropolitan  District  Railway,  and  also  the 
extensiye  Cannon  Street  Station,  the  Gity  Terminus  of  the  South 
Eastern  and  Ghatham  Railway  (p.  27 }  hotel,  see  p.  8).    Opposite  the 
last  stands  the  church  of  St.  Swithin,  popularly  regarded  as  the  saint 
of  the  weather,  rebuUt  by  Wren  in  1678 ;  into  its  S.  wall  is  built  the 
London  Stone,  an  old  Roman  milestone,  supposed  to  have  been  the 
milliarium  of  the  Roman  forum  in  London,  from  which  the  distances 
along  the  various  British  highroads  were  reckoned.    Against  this 
stone,  which  is  now  protected  by  an  iron  gprating.  Jack  Cade  once 
struck  his  staff,  exclaiming  *Now  is  Mortimer  lord  of  the  city\    In 
St«  Swithin's  Lane  stands  the  large  range  of  premises  known  as 

The  City.  8.  THB  TOWER.  131 

^New  Court\  occupied  by  MesBis.  Rothschild.  —  Close  by  is  Saltera^ 
Hall,  with  portraits  of  George  III.  and  Queen  Charlotte  bv  Reynolds 
(usually  shown  on  application),  and  near  It  was  Salters'  Hall  Chapel, 
begun  by  the  ejected  minister  Richard  Mayo  in  1667,  and  long 
celebrated  for  its  preachers  and  theological  disputations.  —  Down 
to  1853  the  Steel  Yard,  at  one  time  a  factory  or  storehouse  of  the 
Hanseatio  League,  established  In  1260,  stood  on  the  site  now  oc- 
cupied by  the  Cannon  Street  Terminus.  —  Adjacent  to  the  station, 
on  the  W.,  is  Dowgate  Hill,  with  the  Hall  of  the  Skinners,  who 
were  incorporated  in  1327.  The  court  (with  its  wooden  porch) 
and  interior  were  built  soon  after  the  Fire ;  the  staircase  and  the 
wainscoted  'Cedar  Room*  are  interesting.  The  fine  plate  of  this 
company  includes  the  curious  ^Cockayne  Cups'  of  1665.  —  Cannon 
Street  ends  at  the  Monument,  beyond  which  it  is  continued  by 
Easteheap  and  Oreat  Tower  Street  to  Tower  Hill  (p.  138). 

Sonthwark  Bridge  (PI.  R,  38 ;  ///),  erected  by  Sir  John  Rennie 
in  1816-19,  at  a  cost  of  800,000^.,  is  700  ft.  long,  and  consists  of 
three  iron  arches ,  borne  by  stone  piers.  The  span  of  the  central 
arch  is  240ft.,  that  of  the  side  ones  210  ft.  The  traffic  is  compar- 
atiyely  small  on  account  of  the  inconvenience  of  the  approaches, 
but  has  of  late  greatly  increased.  In  South wark,  on  the  S.  bank, 
Hes  Barclay  and  Perkinses  Brewery  (p.  377).  The  river  farther  down 
is  crossed  by  the  imposing  flve-arched  railway-bridge  of  the  South 
Eastern  and  Chatham  Railway  (terminus  at  Cannon  Street  Station, 
see  p.  130). 

8.    The  Tower. 

Trinity  House.    Royal  Mint.    Tower  Bridge. 

The  Tower  is  conveniently  reached  by  the  District  Railway  to  Mark 
Lame  Station  (PI.  R,  42;  ///);  or  by  omnibus  from  Liverpool  Street. 

The  Tower  (PI.  R,  46 ;  ///),  the  ancient  fortress  and  gloomy 
state-prison  of  London,  and  historically  the  most  interesting  spot  in 
England,  is  an  irregular  mass  of  buildings  erected  at  various  per- 
iods, surrounded  by  a  battlemented  wall  and  a  deep  moat,  which 
was  drained  in  1843.  It  stands  on  the  bank  of  the  Thames,  to  the 
E.  of  the  City,  and  outside  the  bounds  of  the  ancient  city-walls. 
The  present  external  appearance  of  the  Tower  is  very  unlike  what 
it  originally  was,  perhaps  no  fortress  of  the  same  age  having 
undergone  greater  transformations.  Though  at  first  a  royal  palace 
and  stronghold,  the  Tower  is  best  known  in  history  as  a  prison.  It 
is  now  a  government  arsenal,  and  is  still  kept  in  repair  as  a  fortress. 
The  ground-plan  is  in  the  form  of  an  irregular  pentagon,  which 
covers  an  area  of  13  acres,  and  is  enclosed  by  a  double  line  of  cir- 
eumvallation  (the  outer  and  inner  ballium  or  ward"),  strengthened 
with  towers.  The  square  White  "Tower  rises  conspicuously  in  the 
centre.  A  broad  quay,  with  a  gun-park,  lies  between  the  moat  and 
the  Thames. 


132  8.  THE  TOWER.  The  City. 

It  is  possible,  though  very  doubtful,  that  a  fortification  of  some  kind 
stood  OB  this  site  in  Boman  times  ^  but  the  Tower  of  London  properly 
originated  with  William  the  Conqueror  (see  p.  zviii).  The  oldest  part  of 
the  fortress  is  the  WMU  Tower  (p.  134).  begun  about  1078  on  a  site  pre- 
viously oecupied  hy  two  bastions  built  by  King  Alfred  in  836.  The  archi- 
tect was  Qnndulf,  Bishop  of  Rochester.  It  is  said  to  owe  its  name  to  the 
fact  that  its  walls  were  whitewashed  in  1340.  Under  William  II.  (10S7- 
1100)  the  inner  ward  was  surrounded  by  a  wall,  while  the  moat  was  made 
by  Richard  I.  (1189-99),  but  the  most  extensive  additions  were  due  to 
Henry  III.  (1216-7!^,  from  whose  reign  dates  the  greater  part  of  the  pre- 
sent fortifications.  The  Chapel  in  the  White  Tower  is  mentioned  for  the 
first  time  in  1189,  the  Church  of  8L  Peter  in  1210.  The  Royal  Reiidence^ 
which  stood  to  the  S.E.  of  the  White  Tower,  was  probably  erected  by  the 
heginning  of  the  13th  cent.;  most  of  it,  including  the  great  hall  in  which 
Anne  Boleyn  was  tried,  was  pulled  down  by  Cromwell  (16i9-68),  and  the 
remainder  has  since  disappeared,  with  the  exception  of  a  small  fragment 
of  the  Wardrobe  Tower  (see  Plan).  Charle*  II.,  who  here  spent  the  night 
before  his  coronation  (1631),  was  the  last  monarch  who  has  resided  in 
the  Tower. 

The  list  of  celebrated  Ps'.sjnebs  in  the  Tower  is  a  long  one.  Among 
those  who  were  haried  in  the  church  of  St.  Peter  ad  Vin:ula  (p.  137)  were  : 
Sir  Thomas  More,  be'jeaded  1535  (but  comp.  p.  369) ;  Anne  Boleyn,  be- 
headed 1536^  Thomas  Cromwell,  Earl  of  Essex,  beheaded  1540;  Margaret 
Pole,  Countess  of  Salisbury,  beheaded  1541;  Queen  Catharine  Howard, 
beheaded  15V2;  Lord  Admiral  Seymoar  of  Sndeley,  beheaded  1549;  Lord 
Somerset,  the  Protector,  beheaded  1552;  John  Dudley,  Earl  of  Warwick 
and  Dake  of  Northumberland,  beheaded  1553;  Lady  Jane  Grey  and  her 
husband,  Lord  Qaildf  )rd  Dudley,  beheaded  1554;  Robert  Devereux,  Earl 
of  Esex,  beheadel  1601;  Sir  Thomas  Overbury,  poisoned  ia  the  Tower 
in  1613;  Sir  John  Eliot  died  as  a  prisoner  in  the  Tower  1632;  James 
Fitzroy,  Duke  of  Monmouth,  beheaded  16S5;  Simon,  Lord  Eraser  of  Lovat, 
beheided  1747.  The  executions  took  place  in  the  Tower  itself  only  in  the 
cases  of  Anne  Boleyn,  Catharine  Howard,  the  Countess  of  Salisbury,  Lady 
Jane  Grey,  and  Devereux,  Earl  of  Essex;  in  all  the  other  instances  the 
prisoners  were  beheided  at  the  public  place  of  execu4oa  on  Tower  Hill 
(see  p.  138). 

Other  celebrated  persons  who  were  confined  for  a  longer  or  shorter 
period  in  the  Tower  are:  John  Baliol,  King  of  Scotland,  1296;  William 
Wallace,  the  Scottish  patriot,  1305;  David  Bruce,  King  of  Scotland,  1347; 
King  John  of  France  (taken  prisoner  at  Poitiers,  1353);  Duke  of  Orleans, 
father  of  Louis  XIL  of  France,  1415;  Lord  Cobham,  themoit  distinguished 
of  the  Lollards  (burned  as  a  heretic  at  St.  Giles  in  the  Fields,  1416);  Ring 
Henry  VI.  (who  ij  said  to  have  been  murdered  in  the  Wakefield  Tower 
by  the  Duke  of  Gloucester,  1471);  Anne  Askew  (tortured  in  the  Tower, 
and  burned  in  Smithfield  as  a  heretic,  1546);  Archbishop  Cranmer,  1553; 
Sir  Tomas  Wyatt  (beheaded  on  Tower  Hill  in  1554)  ;  Earl  of  Southampton, 
Shakspeare's  patron,  i5'62\  Sir  Walter  Raleigh  (see  p.  134;  beheaded  at 
Westminster  in  1618);  Earl  of  Strafford  (beheaded  1641)  ^  Archbishop  Laud 
(beheaded  1645) ;  Viscount  Stafford  (beheaded  1680) ;  Lord  William  Russell 
(beheaded  1683);  Lord  Chancellor  Jeffreys,  1683;  Duke  of  Marlborough, 
1692,  etc.  The  last  prisoners  confined  in  the  Tower  were  Thistlewood 
and  the  other  Cato  Street  conspirators,  hanged  in  1820. 

The  principal  entiance  to  the  Tower  (adm.,  see  p.  82),  or  Lions* 
OatCj  80  called  from  the  royal  menagerie  formerly  kept  here,  Is  on  the 
W.  side,  in  Tower  Hill.  (The  lions  were  removed  to  the  Zoological 
Gardens  in  Regent's  Park  in  1834.)  To  the  right  is  the  Ticket  Office^ 
where  tickets  are  procured  for  the  Armoury  (6d.)  and  the  Crown 
Jewels  (6  d.).  Free  days  should  be  ayoided  on  account  of  the  crowd. 
A  simple  Refreshment  Room  adjoins  the  ticket  office.  The  quaintly- 
attired  Wardert  or  Beef-eaters^  who  are  stationed  at  different  parts 

P    a    r     a    d     e 




:iers\|   , 

:i  ^!gh 

,^         MenfeJ 


Wagneir  &.  Debes '  Geoff  Estabi-  Leipsie. 

The  City.  8.  THE  TOWER.  133 

of  the  building ,  are  all  old  soldiers  of  meritorious  service.  The 
term  Beef-eater  is  commonly  explained  as  a  corruption  of  Buffetiers, 
or  attendants  at  the  royal  Buffet,  but  is  more  probably  a  nickname 
bestQwed  upon  the  ancient  Yeomen  of  the  Quard  from  their  yreW- 
fed  appearance  or  the  fact  that  rations  of  beef  were  regularly  served 
out  to  them  when  on  duty.  The  names  of  the  different  towers, 
gates,  etc.,  are  now  indicated  by  placards,  and  the  most  interesting 
objects  in  the  armouries  also  bear  inscriptions.  The  Ouidea  to  the 
Tower  {id,  and  6(i.;  both  by  W.  J.  Loftie)  are  almost  unnecessary, 
except  to  those  who  take  a  special  interest  in  old  armour. 

We  here  describe  the  parts  usually  open  to  visitors  in  the  pre- 
scribed order.  Visitors  really  interested  may  usually  obtain,  on 
application  to  the  Governor  in  Residence,  a  'special  warder  pa8s\ 
admitting  to  parts  not  shown  to  the  general  public.  Among  these 
are  Sir  Walter  RaleigVs  prison  in  the  White  Tower ;  the  dungeons 
below,  including  'Little  Ease',  where  Guy  Fawkes  was  confined ;  the 
place  in  which  the  rack  was  set  up;  the  interior  of  St.  Peter's 
Church,  etc.  (gratuity  to  warder). 

To  the  left  of  the  entrance,  opposite  the  Ticket  Office ,  is  a 
Turkish  cannon,  presented  by  Sultan  Abdul  Medjid  Khan  in  1867. 
A  stone  bridge,  between  two  towers  {Middle  lower  and  Byward 
Tower") y  leads  across  the  moat  (which  can  still  be  flooded  by  the 
garrison)  into  the  Outer  Bail  or  anterior  court.  On  the  left  is  the 
Bell  Tower,  adjacent  to  which  is  a  narrow  passage,  leading  round 
the  fortifications  within  the  outer  wall.  Farther  on,  to  the  right, 
is  the  Traitors^  Gate,  a  double  gateway  on  the  Thames,  by  which 
state-prisoners  were  formerly  admitted  to  the  Tower ;  above  it  is 
St.  Thomas's  Tower.  A  gateway  opposite  leads  under  the  Bloody 
Tower  (p.  137),  with  its  portcullis,  to  the  Inner  Bail.  Immediately 
to  the  right  is  the  round  Wakefield  Tower  (p.  137),  also  called 
Record  Tower  from  the  fact  that  it  contained  the  public  records 
until  1856.   Here  are  now  preserved  the  — 

CnowN  Jewels,  or  Regalia.  During  the  confusion  that  prevailed 
after  the  execution  of  Charles  I.  the  royal  ornaments  and  part  of 
the  Regalia,  including  the  ancient  crown  of  King  Edward  the  Con- 
fessor, were  sold.  The  crowns  and  jewels  made  to  replace  these 
after  the  Restoration  retain  the  ancient  names.  The  Regalia  are 
preserved  in  a  glass-case,  protected  by  a  strong  iron  cage. 

St.  Edward"*  Crown ,  executed  for  the  coronation  of  Charles  II.  TIii« 
was  the  crown  stolen  in  1671  by  Col.  Blood  and  his  accomplices,  who 
overpowered  and  gagged  the  keeper.  The  bold  robbers,  however,  did  not 
succeed  in  escaping  with  their  booty.  The  Kirg^t  Crown ^  origirally  made 
in  1838  for  Queen  Victoria  and  altered  in  19U2  for  Edward  VII.,  is  a 
masterpiece  of  the  modern  goldsmith^s  art,  adorned  with  no  fewer  than 
28L8  diamondfi,  cOO  pearls,  and  other  gems.  The  uncut  ruby  (^spinel") 
in  front,  said  to  have  been  given  to  the  Black  Prince  in  1367  by  Don 
Pedro  of  Castile,  was  worn  by  Henry  V.  on  his  helmet  at  the  battle  of 
Agincourt.  The  large  sapphire  below  is  said  to  have  belonged  to  Edward 
the  Confessor.  The  Prince  of  Wales**  Crown,  of  pure  gold,  without 
precious  stones.    The  Queen   Consorfs  Crown,  of  gold,  set  with  jewels. 

134  8.  THE  TOWER.  The  City. 

The  Queen^s  Croton^  a  golden  circlet,  embellished  with  diamonds  and  pearls, 
made  for  Queen  Maria  d'Este,  wife  of  James  II.  St.  Edward's  8Unff^  made 
of  gold,  4V2  ft.  long  and  abont  90  lbs.  in  weight.  The  orb  at  the  top  is 
said  to  contain  a  piece  of  the  true  cross.  The  Rityal  Sceptre  with  the 
cross,  2  ft.  9  in.  long,  richly  adorned  with  precious  stones.  The  Sceptre 
of  the  Dove^  or  Rod  of  Equity.  Above  the  orb  is  a  dove  with  outspread 
wings.  The  Royal  Sceptre^  with  richly  gemmed  cross.  The  Ivory 
Sceptre  of  Queen  Maria  d'Este,  surmounted  by  a  dove  of  white  onyx. 
The  Sceptre  of  Queen  Mary^  wife  of  William  m.  The  Orbs  of  the  King 
and  Queen.  Model  of  the  Koh-i-Noor  (Mountain  of  Light),  one  of  the 
largest  diamonds  known,  weighing  162  carats.  The  original,  now  at 
Windsor  Castle,  was  formerly  in  the  possession  of  Bunjeet  Singh,  Bajah 
of  Lahore,  and  came  into  Uie  hands  of  the  English  in  1849,  on  their 
conquest  of  the  Punjab.  The  Curtana^  or  pointless /STtroref  of  Mercy.  The 
Swords  of  Justice.  The  Coronation  Bracelets.  The  Royal  Spurs.  The  Coro- 
nation Oil  Vessel  or  Ampulla^  in  the  form  of  an  eagle.  The  Spoon  belong- 
ing to  the  ampulla,  thought  to  be  the  only  relic  of  the  ancient  regalia. 
The  Salt  Cellar  of  State^  in  the  form  of  a  model  of  the  White  Tower. 
The  silver-gilt  Baptismal  Font  for  the  royal  children.  A  silver  Wine  Foun- 
tain given  by  the  Corporation  of  Plymouth  to  Charles  II.  Gold  Basin  used 
in  the  distribution  of  the  Elng^s  alms  on  Maundy  Thursday.  The  total 
value  of  the  Regalia  is  estimated  at  3,000,0001. 

The  cases  at  the  side  contain  the  insignia  of  the  Order*  of  the  Garter^ 
Star  of  India,  the  Baih^  St.  Michael  and  St,  George,  Thistle,  St.  Foirick^ 
Crown  of  India,  Royal  Victorian  Order,  etc.  \  also  the  Victoria  Cross^  the 
Distinguished  Service  Order,  and  others. 

On  quitting  the  Wakefield  Tower,  close  to  which  is  the  new  Ouard 
House,  a  somewhat  incongruous  block  of  red  brick  buildings  (1900), 
we  retrace  our  steps  under  the  Bloody  Tower,  turn  to  the  left,  and 
pass  through  a  gateway  on  the  left  Into  the  Inner  Bail.  In  front 
of  us  is  the  gun-carriage  on  which  the  remains  of  Queen  Victoria 
were  finally  conveyed  to  the  mausoleum  at  Frogmore  (p.  431).  In 
the  centre  of  the  court,  upon  slightly  rising  ground,  stands  the 
*Whitb  Towbb,  or  Keep,  the  most  ancient  part  of  the  fortress 
(p.  132).  It  measures  107  ft.  from  N.  to  S.  and  118  ft.  from  E. 
to  W.,  and  is  92  ft.  high.  The  walls  are  13-15  ft.  thick,  and  are 
surmounted  with  turrets  at  the  angles.  The  original  Norman  windows, 
with  the  exception  of  four  on  the  S.  side,  were  altered  in  the  classical 
style  by  Sir  Christopher  Wren  in  1663-1709.  Among  the  many  im- 
portant scenes  enacted  in  this  tower  may  be  mentioned  the  abdication 
of  Richard  II.  in  favour  of  Henry  of  Bolingbroke  In  1399.  We 
enter  on  the  S.  side  and  ascend  to  the  second  floor  by  a  winding 
staircase  passing  through  the  massive  wall.  It  was  under  this  stair- 
case  that  the  bones  conjectured  to  be  those  of  the  two  young  princes 
murdered  by  their  uncle  Richard  III.  (see  p.  137)  were  found.  On 
the  first  floor  are  two  apartments,  said  to  have  been  those  in  which 
Sir  Walter  Raleigh  was  confined  and  wrote  his  History  of  the  World 
(1605-17;  closed).  The*  Chapel  of  St.  John,  on  the  second  floor, 
with  its  massive  pillars  and  cubical  capitals,  its  wide  triforium, 
its  apse  borne  by  stilted  round  arches  (somewhat  resembling  those 
of  St.  Bartholomew's,  p.  101),  and  its  barrel- vaulted  ceiling,  is  one 
of  the  finest  and  best-preserved  specimens  of  Norman  architecture 
in  England.    The  other  rooms  contain  the  armoury. 

The  City.  8.   THK  TOWER,  135 

The  *CoLLBOTioN  07  Old  Abmoub,  in  the  two  uppej  floors  of 
the  White  Tower,  though  not  equal  to  the  host  Continental  collec- 
tions of  the  kind,  is  yet  of  great  value  and  interest  The  rooms  on 
the  second  floor  contain  Eastern  arms  and  armour,  the  more  modem 
European  arms,  and  a  numhei  of  personal  relics.  The  main  por- 
tion of  the  collection  is  in  the  Oouncil  Chamber,  including  a  series 
of  equestrian  figures  in  full  equipment,  as  well  as  numerous  figures 
on  foot,  affording  a  faithful  picture,  in  approximately  chronologioal 
order,  of  English  war-array  from  the  time  of  Edward  I.  (1272)  down 
to  that  of  James  II.  (1688).  In  the  Norman  period  armour  consisted 
either  of  leather,  cut  into  small  pieces  like  the  scales  of  a  fish, 
or  of  flat  rings  of  steel  sewn  on  to  leather.  Chain  mail  was  intro- 
duced from  the  East  in  the  time  of  Henry  III.  (1216-72).  Plates 
for  the  arms  and  legs  were  introduced  in  the  reign  of  Edward  II. 
(1307-27),  and  complete  suits  of  plate  armourcame  intense  under 
Henry  y.  (1413-22).  The  glass-oases  contain  yarious  smaller  objects 
of  interest.  —  On  quitting  St.  John's  Chapel  we  enter  the  — 

Eabt  Room  on  the  second  floor.  The  walls  and  ceilings  of  this  and 
the  next  room  are  adorned  with  trophies  of  arms  in  the  form  of  stars, 
flowers  f  coats-of-arms ,  and  the  like,  in  the  cases  and  on  the  walls  are 
armour  and  weapons  from  Asia,  America,  Africa,  and  the  South  Sea  Islands. 
In  the  middle  of  the  room  are  two  models  of  the  Tower  at  different  periods  \ 
and  at  the  end  is  a  large  Burmese  bell.  The  ex«cutioner*s  sword  from 
Oude  in  Cdse  11  (to  the  right  of  the  bell)  should  be  noticed.  —  We  now 
enter  the  — 

BANQUBTiNa*HALL.  In  the  cases  are  British  and  other  European  weapons 
of  the  i9th  century.  In  ihe  window  recess  beside  the  entrance  is  a 
beautiful  Maltese  cannon,  captured  from  the  French  by  a  British  frigate 
in  1793.  Ai  the  head  of  the  roum,  between  two  grotesque  wooden  figures, 
known  as  ^Oin*  and  'Beer%  is  a  case  containing  instruments  of  torture. 
To  the  left  is  the  block  on  which  Lord  Loyat,  the  last  person  beheaded 
in  England,  sull'ered  the  penalty  of  high  treason  on  Tower  Hill  in  1747. 
Beside  it  is  a  heading-axe,  which  has  been  in  the  Tower  since  1687.  To 
the  right,  two  chased  brass  guns  made  for  the  Duke  of  Gloucester,  son 
of  Queen  Anne,  who  died  in  1700  at  the  age  of  eleven.  Behind  are  five 
bells  captured  at  Bomarsund  in  1854.  The  adjacent  large  glass  case  con- 
tains the  gorgeous  coronation-rubes  worn  by  Edward  VII.  and  Queen 
Alexandra  (1902).  In  the  centre  of  the  room:  Model  of  the  Tower  in  1882. 
JXo  the  left  are  two  cases  containing  the  uniform  worn  by  the  Duke  of 
Wellington  as  Constable  of  the  Tower  and  the  cloak  upon  which  General 
Wolfe  died  before  Quebec  in  1759.  To  the  right  are  early  cannon  and 
shot ;  also  part  of  the  pump  of  the  'Mary  Bo8e\  sunk  in  1545  and  recovered 
in  1840.  To  the  right,  beside  the  lift,  two  drums  captured  at  Blenheim 
(1704)^  portion  of  the  keel  of  the  *Royal  George'.  —  We  now  ascend  the 
winding-stair  beside  the  lift  to  the  — 

Council  Cuambbb,  in  which  the  abdication  of  Richard  II.  took  place. 
To  the  right  and  left  of  the  entrance  are  specimens  of  early  chain-mail 
and  quilted  doublets  (jacks)  of  the  15-16th  cent.,  etc.  We  turn  to  the  left. 
The  cases  in  Bay  1  contain  Roman,  Greek,  British,  Anglo-Saxon,  and  other 
early  arms  and  armour.  In  the  stands  and  on  the  walls  of  this  and  the  next 
room  are  European  staff-weapons  of  the  15-17th  cent,  (halberds,  partizans, 
bills,  boar-spears,  etc.).  In  the  adjoining  Case  25,  Roundel  (shield)  with 
lantern  for  night -attacks,  of  the  time  of  Henry  VIII.  In  Bay  2,  three 
suits  of  armour  of  the  15-16th  centuries.  The  finest  suits  of  armour  are 
displayed  on  a  series  of  equestrian  figures,  interspersed  among  which  are . 
numerous  weapons  of  the  periods  illustrated  by  the  suits  of  armour.  To 
t)ie  ri|^ht,  8.    Early  i6th  cent,  suit^  made  in  l^furemberg  \  the  horse-armotfr 

136  8.   THE  TOWER.  Tht  City, 

shows  the  Burgundian  cross;  to  the  left,  4.  Fluted  suit  of  the  time  of 
Henry  VII41486-1509).  —  The  following  suits  of  armour  belonged  to  Henry  VIII. 
(1509-47) :  to  the  right,  26.  Foot-armour,  29.  Armour  known  as  a  tonlet ; 
to  the  left,  6,  7.  Equestrian  suits,  one  partly  gilt;  to  the  right,  *5.  Magnifi- 
cent suit,  of  German  workmanship,  said  to  have  been  presented  by  the 
Emperor  Maximilian  to  Henry  VIII.  in  1514.  Among  the  numerous  etched 
ornaments  the  rose  and  pomegranate,  the  badges  of  Henry  and  Catharine 
of  Aragon,  are  of  frequent  recurrence;  the  other  cognisances  of  Henry, 
the  portcullis,  fleur-de-lys,  and  dragon,  and  the  initials  of  the  royal  pair 
connected  by  a  true-lover's  knot,  also  appear.  On  the  armour  of  the 
horse  are  engraved  scenes  of  martyrdom.  —  In  Bay  4  (left)  is  a  suit  of 
tourney-armour  of  the  16th  cent.;  beside  it,  a  so-called  pistol-shield  (time 
of  Henry  VIII.)  and  a  helmet  with  ram^s  horns  and  a  mask,  also  pre- 
sented by  Maximilian  to  Henry  VIII.  —  In  the  corner  by  the  window 
are  a  German  tilting-saddle  (1470),  several  tilting-Iances  (including  one 
said  to  have  belonged  to  the  Duke  of  Suffolk),  and  other  equipments 
for  the  lists.  The  armour  at  the  end  of  the  room  dates  chiefly  from  the 
16th  cent.;  the  damascened  suit  in  the  centre  (No.  45)  is  of  tbe  17th  cent. ; 
No.  30  is  a  suit  for  a  man  7  ft.  in  height.  —  We  now  follow  the  other 
side  of  the  room.  To  the  left:  9.  Suit  of  the  Earl  of  Worcester  (d.  1589); 
behind,  bowman  and  musketeer  of  the  same  period;  8.  Suit  of  the 
16th  cent.,  formerly  said  to  belong  to  Sir  Henry  Lee,  Master  of  the 
Armouries  to  Queen  Elizabeth  (1570).  10.  Suit  actually  worn  by  Robert 
Dudley,  Earl  of  Leicester  (1580),  the  favourite  of  Queen  Elizabeth;  the 
armour  bears  his  initials  and  crest.  12.  Tournament -suit  of  Sir  John 
Smith  (d.  1607),  worn  by  the  king's  champion  at  the  coronation  of  George  11. 
At  the  end  of  the  room  are  electrotype  reproductions  of  shields,  pieces 
of  armour,  etc.,  including  a  copy  of  the  shield  at  Windsor  ascribed  to 
Cellini.  —  We  turn  to  the  left  and  enter  the  — 

East  Boom  on  the  third  floor.  To  the  left  of  the  entrance  is  a  case 
with  maces  and  axes  and  specimens  illustrating  the  evolution  of  the  bayonet. 
In  the  case  to  the  right  are  cross-bows,  and  two  English  long-bows  of  yew 
recovered  from  the  wreck  of  the  *Mary  Rose'  (see  p.  135).  On  the  left  side 
of  the  room  are  figures  of  horsemen  and  pikemen  of  the  17th  cent.,  and  at 
the  end  of  the  room  are  wall- cases  containing  helmets,  morions,  etc. 
Returning  by  the  opposite  side  of  the  room  we  notice:  17.  Suit,  richly 
inlaid  with  gold,  belonging  to  Henry,  Prince  of  Wales  (1612),  eldest  son 
of  James  I. ;  18.  Suit  of  French  workmanship,  worn  by  Charles  I.  as  Prince 
of  Wales;  19.  Gilt  suit  presented  to  Charles  I.  by  the  City  of  London;  24. 
Mounted  figure  with  slight  suit  of  armour  that  belonged  to  James  II.  (1685), 
after  whoje  time  armour  was  rarely  worn.  The  cases  at  the  top  of  the 
room  contain  rapiers  and  bucklers  and  early  firearms,  some  of  which  are 
breechloaders.  The  table -cases  contain  portions  of  armour,  daggers, 
swords,  etc.  In  the  cases  on  the  exit-wall  are  belmets,  morions,  etc.  of 
various  dates.  Immediately  to  the  right  of  the  exit,  at  the  left  end  of  the 
third  shelf,  is  a  helmet  (modern),  worn  by  Louis  Napoleon  (Napoleon  III.) 
at  the  Eglinton  Tournament  in  1839. 

At  the  foot  of  the  staircase  by  which  we  leave  the  White  Tower  are 
some  fragments  of  the  old  State  Barge  of  the  Master-General  of  the  Ord- 
nance (broken  up  in  1859),  with  the  arms  of  the  Duke  of  Marlborough 
and  other  decorations  in  carved  and  gilded  oak. 

Outside  the  White  Tower  is  an  interesting  collection  of  old 
cannon,  some  ofvery  heavy  calibre,  chiefly  ofthe  time  of  Henry  VIII., 
but  one  going  back  to  the  reign  of  Henry  YI.  (1422-61).  — We 
now  cross  the  *Tower  Green'  to  the  Beauchamp  Tower,  on  the  W. 
side,  the  only  other  part  of  the  Tower  shown  to  ordinary  visitors. 
On  the  way  we  pass  the  site  of  the  scaffold,  marked  by  a  railing. 

The  Bbatjchamp  Towbb,  built  by  Edward  III.  (1327-77),  con- 
sists of  three  stories,  which  are  connected  by  a  narrow  winding 

The  City,  8.    THE  TOWER.  137 

staircase.  The  walls  of  the  room  on  the  first  floor  are  coyered  with 
inscriptions  by  former  prisoners,  including  some  transferred  hither 
from  other  parts  of  the  Tower.  The  Inscription  of  John  Dudley, 
Earl  of  Warwick,  eldest  brother  of  Lord  Guildford  Dudley,  is  on 
the  right  side  of  the  fire-place,  and  Is  a  well  executed  family  coat- 
of-arms  with  the  following  lines :  — 

*Tow  that  these  beasts  do  wel  behold  and  se. 

May  deme  with  ease  wherefore  here  made  they  be 

Withe  borders  wherein 

4  brothers^  names  who  list  to  serche  the  grovnd\ 
Near  the  recess  in  the  N.W.  corner  is  the  word  Ianb  (repeated 
in  the  window),  supposed  to  represent  the  signature  of  Lady  Jane 
Grey  as  queen ,  but  not  inscribed  by  herself.  Above  the  fire-place 
is  a  Latin  inscription  left  by  Philip  Howard,  Earl  of  Arundel,  eldest 
son  of  the  Duke  of  Norfolk  who  was  beheaded  in  1573  for  aspiring 
to  the  hand  of  Mary ,  Queen  of  Scots.  The  earliest  inscription  is 
that  of  Thomas  Talbot,  1462.  The  inscriptions  in  the  upper  cham- 
ber (not  shown)  are  less  interesting. 

The  thirteen  Towbbs  of  the  Inner  Ward,  at  one  time  all  used  as 
prisons,  were  afterwards  employed  in  part  for  the  custody  of  the 
state  archives.  The  names  of  several  of  them  are  indissolubly  as- 
sociated with  many  dark  and  painful  memories.  In  the  Bloody 
Tower  (freed  in  1900  from  its  disfiguring  coat  of  stucco)  the  sons  of 
Edward  IV.  are  said  to  have  been  murdered,  by  order  of  Richard  III. 
(comp.  pp.  134,  241);  others  ascribe  the  name  to  the  suicide  of 
Henry,  8th  Duke  of  Northumberland,  in  1585.  In  the  Bell  Tower 
the  Princess  Elizabeth  was  confined  by  her  sister  Queen  Mary,  and 
Arabella  Stuart  was  imprisoned  for  four  years;  Lady  Jane  Grey 
is  said  to  have  been  imprisoned  in  Brick  Tower;  Lord  Guildford 
Dudley,  husband  of  Lady  Jane  Grey,  was  confined,  with  his  father 
and  brothers,  in  B^aucAam;)  roiP«r(seep.  136) ;  in  the  Bowytr  Tower ^ 
the  Duke  of  Clarence,  brother  of  Edward  IV.,  is  popularly  supposed 
to  have  been  drowned  in  a  butt  of  malmsey;  and  Henry  VI.  was 
commonly  believed  to  have  been  murdered  in  Wakefield  (Record) 
Tower,  The  Salt  Tower  contains  a  curious  drawing  of  the  zodiac, 
by  Hugh  Draper  of  Bristol,  who  was  confined  here  in  1561  on  a 
charge  of  sorcery.  The  Lanthorn  Tower  was  entirely  rebuilt  in  1882. 
At  the  N.W.  corner  of  the  Tower  Green  is  the  church  of  St. 
Petbb  ad  Vincula  (interior  sometimes  accessible  for  a  fee),  built 
in  its  present  form  by  Henry  VIII.,  and  restored  in  1877.  The 
original  church,  probably  built  by  Henry  II.,  was  burned  in  1512. 
The  church  preserves  its  open  oak  roof  of  the  16th  cent,  and  contains 
various  monuments  chiefiy  connected  with  governors  of  the  Tower. 
The  organ,  originally  constructed  by  Father  Schmitz  (p.  88),  was 
brought  hither  in  1893  from  the  old  Chapel  Royal  at  Whitehall 
(p.  213).  On  the  wall,  to  the  N.  of  the  exit,  we  notice  the  leaden 
inscribed  plates  found  interred  with  the  coffinless  remains  of  Lords 
Kilmarnock,  Balmerino,  and  Eraser  of  Lovat,  executed  in  1746-7. 

138  8.  TRINITY  HOUSE.  The  City. 

Adjoining  the  dmrch  is  a  small  bnrial-gTOtind,  and  a  list  of  cel- 
ebrated persons  burled  in  tbe  church  is  given  on  p.  132. 

4n  traih,  there  is  no  sadder  spot  on  earth  than  this  little  cemetery. 
"   *     *  .  .   -  J  ijj  Westminster  Abbey  and  "' 

veneration  and  with  imperii 
renown  \  not,  as  in  onr  humblest  churches  and  churchyards,  with  every- 

Death  is  there  associated,  not,  as  in  Westminster  Abbey  and  St.  Paulas, 
with  genius  and  virtue,   with  public  veneration  and  with  imperishable 

thing  that  is  most  endearing  in  social  and  domestic  charities  \  but  with 
whatever  is  darkest  in  human  nature  and  in  human  destiny,  with  the 
savage  triumph  of  implacable  enemies,  with  the  inconstancy,  the  ingrat- 
itude, the  cowardice  of  friends,  with  all  the  miseries  of  fallen  greatness 
and  of  blighted  fame\  —  Macaulay. 

The  large  modern  buildings  to  the  E.  (right)  of  St.  Peter's  Church 
are  the  Wellington  or  Waterloo  Barracks,  erected  in  1846  on  the 
site  of  the  Grand  Storehouse  and  Small  Armoury,  which  had  been 
destroyed  by  Are  in  1841.  The  armoury  at  the  time  of  the  conflagra- 
tion contained  150,000  stand  of  arms. 

On  Tower  Hill,  N.  W.  of  the  Tower,  formerly  stood  the  scaffold 
for  the  execution  of  traitors  (see  p.  132),  on  a  site  now  within 
Trinity  Square  gardens.  William  P^n  (comp.  p.  139)  was  born, 
and  Otway,  the  poet,  died  on  Tower  Hill,  and  here  too  Sir  Walter 
Raleigh's  wife  lodged  while  her  unfortunate  husband  languished 
in  the  Tower.  On  the  N.  side  rises  Trinity  HouBe>  a  plain  build- 
ing, erected  in  1793-96  from  designs  by  Wyatt,  the  fa^de  of  which 
is  embellished  with  the  arms  of  the  corporation,  medallion  portraits 
of  George  III.  and  Queen  Charlotte,  and  several  emblems  of  naviga- 
tion. This  building  is  the  property  of  *The  Master,  Wardens,  and 
Assistants  of  the  Guild,  Fraternity,  or  Brotherhood ,  of  the  most 
glorious  and  undividable  Trinity*,  a  company  founded  by  Sir  Thomas 
Spert  in  1515,  and  incorporated  by  Henry  VIII.  In  1629.  The  society 
consists  of  a  Master,  Deputy  Master,  24  Elder  Brethren,  and  an 
unrestricted  number  of  Younger  Brethren ,  and  was  founded  with 
a  view  to  the  promotion  and  encouragement  of  English  navigation. 
Its  rights  and  duties,  which  have  been  defined  by  various  acts  of 
parliament,  comprise  the  regulation  and  management  of  lighthouses 
and  buoys  round  the  British  coast,  and  the  appointment  and  licens- 
ing of  efficient  pilots.  Two  elder  brethren  of  Trinity  House  assist 
the  Admiralty  Court  in  deciding  all  cases  relating  to  collisions  at  sea. 
Its  surplus  funds  are  devoted  to  charitable  objects  connected  with 
sailors.  The  interior  of  Trinity  House  contains  busts  of  Admirals 
St.  Vincent,  Howe,  Duncan,  and  Nelson;  and  portraits  of  James  1. 
and  his  consort  Anne  of  Denmark,  James  II.,  Sir  Francis  Drake, 
and  others.  There  are  also  a  large  picture  of  several  Elder  Brethren 
by  Dupont,  a  small  collection  of  models  (including  one  of  the  old 
state  barge  of  the  Elder  Brethren),  and  various  naval  curiosities. 
In  the  visitors'  book  is  an  interesting  series  of  autographs.  The 
Prince  of  Wales  is  the  present  Master  of  Trinity  House,  while  King 
Edward  VII.  is  an  *Elder  Brother'.  The  annual  income  of  Trinity 
House  is  said  to  be  above  300,000^  Visitors  ^e  usually  admitted 
on  written  application. 

The  City,  8.   ROYAL  MINT.  139 

At  the  end  of  Great  Tower  Street,  to  the  W.  of  the  Tower,  is 
the  church  of  AU  HaUowi,  Barking  (PI.  R,  42 ;///),  founded  by  the 
nuns  of  Barking  Abbey  (p.  390),  in  Essex,  7  M.  distant.  Several 
times  altered,  the  charch  had  a  ^ery  narrow  escape  from  the  Great 
Fire  (see  Pepys's  Diary,  Sept.  6th,  1666)  and  since  1883  has  under- 
gone an  extensive  restoration,  especially  in  the  interior.  The  tower 
dates  from  the  17th  cent. ;  the  principal  porch  is  modem.  Upon  the 
latter  are  statues  of  St.  Ethelburga,  Arst  abbess  of  Barking  Abbey, 
and  Bishop  Lancelot  Andrewes  (b.  1555),  who  was  baptised  in  the 
church.  The  parish  register  records  also  the  baptism  of  William 
Penn  (Oct  23rd,  1644).  Archbishop  Laud  was  buried  in  the  grave- 
yard after  his  execution  on  Tower  Hill  (1645),  but  his  body  was 
removed  in  1663  to  the  chapel  of  St.  John^s  College,  Oxford,  of 
which  he  was  an  alumnus.  John  Quincy  Adams  was  here  married 
to  Louisa  Catherine  Johnson  on  July  26th,  1797.  All  Hallows  is 
noted  for  its  brasses,  the  oldest  of  which  (1389)  is  that  of  William 
Tonge  in  the  S.  aisle,  while  the  finest  is  a  Flemish  brass  of  1530, 
immediately  in  front  of  the  Litany  desk  (rubbings  from  6d.  upwards). 
—  The  Czar's  Head,  opposite  the  church,  is  said  to  occupy  the  site 
of  a  tavern  frequented  by  Peter  the  Great  (see  p.  158). 

The  Tower  Subway,  ftn  iron  tube  400  yds.  long  and  7  ft.  in  diameter, 
constructed  in  1870  for  20,000;.,  passing  under  the  Thames  from  the  S. 
side  of  Great  Tower  IIi]I,  was  closed  to  passengers  in  1897.  The  gloomy 
and  unpleasant  passage  is  now  occupied  by  a  gas-main. 

On  the  E.  side  of  Tower  Hill  stands  the  BoyalMint,  erected  in 
1811,  from  designs  by  Johnson  and  Smirke,  on  the  site  of  the  old 
Cistercian  Abbey  of  St.  Mary  of  the  Graces  (see  p.  226),  and  so  ex- 
tensively enlarged  in  1881 -82  as  to  be  practically  a  new  building.  The 
Mastership  of  the  Mint  (an  office  abolished  in  1869)  was  once  held 
by  Sir  Isaac  Newton  (1699-1727)  and  Sir  John  F.  W.  Herschel 
(1850-55).  Permission  to  visit  the  Miut  (for  not  more  than  six 
persons)  is  given  for  a  fixed  day  and  hour  by  the  Deputy-Master  of 
the  Mint,  on  written  application.  The  various  processes  of  coining 
are  extremely  interesting,  and  the  machinery  used  is  of  a  most  in- 
genious character.  Each  of  the  improved  presses  can  stamp  and 
mill  120  coins  per  minute.  The  cases  in  the  museum  contain  a 
large  number  of  coins  and  commemorative  medals,  including  spec- 
imens of  Maundy  money,  and  gold  pieces  of  2i.  and  5i.,  never 
brought  into  general  circulation. 

In  1903  the  value  of  the  money  coined  at  the  Mint  was  11,638,777J., 
including  888,627  sovereigns ;  2,523,057  half-sovereigns :  274,840  half-crowns : 
1,996,293  florins;  2,061,823  shillings;  5,410,096  sixpences;  5,234,864  three- 
pences; 21,415,296  pence:  11,460,8^0  half-pence;  and  5,331,200  farthings; 
besides  Maundy  money  (p.  822),  value  345^,  and  colonial  money,  value 
832,471Z.  In  1894-1903  there  were  here  prepared  for  issue  47,300,745  sover- 
eigns, 82.115,076  half-sovereigns,  19,440,432  half-crowns,  28,167,480  florins, 
75,327,120  shillings,  etc.;  of  bronze  coins  over  336,000,000  were  issued. 
The  average  annual  value  of  the  Imperial  coinage  issued  by  the  Mint  in 
1893-1902  was  7,591,495/.  The  average  annual  profit  of  the  Mint  is  about 

140  8,    TOWER  BRIDGE.  The  City. 

Immediately  l)elow  the  Tower  the  Thames  is  spanned  by  the 
huge  ♦Tower  Bridge  (PI.  R,  46 ;  III),  built  by  the  Corporation  in 
1886-94.  This  bridge,  designed  by  Sir  Horace  Jones  and  Mr.  Wolfe 
Barry y  comprizes  a  permanent  footway,  142  ft.  above  high- water 
leyel,  reached  by  means  of  stairs  in  the  supporting  towers,  and  a 
carriage-way,  29V2  ft*  above  high- water,  the  central  span  of  which 
(200  ft.  long!  is  fitted  with  twin  bascules  or  draw-bridges,  which 
can  be  raised  in  IV2  niin.  for  the  passage  of  large  vessels.  The 
bascules  and  footway  are  borne  by  two  massive  Gothic  towers,  rising 
upon  huge  piers,  which  are  connected  with  the  river -banks  by 
permanent  spans  (each  270  ft.  long),  suspended  on  massive  chains 
hanging  between  the  central  towers  and  smaller  castellated  towers 
on  shore.  The  substantial  framework  of  the  bridge,  including  the 
central  towers,  which  are  cased  in  stone,  is  of  steel.  The  bridge  is 
1/2  M.  long,  and  has  cost  1,600,000^.,  including  the  new  S.  approach 
(made  by  the  County  Council),  which  was  opened  in  1902.  The 
annual  cost  of  maintenance  is  15,500^.  An  enumeration  made  in 
1903  showed  that  over  12,000  vehicles  crossed  the  Tower  Bridge 
daily,  while  the  daily  foot-passengers  average  50,000. 

9.  The  Port  and  Docks. 

St,  Katharine  Docks.  London  Docks.    Thames  Tunnel.   Rotherhithe 

Tunnel.    Surrey  Commercial  Docks.    West  and  East  India  Docks. 

Millwall  Docks.    Blackwall  Tunnel.   Victoria  and  Albert  Docks. 

The  Doclis  may  be  reached  by  Steamer  from  London  Bridge  (p.  33) ; 
by  Omnibiu',  or  by  Railway.  Trains  from  Fenchurch  St.  Station  (PI.  R,  43) 
every  20  min.  to  Leman  St.y  Shadwell,  Stepney,  Limehouse^  West  India  Docks, 
Millwall  Junction,  Poplar^  and  Blackwall  0/4  hr. ;  fares  6J.,  id.,  Sd. );  and 
every  V2  **'•  (8«^t.  every  1/4  hr.)  from  Millwall  Junction  to  South  Dock, 
Millwall  Docks,  and  North  Greenwich  (26  min. ',  fares  from  London  iOrf., 
Id.,  bd.).  Blackwall  Tunnel  leads  to  Greenwich  (p.  391).  Also  about  thrice 
an  hour  from  Fencharch  St.,  and  once  an  hour  from  Liverpool  St.  Station 
(PI.  R,  44)  to  the  Victoria  and  Albert  Docks  (to  Gallion  s  Station,  25-35  min.  i 
fares  lid.,  Sd.,  6d.). 

One  of  the  most  interesting  sights  of  London  is  the  Port,  with 
its  immense  warehouses,  the  centre  from  which  the  commerce  of 
England  radiates  all  over  the  globe.  The  Port  of  London,  begin- 
ning officially  at  Teddington  Lock  but  practically  at  London  Bridge, 
extends  to  the  mouth  of  the  Thames,  opposite  the  Isle  of  Sheppey, 
and  it  is  actually  occupied  by  shipping  nearly  all  the  way  to  Tilbury 
Docks.  About  one-fifth  of  the  total  shipping  annually  entering  the 
United  Kingdom  enters  London  (17,189,000  tons  in  1905);  the  im- 
ports of  London  are  about  one-tbird,  and  the  exports  about  one- 
fourth,  of  the  total  imports  and  exports  of  the  kingdom. 

Immediately  below  London  Bridge  begins  the  Pool  (p.  123), 
which  is  held  to  end  at  Limehouse  Reach.  Ships  bearing  the  produce 
of  every  nation  under  the  sun  here  discharge  their  cargoes,  which, 
previous  to  their  sale,  are  stored,  subject  to  customs,  in  large  bonded 

The  East  End.         9.  LONDON  DOCKS.  141 

warehouses  mostly  in  the  Dooki.  Below  these  warehouses,  which 
form  small  towns  of  themseWes,  and  extend  in  long  rows  along  the 
banks  of  the  Thames,  are  extensive  cellars  for  wine,  oil,  etc.,  while 
aboye  ground  are  huge  magazines,  landing-stages,  packing-yards, 
cranes,  and  eyery  kind  of  apparatus  necessary  for  the  loading,  un- 
loading, and  custody  of  goods.  The  docks  have  hitherto  been 
owned  by  various  private  joint-stock  companies,  the  principal  docks 
being  under  the  management  of  the  London  and  India  Docks  Com- 
pany, whose  estate  comprized  about  1700  acres,  with  20  M.  of  quays. 
Arrangements,  however,  have  recently  been  made  to  purchase  all 
the  docks  for  the  public,  and  it  is  proposed  to  place  them  under  a 
Docks  Boardj  consisting  of  representatives  of  the  various  authorities 
and  commercial  interests  involved. 

To  the£.  of  the  Tower,  and  separated  from  it  by  a  single  street, 
called  Lime  Tower  Hill,  arethe8t.KatharineDock8(Pl.R,  46;  7/7), 
opened  in  1828,  and  covering  an  area  of  23  acres,  on  which  1250 houses 
with  ll,300inhab.  formerly  stood.  The  old  St.  Katharine's  Hospital 
once  stood  on  this  site.  The  engineer  was  Telford,  and  the  architect 
Hardwick.  The  docks  admit  vessels  up  to  250  ft.  in  length  and  24  ft. 
of  draught.   The  warehouses  can  hold  110,000  tons  of  goods. 

St.  Katharine's  Steamboat  Wharf,  adjoining  the  Docks,  is 
mainly  used  as  a  landing-stage  for  steamers  from  the  continent. 

London  Docks  (PI.  R,  50),  lying  to  the  E.  of  St.  Katharine  Docks, 
were  constructed  in  1805  at  a  cost  of  4,000,000i.,  and  cover  an  area 
of  100  acres.  They  have  three  entrances  from  the  Thames,  and  con- 
tain water-room  for  about  400  vessels,  exclusive  of  lighters.  Their 
warehouses  can  store  from  170,000  to  260,000  tons  of  goods 
(according  to  description),  and  their  cellars  121,000  pipes  of  wine. 
At  times  upwards  of  3000  men  are  employed  at  these  docks  in 
one  day.  Every  morning  at  6  o'clock  there  may  be  seen  waiting  at 
the  principal  entrance  a  large  and  motley  crowd  of  labourers,  to 
which  numerous  dusky  visages  and  foreign  costumes  impart  a 
curious  and  picturesque  air.  The  door  in  the  E.  angle  of  the  docks, 
inscribed  ^To  the  Kiln\  leads  to  a  furnace  in  which  adulterated 
tea  and  tobacco,  spurious  gold  and  silver  wares,  and  other  con- 
fiscated goods,  used  to  be  burned.  The  long  chimney  is  jestingly 
called  the  King's  Tobacco  Pipe, 

Nothing  will  convey  to  the  stranger  a  better  idea  of  the  vast 
activity  and  stupendous  wealth  of  London  than  a  visit  to  these 
warehouses,  filled  to  overflowing  with  interminable  stores  of  every 
kind  of  foreign  and  colonial  products ;  to  these  enormous  vaults, 
with  their  apparently  inexhaustible  quantities  of  wine ;  and  to  these 
extensive  quays  and  landing-stages,  cumbered  with  huge  stacks  of 
hides,  heaps  of  bales,  and  long  rows  of  casks.  —  The  public  are 
freely  admitted  to  the  quays,  but  visitors  should  be  on  their  guard 
against  accidents  from  the  working-operations  always  going  on  at 
the  docks.  Access  to  the  warehouses  and  sheds  is  limited  to  persons 

142  9.  THAMES  TUNNEL.        The  East  End, 

having  business  there.  Those  who  wish  to  taste  the  wines  must  pro- 
cure a  tasting-order  from  a  wine-merchant.  Visitors  should  heware 
of  the  insidious  effects  of  'tasting*  in  the  heayy,  vinous  atmosphere. 

St.  George  Street,  to  the  N.  of  the  docks,  was  formerly  the  no- 
torious BatcU/f  Highway,  No.  179  is  the  shop  of  Jamrach,  the  well- 
known  dealer  in  wild  animals.  Swedeuborg  (1688-1772)  was 
originally  buried  in  a  vault  beneath  the  Swedish  Church  in  Prince's 
Square  (PI.  R,  51),  but  his  remains  were  removed  to  Sweden  in  1908. 

To  the  S.  of  the  London  Docks,  and  about  2  M.  below  London 
Rridge,  lies  the  quarter  of  the  Metropolis  called  Wapping,  from 
which  the  Thames  Tunnel  leads  under  the  river  to  Rotherhithe 
on  the  right  bank.  The  tunnel  was  begun  in  1824 ,  on  the  plans 
and  under  the  supervision  of  Sir  Isamhard  Brunei,  and  completed 
in  1843,  after  several  accidents  occasioned  by  the  water  bursting 
in  upon  the  works.  Seven  men  lost  their  lives  during  its  con- 
struction. It  consists  of  two  parallel  arched  passages  of  masonry, 
14  ft.  broad,  16  ft.  high,  and  1200  ft.  long,  and  cost  468,000i. 
The  undertaking  paid  the  Thames  Tunnel  Company  so  badly,  that 
their  receipts  scarcely  defrayed  the  cost  of  repairs.  The  tunnel  was 
purchased  in  1865  by  the  East  London  Railway  Company  for 
200, 000^.,  and  is  now  traversed  daily  by  about  40  trains  (terminas 
at  Liverpool  Street  Station,  p.  26). 

About  Yj  M.  farther  down  the  river  another  tunnel,  known  as 
the  Eotherhitlie  Tunnel  (PI.  R,  54),  was  opened  in  June,  1908. 
This,  which  runs  from  Horseferry  Branch  Road  in  Shadwell  to 
Lower  Road  in  Rotherhithe,  has  a  total  length  of  about  iy4M.,  of 
which  1635  ft.  are  beneath  the  stream,  at  a  depth  of  75  ft.  below 
the  river-surface.  It  consists  of  a  carriage  way,  16  ft.  in  width, 
flanked  on  either  side  by  a  footway  4  ft.  8  in,  in  width.  The  es- 
timated cost  is  l,000,000f. 

At  Rotherhithe  (see  p.  xxx),  to  the  E.  of  this  tunnel,  are  situated 
the  numerous  large  basins  of  the  Surrey  Commercial  Books  (PI.  R, 
53,  etc.),  covering  together  an  area  of  about  350  acres,  and  chiefly 
used  for  timber.  The  Chrand  Surrey  Canal  extends  hence  to  Cam- 
berwell  and  Peckham. 

On  the  N.  bank  of  the  river,  to  the  E.  of  Wapping,  lie  Shadwell 
e^nd  Stepney.  The  old  church  of  St,  Dunstan  (PI.  R,  59)  in  Stepney, 
1/2  M.  to  the  N.  of  the  river,  contains  the  tomb  of  Sir  Thomas 
Spert  (p.  138)  and  several  quaint  monuments.  In  the  wall  of 
the  W.  porch  is  a  stone  with  an  inscription  (1663)  stating  it  to 
have  been  brought  from  Carthage.  There  is  a  popular  but  erroneous 
belief  that  every  British  subject  born  on  the  high  seas  belongs 
to  Stepney  parish.  At  Limehouse,  opposite  the  Commercial  Docks, 
is  the  entrance  to  the  Begent's  Canal,  which  runs  N.  to  Victoria 
Park,  then  turns  to  the  W.,  traverses  the  N.  part  of  London,  and 
unites  with  the  Paddington  Canal,  which  forms  part  of  a  con- 
tinuous water-route  as  far  as  Liverpool.    Limehouse  Cut  is  another 

The  t^oH  £mi.    9.  BLAGKWALL  TUNNEL.  143 

canal  Joiniag  the  riyer  Lea  (p.  147).  8U  Anne's  Church  (PI.  R,  63), 
with  its  couBpicuous  tower,  waa  built  by  Hawksmoor  (1y30).  Near 
Limehoiue  town-hall  is  a  lodging-house  and  institution  for  sailors, 
opened  in  1903,  known  as  'Jack's  Palace'.  —  The  Weit  India  Docki 
(PI.  R,  62,  etc.),  about  250  acres  in  area,  lie  between  Limehouse 
and  Blackwall,  to  the  N.  of  the  Isle  of  Dogs,  which  is  formed  here 
by  a  sudden  bend  of  the  riyer.  Seyeral  of  the  chief  lines  of  steamers 
load  and  discharge  their  cargoes  in  these  docks.  The  three  prin- 
cipal basins  are  called  the  Import  Dock,  the  Export  Dock,  and  the 
South  Dock.  There  is  a  dry  dock  in  the  JBlaekwaU  Basin,  and  pumps 
haye  been  erected  to  maintain  the  water  in  the  docks  at  or  aboye 
high-water  leyel.  The  warehouses  are  on  a  most  capacious  scale, 
including  refrigerating  chambers  with  accommodation  for  100,000  ear- 
cases  of  sheep.  The  cranes  and  other  machinery  are  adapted  for  hand- 
ling the  largest  logs  of  furniture  wood;  and  the  floating  derrick 
'Elephant'  can  lift  a  weight  of  20  tons.  The  smaller  Eait  India 
Bocks  (PI.  R,  70,  71),  used  by  some  of  the  chief  lines  of  sailing 
ships,  are  at  Blackwall,  a  little  lower  down.  The  Millwall  Doeki, 
100  acres  in  extent  (35  water),  Ve  in  the  Isle  of  Dogs,  to  the  S. 
of  the  West  India  Docks.  At  the  S.  extremity  of  the  Isle  of  Dogs 
is  North  Qreenwieh  Railway  Station,  in  Gubltt  Town,  whence  there 
is  a  railway  steam-ferry  to  Greenwich,  on  the  S.  bank  of  the  Thames. 
The  Greenwich  Tunnel  for  pedestrians,  between  the  Isle  of  Dogs 
and  Greenwich,  was  opened  in  1902  at  a  cost  of  120,000(.  By  day 
(5  a.m.  to  9  p.m.)  electric  lifts  conyey  passengers  to  and  from  the 
tunnel-leyel,  about  50  ft.  below  ground;  at  night  staircases  alone  are 
ayailable.  Aboye  Greenwich  lies  Deptford,  with  the  Corporation 
Harket  for  Foreign  CatUt,  occupying  30  acres,  on  the  site  of  the  old 
Admiralty  dockyard. 

The  Blackwall  Tunnel  (PI.  R,  70),  opened  in  1897,  affords  a 
free  passage  for  pedestrians  and  yehicles  beneath  the  Thames,  from 
Blackwall,  6  M.  below  London  Bridge,  to  E.  Greenwich.  The  N. 
approach  begins  at  East  India  Dock  Road  (PI.  R,  71),  the  S.  at  Black* 
wall  Lane  (P1.R,69);  and  there  are  also  staircases  for  pedestrians 
in  vertical  shafts  near  the  riyer  on  each  bank.  The  tunnel  is  lighted 
with  electricity.   The  work  was  designed  by  Sir  A,  R,  Binrde, 

Tbe  total  leng:Ui,  Including  tha  open  approaches  on  both  banks,  is 
2070  yds.,  of  which  1490  yds.  form  the  actual  tunnel,  407  yds.  being  sub- 
aqueous. The  tunnel  is  a  tube,  27  ft.  in  external  diameter,  formed  of 
cast  iron  2  in.  thick,  lined  within  with  cement  concrete,  faced  with  glazed 
tilea.  The  headway  in  the  centre  of  the  roadway  is  17Vs  ft.  At  one  point 
the  top  of  the  tunnel  is  only  6Vi  ft.  below  the  riyer-bed.  The  total  cost 
of  the  work  was  1,266,000^,  of  which  871,000{.  were  spent  on  the  tunnel 

Still  lower  down  than  the  East  India  Docks,  between  Bow 
Greek  and  Galllon's  Reach,  lie  the  magnificent  Boyal  Victoria  and 
Albert  Docki,  2^/4  M.  in  length,  lighted  by  electricity  and  proyided 
with  eyery  conyenience  and  accommodation  for  yessels  of  the  largest 
size.   Their  area  is  about  500  acres,  of  which  180  are  water.  Steamen 

144  10.  TOYNBEE  HALL.         The  East  End, 

of  the  Peninsular  and  Oriental,  the  British  India,  the  White  Star, 
and  other  important  companies  put  in  at  these  docks.  The  hydraulic 
machinery  includes  a  crane  with  a  lifting  capacity  of  55  tonsj  and 
the  warehouses  have  accommodation  for  350,000  refrigerated  sheep 
and  250,000  tons  of  miscellaneous  goods.  All  the  tohacco  imported 
into  London  is  stored  at  the  Royal  Victoria  Dock.  In  the  Royal 
Albert  Dock  are  two  graving  docks,  502  and  410  ft.  in  length. 

We  may  regain  London  by  train  from  QalUon's  Station  (Hotel,  small 
but  first-class)  at  the  E.  end  of  the  Royal  Albert  Dock  (comp.  p.  140)  j  or 
we  may  take  the  Wooltrich  Free  Ferry  from  North  Woolwich^  immediately 
8.  of  the  dock,  to  Woolwich  (p.  395).  The  ferry  is  used  annually  by 
4,000,000  passengers  and  300,000  vehicles. 

The  large  docks  at  THlburi/  are  described  at  p.  391. 

10.  Bethnal  Green  Maseam.  Victoria  Park. 

Toynhee  Hall.   People's  Palace, 

Adjoining  the  City  proper  on  the  E.  lies  Whitechapbl,  a 
district  chieQy  inhabited  by  artisans,  the  main  thoroughfare  travers- 
ing which  is  Whitechapel  Road^  continued  by  Mile  End  Road, 
leading  to  Bow  and  Stratford  (comp.  p.  145).  To  the  left,  about 
^/4  M.  beyond  Aldgate  Station  (p.  31),  diverges  Commercial  Street, 
in  which  stands  St,  Jude's  Church  (PI.  R,  47 ;  i//),  open  daily, 
10-6.  The  exterior  is  adorned  with  a  fine  mosaic  ('Time,  Death, 
and  Judgment'),  after  O,  F.  Watts. 

Adjoining  the  church  is  Toynhee  Hall,  founded  in  1886  and  named 
after  Arnold  Toynhee^  who  died  in  the  prime  of  youth  (in  1883),  while 
actively  engaged  in  lecturing  on  political  economy  to  the  working-men  of 
London.  The  hall,  which  is  a  *hair  in  the  academic  sense,  contains 
rooms  for  about  20  residents,  chiefly  Oxford  and  Cambridge  graduates 
desirous  of  sharing  the  life  and  experiences  of  the  E.  end  poor  (comp. 
p.  73).  It  also  contains  drawing,  dining,  reading,  and  lecture  rooms,  a 
library,  etc.,  in  which  numerous  social  meetings  are  held  for  the  people 
of  the  neighbourhood.  The  warden  is  Mr.  T.  E.  Harvey,  who  in  1907 
succeeded  the  Rev.  Canon  S.  Barnett,  late  vicar  of  St.  Jude^s.  Those 
interested  in  work  of  this  kind  should  write  to  the  secretary  for  cards 
of  admission.  Toynhee  Hall  is  also  one  of  the  centres  of  the  ^University 
Extension  Lectures^  scheme. 

In  Whitechapel  Road,  a  little  farther  on,  on  the  left,  is  White- 
chapel Free  Library  and  Museum,  built  in  1892,  adjoined  on  the  W. 
by  a  public  Art  Oallery,  opened  in  1901. 

The  gallery  is  the  direct  outcome  of  the  Loan  Exh^ition  of  Pictures, 
established  by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Barnett  and  held  for  a  fortnight  or  three  week8 
every  Easter  from  1880  till  1898  in  the  schoolrooms  adjoining  St.  Jade's. 
The  exhibition  generally  contained  some  of  the  best  "works  of  modem 
English  artists,  and  ranked  among  the  artistic  ^events^  of  the  year.  The 
building,  designed  by  J/r.  Harrison  Totonsend,  is  to  ibe  adorned  with  a 
mosaic  frieze  by  Mr.  Walter  Crane^  illustrating  the  ^Sphere  and  Message  of 
Art\  Loan  exhibitions  of  pictures  or  other  works  of  art  are  held  annually 
about  Easter,  in  summer,  and  at  Christmas  (adm.  free,  but  a  small  dona- 
tion expected  from  those  who  can  afford  it). 

On  the  opposite  side  of  the  road,  Y2  M.  farther  on,  stands  the 
London  Hospital  (PI.  R,  52}  800  beds;  p.  73),  behind  which  is  the 
church  of  St.  Philip  Stepney,  with  a  fine  Gothic  interior. 

The  East  End.      10.  PEOPLE'S  PALAOE.  145 

In  Coinmereial  Road  (PI.  R,  01),  to  the  8.  of  this  point,  ftre  2>r,  Bar^ 
»ardo't  Hcnut  for  DetMuu  Chikbrm. 

A1>oat  300  yds.  farthfii  on  Camhridge  Road  diyerges  to  the  left, 
leading  to  Bethnal  Oreen  Museum  (see  below). 

To  the  left,  in  Mile  End  Road,  V4  M.  beyond  the  London  Hos- 
pital, is  Trinity  Hospital  or  ColUge  (PI.  B,  52,  56),  a  picturesque 
group  of  almshouses  established  by  the  Trinity  House  (p.  138)  for 
master  mariners  or  mates  and  their  wives  or  widows.  The  chapel  has 
some  interesting  stained  glass.  In  the  quadrangle  is  a  statue  of  Gapt. 
Sandes,  a  former  benefactor.  —  About  ^2  ^*  heyond  Trinity  Hospital 
is  the  People's  Palaee  for  East  London  (PL  R,  60),  a  large  institution 
for  the  ^recreation  and  amusement ,  the  intellectual  and  material 
adyancement  of  the  vast  artisan  population  of  the  East  End\ 

The  form  of  the  People's  Palace  was  suggested  by  the  'Palace  of  De- 
light' desciibed  in  Sir  Walter  Besant's  noTel,  *A11  Sorts  and  Conditions  of 
Men'  (1882)  \  and  the  nnelens  of  the  i(X),0(XM.  required  for  its  erection  was 
famished  by  an  endowment  of  Mr.  J.  E.  Barber  Beaumont  (d.  1841).  This 
was  largely  supplemented  by  voluntary  public  subscriptions,  including 
60,0001.  from  the  Drapers'  Company,  which  finally,  in  1892,  endowed  the 
Palace  with  an  annual  contribution  of  7000/.  for  educational  purposes,  to 
which  8600/..  is  annually  added  from  the  City  Parochial  Charities'  Fund. 
The  large  *Quetns'  Hall,  adorned  with  statues  of  the  queens  of  England, 
etc.,  by  F.  Verheyden,  was  opened  in  1887,  a  Free  Public  Librarp  (now 
closed)  and  a  Smmming  Bath  in  1888,  a  WinUr  Garden  in  1882,  and  large 
Engineering  Workehope  in  189i.  The  Palace  also  comprizes  a  gymnasium, 
reading-rooms,  well-equipped  chemical  and  physical  laboratories,  a  school 
of  art,  and  numerous  class-rooms. 

The  educational  work  of  the  Palace,  carried  on  under  the  name  of 
the  Bast  London  College  (now  a  school  of  the  University  of  London,  p.  841), 
includes  a  Day  College  for  student*  of  either  sex,  with  courses  in  engineering, 
chemistry,  and  art:  and  Evening  Classes  in  scientific,  technical,  and  general 
subjects,  attended  by  about  4000  students  annually.  —  Concerts  and  enter- 
tainments of  various  kinds  are  given  in  the  Queens'  Hall  on  Hon.  and 
Sat.  evenings  and  organ  recitals  on  Sun.  afternoons  and  evenings. 

Mile  End  Road  is  continued  to  the  E.  by  Bow  Road  to  Bow  and  Strat- 
ford (p.  414).  About  74  M.  beyond  the  People's  Palace  Grove  Road  diverges 
to  the  N.,  leading  to  Victoria  Park  (p.  147),  and  Burdett  Road  diverges  to 
the  S.,  leading  to  the  West  India  Docks  (p.  143}  tramway  Ifo.  26,  p.  22). 

The  Bethnal  Green  Mnsenm  (PI.  B,  52),  a  branch  of  South  Ken- 
sington Museum,  opened  in  1872,  occupies  a  red  brick  building  in 
Victoria  Park  Square,  Cambridge  Road,  Bethnal  Green.  It  was 
established  chiefly  for  the  benefit  of  the  Inhabitants  of  the  poorer 
East  End  of  London.  The  chief  permanent  contents  are  collections 
of.  specimens  of  food  and  of  animal  products,  but  loan  collections  of 
yarious  kinds  are  also  always  on  view.  Admission,  see  p.  82  (cata- 
logues on  sale).  The  number  of  yisitors  in  1907  was  413,367. 
There  is  a  plain  refreshment-room  in  the  N.  basement. 

The  Musexun  may  be  conveniently  reached  by  Bow  Bridge  motor- 
omnibus  from  the  Bank,  passing  the  end  of  Cambridge  Road,  where  the 
tramway  (see  below)  may  be  joined^  by  the  Metropolitan  Railway  to  Aid- 
gate,  and  thence  by  a  white  Stamford  Hill  tramway-car  (Ko.  22;  p.  22), 
which  passes  the  Museum*  by  train  from  Liverpool  Street  Station  to 
Cambridge  Heath  (about  every  lOmin.  j  through-booking  from  Metropolitali 

Babdbkxr's  London.     15th  Edit.  10 

146  10.  BETHNAL  GREEN  MUSEUM.     The  E.  End. 

aUtioBB);  or  by  tramway  from  Theobald's  Road  to  Cambridge  Heath  (Ko.  5; 
p.  21).  In  returning  we  may  traverse  Victoria  Park  to  the  (l^min.)  Victoria 
Park  Station  of  the  V,  London  Railway,  whence  there  are  trains  every 
V4  hr.  to  Broad  Street,  City. 

The  space  in  front  of  the  Musenm  is  adorned  with  a  handsome 
majolica  *Fmntain,  hy  Mlnton  (1862). 

Geoukd  Floor.  The  central  area,  which  we  enter  through 
handsome  iron- work  gates  made  in  Prassia,  has  a  mosaic  flooring 
formed  of  refuse  marble  chlppings  and  executed  by  female  conyicts 
in  Woking  Prison.  It  contains  at  present  (1908)  a  miscellaneous 
but  Taluable  Eastern  CoUeetion^  lent  by  Lord  Carzon  of  Kedleston, 
who  was  Governor-General  of  India  in  1898-1905.  In  the  middle  are 
a  marble  statue  of  Diana,  by  Benzoni,  a  copy  in  mafhle  of  Canovc^s 
Venus,  and  busts  of  Garibaldi  and  Cromwell  by  Noble,  At  the 
E.  end  (above)  is  a  loan-collection  from  the  Solomon  Islands. 

Lower  Gallebibs.  The  extensiye  and  well-arranged  Collection 
of  Articles  used  for  Food  occupies  the  N.  lower  gallery.  This  com- 
prises specimens  and  models  of  yarious  kinds  of  edibles,  models 
of  conyicts'  rations,  analyses,  diagrams,  drawings,  and  so  forth. 
Towards  the  E.  end  are  several  cases  of  stuffed  birds;  and  at  the 
end  is  a  collection  of  tobacco-pipes.  —  In  the  S.  lower  gallery 
is  the  collection  of  Animal  Products,  largely  consisting  of  clothing 
materials  (wool,  silk,  leather,  etc.)  at  different  stages  of  their 
manufacture.  Here  also  is  the  Douhleday  Collection  of  Butterfliea 
and  Moths,  shown  on  application  to  an  attendant.  The  collection 
of  British  and  foreign  shoes  in  Cases  111-121  (on  the  N.  side)  may 
be  noticed ;  also  the  fine  elephant  and  other  tusks  on  the  W.  wall. 

Upper  Gallekibs,  well  lighted  from  the  roof.  In  the  N.  gallery, 
near  the  top  of  the  staircase,  are  a  porcelain  statuette  after  Thor- 
valdsen's  Hebe,  and  a  large  model  showing  the  interior  decorations 
of  a  room  in  Damascus.  The  gallery  is  mainly  deyoted  to  a  col- 
lection of  porcelain  and  pottery.  We  hegin  at  the  E.  end.  Cases  37-41. 
Glass;  Cases  42-48.  Modern  Italian,  French,  and  German  pottery ; 
Cases  26-36.  European  porcelain,  representing  most  of  the  Con- 
tinental factories,  lent  by  the  late  Sir  A.  WoUaston  Franks;  Cases 
19-25.  English,  Dresden,  and  Sevres  porcelain,  lent  by  Mrs.  Salting. 
The  remaining  cases  contain  chiefly  Oriental  specimens.  —  On  the 
N.  wall  of  the  W.  half  of  this  gallery  are  a  number  of  paintings  of 
St.  Peter^s,  Rome,  by  Louis  Haghe.  The  other  oil-paintings  on  the 
walls  and  the  water-colours  on  the  screens  belong  mostly  to  the 
Dixon  Collection,  bequeathed  to  the  museum  in  1835.  Among  the 
water-colours  are  specimens  of  Copley  Fielding,  Geo.  Catteimole, 
P.  deWiut(Screen7);  Sam. Prout,  Aaron Penley, Dayid Cox (Scr. 8) ; 
T.  M.  Richardson,  Geo.  Wolfe,  Sidney  Cooper  (Scr.  9);  Sir  John 
Gilbert,  Fripp  (Scr.  10);  Carl  Haag,  Birket  Foster,  etc.  (Scr.  11). 
The  oil-paintings  of  the  collection,  some  of  which  are  hung  in  the 
S.  gallery,  are  less  interesting.  —  The  S.  gallery  is  mainly  deyoted 
to  specimens  of  English  and  Continental  furniture  of  the  16-19th 

Ue  East  End,        10.  VICTORIA  PARK.  147 

centuries.  Near  the  centre  is  the  reprodnction  of  a  Japanese  reception- 
room.  —  In  the  W.  cross-gallery  is  the  Duke  of  Saxe-Coburg^s  Col- 
lection of  presentation  gold  caskets^yases,  gold  and  silver  trowel?,  etc. 
Basement  (poorly  lighted).  At  the  W.  end  of  the  N.  basement 
is  a  collection  of  'New  Art'  furniture,  from  the  Paris  Exhibition  of 
1900.  Farther  on  are  English  and  foreign  costumes,  textile  fabrics, 
etc.  By  the  window  opposite  the  refreshment-counter  are  a  re^* 
presentation  of  the  Judgment  of  Solomon  in  walnut  and  ivory 
(German;  18th cent.)  and  the  model  of  a  Chinese  villa,  sent  by 
the  Emperor  of  China  to  Josephine,  wife  of  Napoleon,  but  captured 
by  the  British.  The  following  cases  contain  modern  bronzes  and 
metal-work.  At  the  end  is  a  collection  illustrating  the  utilization 
of  waste-products.  —  We  now  enter  the  S.  basement.  At  the  E.  end 
are  cases  illustratiog  the  manufacture  ot  glass,  beyond  which  are 
modern  Continental  pottery  and  porcelain,  English  and  French  tiles, 
etc.  Arranged  along  the  wall  on  the  right  is  a  collection  of  Cole* 
optera.  On  the  screens  are  drawings  by  George  Cruikshank,  the 
caricaturist;  proof-engravings  after  Landseer,  Murillo,  etc.,  and  a 
series  of  water-colour  paintings  by  Louis  Francois  Cassas  (1786- 
18*27)  of  scenes  in  Istria  and  Dalmatia. 

The  large  building  in  Green  Street,  to  the  S.  of  the  Museum,  is 
an  Intone  Asylum.  —  From  Old  Ford  Road ,  which  diverges  to  the 
E.  immediately  to  the  N.  of  the  Museum,  Approach  Roadj  in  which 
is  the  City  of  London  Consumption  Hospital,  leads  to  the  N.E.  to 
Victoria  Park.  In  the  grounds  of  the  hospital  is  a  Statue  of  Queen 
Victoria,  presented  by  Sir  M.  M.  Bhownaggree,  M.  P.,  in  1900. 
Victoria  Park  (PI.  B,  55,  58,  59),  covering  217  acres  of  ground, 
laid  out  at  a  cost  of  130,000^. ,  forms  a  place  of  recreation  for 
the  poorer  (£.)  quarters  of  London.  The  eastern  and  larger 
portion  is  unplanted,  and  is  used  for  cricket  and  other  games. 
The  W.  side  is  prettily  laid  out  with  walks,  beds  of  flowers,  and 
two  sheets  of  water,  on  which  swans  may  be  seen  disporting  them- 
selves, and  pleasure-boats  hired.  Near  the  centre  of  the  park  is  the 
Victoria  Fountain,  in  the  form  of  a  Gothic  temple,  erected  by  Baron- 
ess Bardett  Coutts  (comp.  p.  64)  in  1862.  The  park  also  contains 
open-air  gymnasiums.  The  most  characteristic  time  to  see  Victoria 
Park  1b  on  a  Sat.  or  Sun.  evening  or  on  a  public  holiday.  On  the 
N.W.  side  of  the  park,  near  Hackney  Common,  is  the  large  and 
handsome  Hospice  for  the  Descendants  of  French  Protestants.  To  the 
N.E.  of  Victoria  Park  are  Hachney  Marshes  (PI.  B,  61,  62,  65,  66),  a 
large  area  (337  acres)  of  flat  meadow-land,  intersected  by  the  river 
Lea,  and  opened  as  a  public  park  in  1894.  The  White  Hart  Inn  here, 
said  to  date  from  1613,  was  a  resort  of  Dick  Turpin,  the  highwayman. 

Victoria  Park  is  most  easily  reached  by  the  Iforth  London  Railway; 
trains  start  from  Broad  Street  Station^  City  (p.  27),  every  V4  hr.,  and  reach 
Victoria  Park  Station,  at  the  K.E.  extremity  of  the  park,  in  18  min.  (fares 
Bd.,  Ad.,  2yid.;  return-tickets  9d.,  6d.,  id.). 



11.  Fleet  Street.    Chancery  Lane.    The  Temple. 
Eoyal  Courts  of  Justice. 

St,  Bride's.  Church  of8U  Dunstan  in  the  West.  New  Record  Office, 
Lincoln's  Inn.    Grays  Inn.    Temple  Church.    Temple  Bar. 

Fleet  Street  (PI.  R,  35 ;  //),  one  of  the  busiest  streets  in  London, 
leads  from  Ludgate  Circns  to  the  Strand  and  the  West  End.  It  deriyes 
its  name  from  the  Fleet  Brook,  which,  now  in  the  form  of  a  main 
sewer,  flows  through  Holhom  Valley  (p.  98)  and  under  Farringdon 
Street,  reaching  the  Thames  at  Blackfriars  Bridge.  On  the  E.  side 
of  the  brook  formerly  stood  the  notorious  Fleet  Prison  for  debtors, 
which  was  removed  in  1846.  Prisoners  condemned  by  the  Star  Cham- 
ber were  once  confined  here,  and  within  its  precincts  were  formerly 
celebrated  the  clandestine  *Fleet  marriages'  (see  *The  Fleet:  Its 
Riyer,  Prison,  and  Marriages',  by  John  Ashton;  1888).  Its  site  (in 
Farringdon  Street,  on  the  right)  is  now  occupied  by  the  handsome 
Gothic  Congregational  Memorial  Hall,  opened  in  1874,  at  a  total 
cost  of  93,450^.,  and  so  named  in  memory  of  the  2000  ministers  ejected 
from  the  Church  of  England  by  Charles  II.'s  Act  of  Uniformity,  1662. 

Fleet  Street  itself  contains  few  objects  of  external  interest,  though 
many  literary  associations  cluster  round  its  courts  and  byways.  It  is 
still  celebrated  for  its  newspaper  and  other  printing  and  publishing 
offices.  To  the  left  (entrance  in  St.  Bride's  Passage)  is  St.  Bride's 
(open  daily,  11-4),  a  church  built  by  Wren  in  1680,  with  a  fine 
steeple  223  ft.  high  (1701 ;  restored  in  1902).  In  the  central  aisle  is 
the  grave  of  Richardson,  the  author  of  ^Clarissa  Harlowe'  (d.  1761), 
who  lived  near  by,  in  Salisbury  Square.  The  old  church  of  St. 
Bride,  destroyed  in  the  Fire,  was  the  burial-place  of  Sackville 
(1608),  Lovelace  (1658),  and  the  printer  Wynkin  de  Worde.  In  a 
house  (burned  down  in  1824~)  in  the  adjacent  churchyard  Milton  once 
lived  for  several  years.  In  Bride  Lane  is  the  St.  Bride's  FoundcUion 
Institute,  a  polytechnic  for  the  printers  of  London,  opened  in  1894, 
with  a  fine  technical  library,  a  gymnasium,  a  swimming  bath,  and 
equipments  for  technical  instruction  in  the  art  of  printing.  It  contains 
a  bust  of  Samuel  Richardson  (see  above),  by  0.  Frampton  (1901). 
—  Shoe  Lane,  nearly  opposite  the  church,  leads  to  Holborn ;  while  a 
little  farther  on,  on  the  same  side,  are  Wine  Office  Court,  in  which  is 
still  the  famous  old  hostelry  of  the  Cheshire  Cheese  (p.  14),  where  Dr. 
Johnson  (whose  alleged  chair  is  shown  here)  and  Goldsmith  so  often 
dined,  and  Boswell  so  often  listened  and  took  notes ;  Oough  Square, 
at  the  top  of  the  Court  (to  the  left),  where  Johnson  laboured  over 
his  Dictionary  and  other  works  (house  marked  by  a  tablet) ;  Bolt 
Court,  where  Johnson  spent  the  last  years  of  his  life  (1776-84), 
and  where  Cobbett  afterwards  toiled  and  fumed ;  and  Crane  Court^ 
once  the  home  of  the  Royal  Society,  its  president  being  Sir  Isaac 
Newton,  and  now  the  seat  of  the  Scottish  Corporation,  whose  ancient 
ilall,  burnt  down  in  1877,   is  replaced  by  a  modern  erection  of 

The  City.  11.   ST.  DUNSTAN.  149 

1879-80.  Hie  houses,  No.  6,  Wine  Office  Court,  in  which  Goldsmith 
is  said  to  have  written  the  *  Vicar  of  Wakefield',  and  No.  7,  Johnson's 
Court,  another  residence  of  Pr.  Johnson,  have  been  pulled  down.  —  On 
the  other  side  of  Fleet  Street  is  Bouyerle  Street,  leading  to  what  was 
once  the  lawless  Alsatiaj  immortalised  by  Scott  in  the  'Fortunes  of 
Niger.  In  1883  a  part  of  the  ancient  Carmelite  monastery  of  White- 
friars  was  discoTered  In  this  street.  Including  a  fragment  of  a  stone 
tower  of  great  thickness  and  strength,  while  in  1895  a  small  crypt 
(14th  cent)  was  found  below  a  house  in  Britton's  Court,  opening  off  the 
adjacent  Whitefidars  Street  Fetter  Lane  (see  below)  and  Chancery 
Lane  (p.  160)  farther  to  the  W.,  on  the  N.  side,  also  lead  to  Holbom. 
Izaak  Walton,  the  famous  angler,  once  occupied  a  shop  as  a  hosier 
(1624-43;  see  p.  160)  at  the  comer  of  Chancery  Lane.  Between 
Fetter  Lane  and  Chancery  Lane  rises  the  church  of  St*  Dunitan  in 
the  West,  erected  by  Shaw  in  1832  on  the  site  of  a  more  ancient 
building;  it  has  a  fine  Gothic  tower.  Oyer  the  vestry  door  (on  the  E. 
side  of  the  church)  is  a  statue  of  Queen  Elizabeth  from  the  old  Lud 
Gate,  once  a  city-gate  at  the  foot  of  Ludgate  Hill.  The  old  clock 
of  St.  Dunstan  had  two  wooden  giants  to  strike  the  hours,  which 
still  perform  that  office  at  St  Dunstan's  Villa,  Regent's  Park  (p.  285). 
A  stained-glass  window  at  the  W.  end  of  the  N.  aisle  and  a  tablet 
on  the  E.  wall  commemorate  Izaak  Walton,  who  was  warden  of  the 
church.  Near  St.  Dunstan's  Church,  at  No.  183  Fleet  Street,  was 
Cobbett's  book-shop  and  publishing  office,  where  he  issued  his 
'Political  Register' ;  and  on  the  opposite  side,  no'^  No.  56,  was  the 
house  of  William  Hone,  the  free-thinking  publisher  of  the  'Eyery- 
day  Book'.  No.  184,  Fleet  Street  (rebuilt  in  1892)  was  once  oc- 
cupied by  Drayton,  the  poet  (d.  1631).  Opposite  Fetter  Lane  is 
Mitre  Court,  with  the  tavern  once  frequented  by  Johnson,  Gold- 
smith, and  Boswell.  —  No.  17  Fleet  St ,  opposite  Chancery  Lane 
and  adjoining  Inner  Temple  Lane  (p.  154),  an  interesting  example 
of  a  17th  cent,  timbered  house,  was  restored  in  1906  by  the  County 
Council,  the  facade  of  161 1  being  as  far  as  possible  faithfully  restored . 
On  the  first  floor  is  Prince  Henry's  Room  (adm.  free  daily,  10-2), 
believed  to  have  been  the  council-chamber  of  the  Duchy  of  Corn- 
wall under  Henry,  eldest  son  of  James  I.  It  possesses  one  of  the 
best  extant  Jacobean  enriched  plaster-ceilings,  with  the  prince's 
crest  In  the  centre.  On  the  W.  wall  is  some  of  the  original  pan- 
elling, the  remainder  of  the  woodwork  being  Georgian.  The  stained 
glass  is  modem.    The  staircase  dates  from  the  18th  century. 

Fbttbb  Lane  (PI.  R,  35,  36 ;  JT)  is  said  to  derive  its  name  from 
the  'faitouTs'  or  beggars  that  once  infested  it.  To  the  left,  a  few 
yards  from  Fleet  Street,  is  an  entrance  to  Clifford'a  Inn  (p.  151), 
once  the  residence  of  Robert  Paltoek  (1697-1767),  author  of  that 
strange  and  fascinating  book  *TheLife  and  Adventures  of  Peter  Wil- 
kins\  Farther  on  is  the  New  Record  Office  (p.  150),  the  main  en- 

150  11.    CHANCERY  LANE.  The  City. 

trance  of  whicli  is  in  Chancery  Lane.  Tlie  Moravian  Chapel,  opposite 
the  Record  Office,  escaped  the  Great  Fire  in  1666.  In  Fleur-de-Lls 
Court,  off  Fetter  Lane,  is  Newton  Hall,  nntil  1902  the  meeting-place 
of  the  Positivists  under  Mr,  Frederic  Harrison.  In  Bream's  Build- 
ings, -which  runs  from  Fetter  Lane  to  Chancery  Lane,  is  the  Birkbeek 
Literary  and  Scientific  Institute  rp.xxxlti),with  about  13,000  students. 

Chancery  Lane  (PI.  R,  32,  ol,  35;  //}  leads  through  the  quarter 
chiefly  occupied  by  barristers  and  solicitors.  Izaak  Walton  occupied 
a  shop  on  the  right  near  Crown  Court,  after  removing  from  Fleet 
Street  (see  p.  149).  On  the  right  is  Old  Serjeants'  Inn,  opening  into 
Clifford's  Jnn  (p.  151).  Farther  up,  on  the  same  side,  is  the  New 
Becord  Office  (PL  R,  35 ;  IT),  for  the  custody  of  legal  records  and 
state-papers,  a  huge  fire-proof  edifice  in  the  Tudor  style,  the  E. 
part  of  which  was  erected  in  1851-66  by  Sir  J.  Pennethome,  while 
the  W.  part,  facing  Chancery  Lane,  was  added  by  Mr.  John  Taylor 
in  1891-96.  The  latter  coTcrs  what  used  to  be  Rolls  Yard;  and  the 
former  Court  of  the  Master  of  the  Rolls  and  also  the  Rolls  Chapel 
have  been  taken  down.  On  the  inner  side  of  the  main  archway  from 
Chancery  Lane  are  statues  of  Henry  IIL,  who  in  12'23  erected  the 
*Domus  Conversorum',  or  liouse  for  converted  Jews,  on  the  site  after- 
wards occupied  by  the  Rolls  Chapel;  and  of  Edward  III.,  who  in 
1377  assigned  the  house  and  chapel  to  the  Master  of  the  Rolls.  The 
chapel  was  afterwards  much  altered ;  a  fragment  of  the  old  chancel- 
arch  has  been  re-erected  against  the  S.E.  wall  of  the  new  building. 

The  interior  of  tbe  Becord  Office  is  arranged  so  as  to  be  as  nearly 
fire-proof  as  possible.  Tbe  rooms  bave  no  communication  with  each  other 
but  open  on  narrow  corridors  paved  with  brick.  Each  room  or  compart- 
ment is  about  26  ft.  long,  17  ft.  broad,  and  i5*/4  ft.  high.  Tbe  floor,  door- 
posts, window-frames,  and  ceilings  are  of  iron,  and  tbe  shelves  of  slate. 
Since  tbe  completion  of  tbe  structure  tbe  state  papers,  formerly  kept  in 
tbe  Tower,  tbe  Chapter  House  of  Westminster  Abbey,  the  Bolls  Chapel, 
at  Carlton  Bide,  and  in  tbe  State  Paper  Office  in  St.  Jameses  Park,  have 
been  deposited  here.  The  business-hours  are  from  10  a.m.  to  4.80  p.m. 
(on  Sat.  2  p.m.),  during  which  the  Search  Booms  are  open  to  the  public. 
Documents  down  to  1760  may  be  inspected  gratis ;  tbe  charge  for  copying 
is  6d.-l<.  (according  to  date)  per  folio  of  72  words,  the  minimum  charge 
being  2$. 

Tbe  Becord  Office  Museum  (open  free,  2-4  daily,  except  Sat.  &  Sun.) 
occupies  a  room  in  tbe  new  building ;  visitors  pass  through  the  main  archway 
from  Chancery  Lane  and  enter  tbe  principal  entrance  of  the  E.  wing.  On 
tbe  left  wall  are  three  monuments  from  tbe  Bolls  Chapel;  that  of  Doctor 
John  Younff,  Master  of  the  Bolls  under  Henry  VUI.,  is  attributed  to  Tor- 
rigiano  (1516).  The  glass-cases  contain  a  remarkable  series  of  interesting 
and  valuable  documents  and  records.  On  the  central  table  is  preserved  the 
*Lomesday  Book,  in  two  parchment  volumes  of  different  sizes,  contain- 
ing the  results  of  a  statistical  survey  of  England  made  in  1086  by  order 
of  William  the  Conqueror.  Casd  F.  Treaty  of  peace  between  Henry  VIII. 
and  Francis  I.,  with  a  gold  seal.  Caae  G.  Plan  of  tbe  Kirk  o'  Field,  il- 
lustrating tbe  murder  of  Lord  Darnley.  C!ase  H.  Bag  of  foiled  groats  of 
Henry  V.  or  VI.  i  specimens  of  tbe  wooden  tallies,  used  in  keeping  public 
accounts.  Case  I.  Letters  of  Nelson ;  log  of  tbe  *Victory'  recording  the 
battle  of  Trafalgar^  autograph  of  Wellington.  Case  H.  Petition  to  George  III. 
from  Congress  (1775);  letter  from  Washington  to  George  III.  (1795).  In 
frame  N.  is  a  charter  granted  by  Alphonso  of  Castile  on  the  marriage  of 
P4ward  It  with  Elei^nor  of  Castile, 

The  City.  11.   LINCOLN  S  INN.  151 

Opposite  the  Record  Office  are  tbe  premises  of  the  Incorporated 
Law  Society,  built  in  1857,  with  a  new  hall  added  in  1903.  Near 
the  Holhom  end  of  Chancery  Lane,  on  the  right,  are  Southampton 
Buildings,  in  which  is  situated  the  Qovernment  Patent  Offlce 
(PI.  B,  35, 36;  /i),  recently  rebuilt  and  extended  into  Staple  Inn. 
Here  all  applications  for  the  protection  of  inyentions  and  designs  are 
dealt  with,  as  well  as  most  of  those  for  the  protection  of  trade- 
marks. In  1905  there  were  nearly  28,000  applications  for  patents 
(586  by  women),  oyer  10,000  for  designs,  and  nearly  24,000  for 
trade-marks.  Adjacent,  in  Quality  Court,  is  the  'Sale  Branch',  where 
spedflcations  of  English  patents  from  the  17th  cent,  onwards  may 
be  purchased.   For  the  Patent  Office  Ubrary,  see  p.  65. 

To  the  barristers  belong  the  four  great  Inns  of  Coukt,  vis.  the 
TempU  (Inner  and  Middle)  on  the  S.  of  Fleet  Street  (see  p.  152),  ^ 
Lineoln'i  Inn  In  Chancery  Lane,  and  Qraye  Inn  in  Holbom.  These 
Inns  are  societies  for  the  study  of  law,  and  possess  by  custom  the 
exclusive  priTilege  of  calling  to  the  Bar.  Each  is  gOTorned  by  its 
older  members,  who  are  termed  Benchers, 

Formevly  subsidiary  to  the  four  Inns  of  Gonrt  were  the  nine  Inn*  of 
Chmuory:  viz.,  Clifard's  Inn  (p.  160),  CUmenC*  Inn  (p.  157),  and  Lffon^s  Inn 
(demolished),  attached  to  the  Inner  Temple ;  Ifew  Inn  and  Strand  Inn  (both 
demolished),  to  the  Middle  Temple  \  FumivaFB  Inn  and  TAortes'  Inn  (both 
demolished),  to  Mncoln's  Inn;  SUg^U  Inn  and  Beamardra  Inn  (p.  99),  to 
Oray's  Inn.  The  sorriyors  of  these  hare  now,  however,  little  beyond  local 
eonneetion  with  the  Inns  of  Court,  and  are  let  out  in  ehambers  to  soli- 
citors, barristers,  and  the  general  public.  —  Bsrjeants"  Inn^  Ohancery  Lane, 
was  originaUy  set  apart  for  the  use  of  the  Serjeants  at-law ,  whose  name 
is  derlyed  from  the  ^fratres  servientes'  of  the  old  Knights  Templar;  but 
the  building  is  now  used  for  other  purposes.  See  *The  Inns  of  Court  and 
Chancery',  by  W.  J.  Loftie. 

Lincoln's  Inn  CPl.  R,  31, 32;  /i),  the  third  of  the  Inns  of  Court 
in  importance,  is  situated  without  the  City,  on  a  site  once  occupied 
by  the  mansion  of  the  Earl  of  Lincoln  and  other  houses.  The  Oate- 
house  (restored  in  1899)  in  Chancery  Lane  was  built  in  1518  by  Sir 
Thomas  Lovell,  whose  coat-of-arms  It  bears.  Ben  Jonson  is  said  to 
have  been  employed  as  a  bricklayer  in  constructing  the  adjacent 
wall  about  a  century  later  (1617) ;  but  in  1617  Jonson  was  44  years 
old  and  had  written  some  of  his  best  plays.  The  Chapel  was  erected 
by  Inigo  Jones  in  1621-23,  and  contains  good  wood-earring  and 
stained  glass.  Like  the  Round  Church  of  the  Temple,  it  wIbis  once 
used  as  a  consultation-room  by  the  barristers  and  their  clients. 

The  New  Hall^  the  handsome  dining-hall  of  Lincoln's  Inn,  In 
the  Tudor  style ,  was  completed  in  1845  under  the  supervision  of 
ilfr.  Hardwiek,  It  contains  a  large  fresco  of  the  School  of  Legislation, 
by  O,  F.  WaHs  (1860),  and  a  statue  of  Lord  Eldon,  by  Westmacott, 
The  Library,  founded  in  1497,  is  the  oldest  in  London,  and  contains 
25,000  YOls.  and  numerous  raluable  MSS.;  most  of  the  latter  were 
bequeathed  by  Sir  Matthew  Hale.  Among  its  most  prized  contents 
is  the  fourth  yolnme  of  Prynne's  Records,  for  which  the  society 
gaye  335^.   Xtneo^'i  Inn  Fields,  see  p.  207. 

152  11.   THE  TEMPLE.  The  City. 

Sir  Thomas  More,  Shaftesbury,  Selden,  Oliver  Cromwell,  Sir  Matthew 
Hale,  William  Pitt,  Lord  Erskine,  Lord  Mansfield,  Lord  Brougham,  Canning, 
Benjamin  Disraeli,  and  W.  £.  Gladstone  were  once  members  of  Lincoln^s 
Inn.  Thurloe,  Cromweirs  Secretary  of  State,  had  chamberi  at  No.  24  Old 
Square  (to  the  left,  on  the  groundtloor)  in  1645-59,  and  the  Thurloe  papers 
were  afterwards  discovered  here  in  the  false  ceiling  (commemorative  tablet 
on  the  wall  towards  Chancery  Lane)-  Among  the  preachers  of  Lincoln^s  Inn 
were  Usher,  Tillotson,  Warburton,  Heber,  and  Frederick  Denison  Maurice. 

Chancery  Lane  ends  at  Holborn,  at  a  point  a  little  to  the  N.  of 
which  is  Gray's  Inn  (PI.  R,  32  j  11^,  which  formerly  paid  a  ground- 
rent  to  the  Lords  Gray  of  Wilton  and  has  existed  as  a  school  of  law- 
since  1371.  The  Elizabethan  Hall,  built  about  1560,  contains  fine 
wood-earring.  Shakspeare's  *Comedy  of  Errors'  was  acted  here  in 
1694.  The  Archbishops'  Window  in  the  chapel,  completed  in  1899, 
shows  a  group  of  Becket,  Whitgift,  Juxon,  Laud,  and  Wake.  During 
the  17th  cent,  the  garden,  in  which  a  number  of  trees  were  planted 
by  Francis  Bacon,  was  a  fashionable  promenade ;  hut  it  is  not  now 
open  to  the  puhlic.  The  name  of  Lord  Chancellor  Bacon  is  the 
most  eminent  among  those  of  former  members  of  Gray's  Inn;  others 
are  Sir  William  Gascoigne ,  who  committed  the  Prince  of  Wales 
(Henry  V.)  to  prison,  Thomas  Cromwell,  Lord  Burleigh,  Laud,  and 
Sir  Samuel  Romilly.  Comp.* Chronicles  of  an  Old  Inn',  by  AndrieHope. 

Gbat^s  Inn  Boad  (PI.  B,  B,  82),  an  important  but  unattractive  thorough- 
fare to  the  E.  of  Gray's  Inn,  runs  to  the  "N.  to  Euston  Boad  (King's  Cross 
Station,  p.  26),  passinj;  the  former  Holhorn  Town  HaU  and  the  Royal  Free 
BotpitaL  Opposite  Holbom  Town  Hall  diverges  Theobald's  Boad,  at  No.  22 
in  which  (then  No.  6,  King's  Boad)  Lord  Beaconsfield  wa)  born  in  1804. 
Elm  Street  leads  to  the  E.  from  Gray's  Inn  Boad  to  the  Parcel  Poit  Office 
(PI.  B,  82,  86),  in  Mount  Pleasant,  on  the  site  of  the  old  Coldbath  House  of 
Correction.  The  sorting  office  here,  completed  in  1900,  has  a  floor-space  of 
between  6  and  7  acres;  and  the  sorting-tables  have  an  aggregate  length  of 
IV4  M.  Nearly  4000  persons  are  enciployed,  handling  about  12  millioa  postal 
packets  per  week.  Every  day  1790  mail-vans  call  here  and  200  tons  of 
mail  matter  pass  through  the  office.    Comp.  p.  95. 

The  Temple  (PI.  R,  35;  /i),  on  the  S.  side  of  Fleet  Street, 
between  the  old  cities  of  London  and  Westminster,  was  formerly 
a  lodge  of  the  Knights  Templar,  —  a  religious  and  military  order 
founded  at  Jerusalem,  in  the  12th  century,  under  Baldwin,  King  of 
Jerusalem,  to  protect  the  Holy  Sepulchre  and  pilgrims  resorting 
thither,  and  called  Templars  from  their  original  designation  as 
*poor  soldiers  of  the  Temple  of  Solomon'.  It  became  crown-property 
on  the  dissolution  of  the  order  in  1313,  and  was  presented  by 
Edward  II.  to  Aymer  de  Valence,  Earl  of  Pembroke.  After  Pem- 
broke's death  the  Temple  came  into  the  possession  of  the  Knights 
of  St.  John,  who,  in  1346,  leased  it  to  the  students  of  common  law. 
From  that  time  to  the  present  day  the  building,  or  rather  group  of 
buildings,  which  extends  down  to  the  Thames,  has  continued  to  be 
a  school  of  law.  The  Temple  property  passed  into  the  hands  of  the 
Grown  on  the  dissolution  of  the  religious  houses  in  the  reign  of 
Henry  Ylll.  (1641)  j  but  in  1609  it  was  granted  by  James  I.  to  the 

The  City.  11.  TEMPLE  CHURCH.  153 

beneliers  of  tlie  Jnntr  and  Middle  Temple  for  the  enteTtaining  and 
edacating  of  students  and  professors  of  the  law,  subject  to  a  rent- 
charge  of  iOl.  from  each  society  which  was  redeemed  In  1676. 

The  Inner  and  Middle  Temples  are  now  both  situated  within  the 
precincts  of  the  City.  The  former  is  so  called  as  being  nearest  the 
city  proper ;  the  Middle  Temple  deriyes  its  name  from  its  situation 
between  the  Inner  and  the  Outer  Temple,  the  latter  of  which  was 
afterwards  replaced  by  Exeter  House  (and  later  by  Essex  House 
and  Essex  Street).  The  name  Outer  Temple  \a  now  appropriated 
by  a  handsome  block  of  offices  and  chambers  directly  opposite  the 
new  Law  Courts  (p.  155).  The  Inner  and  the  Middle  Temple  possess 
in  common  the  ^Temple  Church,  or  St.  Mary's  Church,  situated 
mainly  within  the  bounds  of  the  Inner  Temple.  Adm.,  see  p.  82; 
^sitors  knock  at  the  door. 

This  church  is  diTided  into  two  sections,  the  Round  Church  and 
the  Choir.  -.  The  Round  Church,  about  58  ft.  in  diameter,  a  Norman 
edifice  with  a  tendency  to  the  transition  style,  and  admirably  en- 
riched, was  completed  in  1185.  The  choir,  in  the  Early  English 
style,  was  added  in  1240.  During  the  Protectorate  the  ceiling 
paln^ngs  were  whitewashed ;  and  the  old  church  afterwards  became 
so  dilapidated,  that  it  was  necessary  in  1840-42  to  subject  it  to  a 
thorough  restoration,  a  work  which  cost  no  less  than  70,000i.  The 
lawyers  used  formerly  to  receiye  their  clients  in  the  Round  Church, 
each  occupying  his  particular  post  like  merchants  *on  change'.  The 
Incumbent  of  the  Temple  Church  is  called  the  Master  of  the 
Temple.    The  present  Master  is  the  Rev.  Dr.  Woods. 

A  handsome  Norman  archway  leads  into  the  interior,  which  is 
a  few  steps  below  the  leyel  of  the  pavement.  The  choir,  at  the  end 
of  which  are  the  altar  and  stalls  (during  divine  service  open  to 
members  of  the  Temple  societies  and  theif  friends  only),  and 
the  Round  Church  (to  which  the  public  is  admitted)  are  both 
borne  by  clustered  pillars  in  marble.  The  ceiling  is  a  fine  example 
of  Gothic  decorative  painting,  carefully  restored  on  the  original 
lines.  The  pavement  consists  of  tiles,  in  which  the  lamb  with  the 
flag  (the  Agnus  Dei')y  the  heraldic  emblem  of  the  Templars,  and 
the  Pegasus,  the  badges  of  the  Middle  and  Inner  Temple  respectively, 
continually  recur.  Most  of  the  stained-glass  windows  are  modern. 
In  the  Round  Church  are  nine  *  Monuments  of  Templars  of  the  12th 
and  13th  centuries,  consisting  of  recumbent  figures  of  dark  marble 
in  full  armour.  One  of  the  four  on  the  S.  side,  under  whose  pillow 
is  a  slab  with  foliage  in  relief,  is  said  to  be  that  of  William  Marshal, 
Earl  of  Pembroke  (d.  1219),  brother-in-law  of  King  John,  who  filled 
the  office  of  Regent  during  the  minority  of  Henry  III.  The  monu- 
ments are  beautifully  executed,  but  owe  their  fresh  appearance  to 
a  ^restoration'  by  Richardson  in  1842.  At  the  S.W.  corner  of  the 
choir  are  a  black  marble  slab  in  memory  of  John  Selden  (d.  1654), 
'the  great  dictator  of  learning  to  the  English  nation',  and  a  bust  of 

154  11.  TKMPLE  CHURCH.  The  City. 

Richard  Hooker  (d.  1600),  formerly  Master.  In  a  recess  in  the  S. 
wall  of  the  choir,  near  the  E.  end,  is  a  line  recumhent  effigy  of  a 
mitred  ecclesiastic,  discoyered  during  the  restoration  in  1840.  The 
triforinm,  which  encircles  the  Ronnd  Chnrch,  contains  some  unin- 
teresting old  monuments ,  but  is  not  now  open  to  the  public.  On 
the  stair  leading  to  it  is  a  small  penitential  cell,  prisoners  in  which 
could  hear  the  serylce  in  the  church  by  means  of  slits  in  the  wall. 

Oliver  Goldsmith  (d.  1774),  author  of  the  *Vioar  of  Wakefield', 
is  buried  in  the  Churchyard  to  the  N.  of  the  choir.  —  See  'The 
Temple  Church  and  Chapel  of  St.  Ann',  by  H,  T.  BayUa,  K,  C, 

The  well-kept  Temple  Gardens^  once  immediately  adjacent  to 
the  Thames,  but  now  separated  from  it  by  the  Victoria  Embank- 
ment, are  open  to  the  public  on  days  and  hours  determined  from 
time  to  time  by  the  Benchers  (ascertainable  by  enquiry  at  the  gates 
or  lodges).  Here,  according  to  Shakspeare,  were  plucked  the  vohiie 
and  red  roses  which  were  assumed  as  the  badges  of  the  houses  of 
York  and  Lancaster,  in  the  long  and  bloody  civil  contest,  known  as 
the  *Wars  of  the  Roses'  ('Henry  VI.\  Part  I;  Act  ii.  Se,  4),  About 
the  end  of  May  these  gardens  are  used  for  the  spring  Flower  Show  of 
the  Royal  Horticultural  Society  (p.  251).  The  figure  of  a  Moor  (Italian ; 
17th  or  18th  cent.),  bearing  a  sun-dial,  was  brought  from  the  garden 
of  Clement's  Inn. 

The  fine  Gothic  ♦Hall  of  the  Middle  Temple,  built  in  1572,  and 
used  as  a  dining-room,  is  notable  for  its  handsome  open-work  ceiling 
in  old  oak.  The  fine  oaken  screen  was  erected  in  1575.  The 
walls  are  embellished  with  the  armorial  bearings  of  the  Knights 
Templar,  and  five  large  full-length  portraits  of  princes,  including 
an  equestrian  portrait  of  Charles  I.  The  large  windows  contain 
the  arms  of  membexs  of  the  Temple  who  have  sat  in  the  House 
of  Peers.  Shakspeare's  'Twelfth  Night'  was  acted  in  this  hall  during 
the  dramatist's  lifetime  (Feb.  2nd,  1601-2).  Queen  Elizabeth  dined 
here ;  and  the  table  is  said  to  be  that  on  which  she  signed  the  death- 
warrant  of  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots.  —  The  Library  (40,000  vols.)  is 
preserved  in  a  modern  Gothic  building  on  the  side  next  the  Thames, 
which  contains  a  hall  85  ft.  long  and  62  ft.  high.  —  The  new  Inner 
Temple  Hall,  opened  in  1870,  is  a  handsome  structure,  also  pos- 
sessing a  fine  open-work  roof.  It  is  adorned  with  statues  of  Temp- 
lars and  Hospitallers  by  Armstead.  The  Library  (50,000  vols.)  oc- 
cupies a  commodious  suite  of  rooms  overlooking  the  terrace  so 
lovingly  described  by  Charles  Lamb. 

Oliver  Ooldsmith  lived  and  died  on  the  second  floor  of  2  Brick  Court, 
Middle  Temple  Lane  (medallion).  Mackworth  Praed  and  Thackeray  also 
bad  chambers  in  this  house;  and  Blackstone,  the  famous  commentator  on 
the  law  of  England,  lived  in  the  rooms  below  GoIdsmith''s.  Dr.  Johnson 
occupied  apartments  in  Inner  Temple  Lane,  in  a  house  now  taken  down. 
Charles  Lamb  was  born  in  Crown  Office  Bow  (within  the  Temple)  in  1775 ; 
from  1801  to  1809  he  lived  at  16  Mitre  Court  Buildings  and  from  1809  to  1817 
at  i  Inner  Temple  Lane,  but  both  houses  have  been  torn  down.  In  18i8-50 
Thackeray  occupied  chambers  in  10  Crown  Office  Row. 

The  City.  11.   TEMPLE  BAR.  155 

Tbe  list  of  eminent  members  of  the  Inner  Temple  includes  the  names 
of  Littleton,  Coke,  Selden,  Francis  Beanmont,  Lord  Mansfield,  Hampden, 
Thnrlow,  and  William  Cowper.  On  that  of  the  Middle  Temple  are  the 
names  of  Baleigh,  Pym,  Clarendon,  Ireton,  Wyeherley,  Shadwell,  Congreve, 
Burke,  Sheridan,  Blackstone,  and  Moore. 

At  tbe  W.  end  of  Fleet  Street  rises  tbe  Temple  Bar  Memorial^ 
witb  stotues  of  Queen  Yietoria  and  Edward  YII.  (as  Prince  of  Wales) 
by  Boebm  at  tbe  sides  and  surmounted  by  tbe  Oity  Griffln,  by  Bircb. 
Tbis  was  erected  in  1880  to  mark  tbe  site  of  Temple  Bar,  a  gate- 
way formerly  adjoining  tbe  Temple,  between  Fleet  Street  and  tbe 
Strand,  built  by  Wren  in  1670.  Its  W.  side  was  adorned  witb  statues 
of  Obarles  I.  and  Obarles  II.,  its  E.  side  witb  statues  of  Anne  of 
Denmark  and  James  I.  Tbe  beads  of  criminals  used  to  be  barbarously 
exbibited  on  iron  spikes  on  tbe  top  of  tbe  gate.  Wben  tbe  reigning 
sovereign  yisits  tbe  City  on  state  occasions,  be  is  wont,  in  ac- 
cordance witb  an  ancient  custom,  to  obtain  permission  from  tbe 
Lord  Mayor  to  pass  Temple  Bar.  Tbe  beavy  wooden  gates  were  after- 
wards remOTed  to  relieve  tbe  Bar  of  tbeir  weigbt,  as  it  bad  sbown 
signs  of  weakness ;  and  tbe  wbole  erection  was  Anally  demolisbed 
early  in  1878,  to  permit  of  tbe  widening  of  tbe  street  and  to  facilitate 
tbe  enormous  traffic.  In  1888  tbe  gate  was  re-erected  near  one  of 
tbe  entrances  of  Tbeobalds  Park,  Waltbam  Oross  (see  p.  416). 

A^oining  the  site  of  Temple  Bar,  on  the  8.  side  of  Fleet  Street,  stands 
the  large  new  building  of  Ohild^a  Bank,  which  was  in  high  repute  in  the 
time  of  the  Stuarts,  and  is  the  oldest  banking-house  in  London  but  one. 
Dryden,  Pepys,  Nell  Owynne,  and  Prince  Bupert  were  early  customers  of 
this  bank.  The  Child  family  is  still  connected  with  the  business.  Next 
door  to  this  house  was  the  *Deyil's  Tavern",  noted  as  the  home  of  the 
Apollo  Club,  of  which  Ben  Jonson,  Randolph,  and  Dr.  Kenrick  were 
frequenters.  The  tavern  was  in  time  absorbed  by  Child ^s  Bank,  which 
also  used  the  room  over  the  main  arch  of  Temple  Bar  as  a  storehouse. 

Immediately  to  tbe  W.  of  Temple  Bar,  on  tbe  N.  side  of  tbe 
Strand  (p.  157),  rise  the  Soyal  Courts  of  Justice,  opened  in  1882, 
a  vast  and  magnificent  Gothic  pile,  forming  a  wbole  block  of  build- 
ings, witb  a  frontage  towards  tbe  Strand  of  about  500  ft.  Tbe 
arcbitect  was  O,  E,  Street,  wbo  unfortunately  died  sbortly  before 
tbe  completion  of  bis  great  work;  a  statue  of  Mm,  by  Armstead,  has 
been  placed  on  tbe  E.  side  of  tbe  central  ball.  Tbe  building  cost 
about  750,0002.  and  tbe  site  about  2,450,0002.  Tbe  principal  internal 
feature  is  tbe  large  central  ball,  138  ft.  long,  48  ft.  wide,  and  80  ft. 
bigb,  witb  a  fine  mosaic  flooring  designed  by  Street.  Tbe  build- 
ing contains  in  all  19  court -rooms  and  about  1100  apartments  of 
all  kinds.  Wben  tbe  courts  are  sitting,  tbe  general  public  are  ad- 
mitted to  tbe  galleries  only,  tbe  central  ball  and  tbe  court-rooms 
being  reserved  for  members  of  tbe  Bar  and  persons  connected  witb 
tbe  cases.  During  tbe  vacation  tbe  central  ball  is  open  to  tbe  public 
from  11  to  3,  and  tickets  of  admission  to  tbe  courts  may  be  obtained 
gratis  at  tbe  superintendent's  office. 

For  about  a  century  and  a  half  after  tbe  Norman  Conquest  the 
royal  court  of  justice,  which  included  the  Exchequer  and  the  *Curia  Regis', 
followed  the  King  from  place  to  place;  but  one  of  the  articles  of  Hagna 

156  11.  COURTS  OF  JUSTTCK.  The  City. 

Gharta  provided  that  the  Common  Pleas,  or  that  branch  of  the  court  in 
which  disputes  between  subjects  were  settled,  should  be  fixed  at  West- 
minster. The  accession  of  Edward  I.  found  the  Courts  of  King's  Bench, 
Common  Bench,  and  Exchequer  all  sitting  in  Westminster  Hall.  The  Court 
of  Chancery  sat  regularly  in  Westminster  Hall  as  early  as  the  reign  of 
Edward  II.,  but  was  afterwards  removed  to  Lincoln's  Inn.  This  separation 
of  common  law  and  equity  proved  very  inconvenient  to  the  barristers 
and  attorneys  and  others,  and  the  Westminster  courts  became  much  too 
small  for  the  business  carried  on  in  them.  It  was  accordingly  resolved 
to  build  a  large  new  palace  of  justice  to  receive  all  the  superior  courts, 
and  the  site  of  the  present  Law  Courts  was  fixed  upon  in  1867^  The 
work  of  building  began  in  1874.  The  Judicature  Act  of  1873  provided 
that  the  same  rule  of  law  should  be  enforced  in  the  historically  independent 
Courts  of  Common  Law  and  Equity,  and  united  all  the  superior  tribunals 
of  the  country  into  a  Supreme  Court  of  Judicature,  subdivided  into  a 
court  of  original  jurisdiction  (the  High  Court  of  Justice,  with  the  two 
divisions  of  ^Queen's  Bench'  and  ^Chancery')  and  a  court  of  appellate  juris- 
diction (the  Court  of  Appeal).  The  House  of  Lords  still  remains  the  ulti* 
mate  Court  of  Appeal,  exercising  its  jurisdiction  through  its  legal  members 
—  the  Lord  Chancellor,  peers  who  have  held  the  position  of  Lord  Chan- 
cellor, and  certain  law-lords  holding  life-peerages. 


12.  Strand.  Somerset  House.  Waterloo  Bridge. 

St.  CUment  Danes.  The  Roman  Bath.  Kin/s  CoUtge.  8t,  Mary  U 
Strand,  Savoy  Chapel,  Savoy  Falaet,  Society  of  Arts,  Eleanor^  $  Cross, 

Tlie  Strand  (PL  R,  26,  31,  and  11;  so  named  fiom  its  skirting 
the  bank  of  the  river,  vhich  is  now  concealed  by  the  bnildings],  a 
broad  street  containing  many  handsome  shops,  is  the  great  artery 
of  traffic  between  the  City  and  the  West  £ud,  and  one  of  the  busiest 
and  most  important  thoroughfares  in  London.  It  was  nnpaved 
down  to  1532,  and  about  this  time  it  was  described  as  *full  of  pits 
and  •  sloughs,  Tory  perilous  and  noisome'.  At  this  period  many  of 
the  mansions  of  the  nobility  and  hierarchy  stood  here,  with  gardens 
stretching  down  to  the  Thames  (comp.  p.  xxv).  The  names  of  several 
streets  and  houses  still  recall  these  days  of  bygone  magnificence,  but 
the  palaces  themselves  have  long  since  disappeared  or  been  converted 
to  more  plebeian  uses.  Ivy  Bridge  Lane  andStrand  Bridge  Lane  com- 
memorate the  site  of  bridges  over  two  water-courses  that  flowed  into 
the  Thames  here,  and  there  was  a  third  bridge  farther  to  theE.  The 
Strand  contains  a  great  many  newspaper-offices  and  theatres. 

Just  beyond  the  site  of  Temple  Bar  (p.  155),  to  which  its  name 
will  doubtless  long  attach,  on  the  (N.)  right,  rise  the  Law  Courts 
(p.  155).  The  church  of  St.  Clement  Danes*  in  the  centre  of  the 
Strand,  was  erected  in  1681  from  designs  by  Wren  and  restored 
in  1898.  The  tower,  115  ft.  in  height,  was  added  by  Oibbs  in 
1719.  Dr.  Johnson  used  to  worship  in  this  church,  a  fact  recorded 
by  a  tablet  on  the  back  of  the  pew.  The  church  is  said  to  bear 
its  name  from  being  the  burial-place  of  Harold  Barefoot  and  other 
Danes.  To  the  N.  of  St.  Clement  Danes  is  Clement's  Inn  (p.  151), 
recently  rebuilt,  and  now  the  home  of  the  Fabian  Society,  the 
Playgoers'  Club,  and  other  non-legal  societies.  St.  Clement's  Well, 
once  situated  here,  was  removed  in  1874.  Shallow  (Henry  IV.,  Part  II) 
reminds  us  that  he  'was  once  of  Clement's  Inn',  when  he  was  known 
as  *mad  Shallow'  and  'lusty  Shallow'.  —  In  the  Strand,  opposite 
the  W.  facade  of  St,  Clement  Danes,  rises  a  Statue  of  W.  E.  Gladstone^ 
by  Hamo  Thornycroft  (1905),  surrounded  by  allegorical  groups  re- 
presenting Brotherhood,  Education,  Courage,  and  Aspiration. 

From  this  point  westwards  to  Wellington  Street  the  Strand  has 
recently  been  greatly  widened,  the  site  of  Holywell  Street,  between 
St.  Clement's  and  St.  Mary  le  Strand's,  being  now  thrown  into  the 
main  thoroughfare.    The  new  frontage  on  the  N.  is  still  unoccupied 

158  n.  KING»S  COLLEGE.      The  West  End, 

by  bnildings  until  we  reach  the  Gaiety  Restaniant  and  Theatre 
(p.  45),  hnt  sites  hare  been  secured  here  for  new  offices  for  the 
colonies  of  Victoria  and  New  South  Wales. 

To  the  K.  of  this  section  of  the  Strand  very  extensiye  alterations  hare 
been  made  in  connection  with  the  formation  of  a  much  needed  direct 
thoroughfare  to  Holborn  (PI.  R,  31 1 II).  The  old  Gaiety,  Globe,  and  Olympic 
Theatres,  Wych  Street,  and  numerous  other  narrow  streets,  courts,  and 
buildings  have  disappeared  in  the  course  of  the  improvements.  A  crescent 
(100  ft.  wide),  known  as  Aldwtch,  now  extends  in  a  shallow  curve  from 
St.  Clements  to  the  S.  end  of  Catherine  Street,  being  separated  from  the 
Strand  by  a  so-called  ^island  block\  The  E.  portion  of  the  crescent  is 
still  unbuilt,  but  on  the  N.  side  of  its  W.  curve  rises  the  Waldorf  Hotel 
(p.  4),  flanked  on  the  right  and  left  by  the  Aldwych  and  Waldorf  Theatres 
(PI.  B,  31;  pp.44,  47).  From  the  apex  of  Aldwych  Eingswat,  an  avenue 
of  the  same  width,  runs  straight  to  Holborn,  passing  a  little  to  the  W.  of 
Lincoln^s  Inn  Fields  (p.  207j  and  debouching  opponte  Southanxpton  Bow. 
In  its  N.  portion,  formerly  little  Queen  Street,  stands  Trinity  Church  (PI. 
B,  31,  32;  If),  on  the  site  of  the  house  in  which  Mary  Lamb  killed  her 
mother  in  a  fit  of  insanity  (1796).  —  Shallow  underground  tramway  below 
Eingsway  and  tramway-tunnel  to  the  Embankment.  seeKos.  4,  4a  on  p.  21. 

To  theW.  of  Eingsway  is  Dbubt  Lane  (PI.  B,3i),  containing  Drvry  Lane 
Theatre  (p.  45)  and  leading  to  the  W.  to  Oxford  Street  and  the  British  Museum. 

Essex  Street,  Arundel  Street,  Norfolk  Street,  and  Surrey  Street, 
diverging  to  the  S.  of  the  Strand ,  mark  the  spots  where  stood  the 
mansions  of  the  Earl  of  Essex  (Queen  Elizabeth's  farourite)  and 
the  Earl  of  Arundel  and  Surrey  (Norfolk);  they  all  lead  to  the 
Thames  Embankment.  Peter  the  Great  resided  in  Norfolk  Street 
during  his  visit  to  London  in  1698,  William  Penn  once  lived  at 
No.  21,  and  Mrs.  Lirriper's  famous  lodgings  were  in  the  same  street. 
In  Devereux  Court,  to  the  E.  of  Essex  Street,  is  a  bust  of  Lord 
Essex,  said  to  be. by  Golley  Gibber  and  to  mark  the  site  of  the 
Grecian  Coffee  House.  George  Sale  (1680-1736),  the  translator  of 
the  Koran,  as  well  as  Congreve  (d.  1729),  the  dramatist,  lived  and 
died  in  Surrey  Street.  At  No.  5  Strand  Lane,  the  narrow  opening 
to  the  W.  of  the  Strand  Station  (p.  35),  is  an  ancient  Soman  Bath, 
about  13  ft.  long,  6  ft.  broad,  and  41/2  ft.  deep,  one  of  the  few  relics 
of  the  Roman  period  in  London  (open  to  visitors  on  Sat,  11-12). 
The  bricks  at  the  side  are  laid  edgewise,  and  the  flooring  consists 
of  brick  with  a  thin  coating  of  stucco.  At  the  point  where  the 
water,  which  flows  from  a  natural  spring,  has  washed  away  part  of 
the  stucco  covering,  the  old  pavement  below  is  visible.  The  clear, 
cold  water  probably  flows  from  the  old  ^Holy  WelV,  situated  on  the 
N.  side  of  the  Strand,  which  lent  its  name  to  Holywell  Street  (p.  157). 
The  Roman  antiquities  found  here  are  preserved  in  the  British 
Museum  (p.  317).  Close  by,  on  the  right  of  the  passage,  is  another 
bath,  said  to  have  been  built  by  the  Earl  of  Essex  about  1588 ;  it 
is  supplied  by  a  pipe  from  the  Roman  bath. 

King's  College »  the  large  pile  of  buildings  adjoining  Strand 
Lane  on  the  W.,  built  by  Smirke  in  1828,  forms  the  E.  wing  of 
Somerset  House  (see  p.  159).  It  is  now  a  school  of  London  Uni- 
versity (p.  341)  and  has  departments  for  theology,  arts,  general 

7he  West  End.      12.  SOMERSET  HOUSE.  159 

literature,  science,  medicine,  etc.  Among  its  distinguished  students 
were  Sir  James  Fitzjames  Stephen,  Prof.  Gayley,  Prof.  Thorold 
Rogers,  and  Dean  Farrar.  The  Museum  contains  a  collection  of 
models  and  instruments,  including  apparatus  used  by  Daniell,  Fara- 
day, and  Wheatstone.  —  The  School  for  Boys,  formerly  here,  has 
been  removed  to  Wimbledon. 

In  the  Strand  we  next  reach,  on  the  N.  side,  the  church  of 
8t.  ICaryle  Strand,  built  by  Oibhs  in  1717,  on  the  spot  where 
stood  in  olden  times  the  notorious  Maypole,  the  May-day  and  Sun- 
day delight  of  youthful  and  other  idlers.  It  was  called  St.  Mary's 
aftei  an  earlier  church  which  had  been  demolished  by  Protector 
Somerset  to  make  zoom  for  his  mansion  of  Old  Somerset  House 
{see  below).  Thomas  Becket  was  rector  of  this  parish  in  the  reign 
of  King  Stephen  (1147). 

Farther  on,  on  the  S.  side  of  the  Strand,  rises  the  stately  facade 
of  Somenet  Home  (PI.  R,  31 ;  11^,  150  ft.  in  length.  The  present 
large  quadrangular  building  was  erected  by  Sir  William  Chambers 
in  1776-86,  on  the  site  of  st  palace  which  the  Protector  Somerset 
began  to  build  in  1549.  The  Protector,  howeyer,  was  beheaded 
(p.  132)  before  it  was  completed,  and  the  palace  fell  to  the  Crown. 
It  was  afterwards  the  residence  of  Anne  of  Denmark ,  consort  of 
James  1.,  of  Henrietta  Maria,  the  queen  of  Charles  I.,  and  of  Cath- 
arine of  Braganza,  the  neglected  wife  of  the  second  Charles.  Inigo 
Jones  died  here  in  1652.  The  old  building  was  taken  down 
in  1766,  and  the  present  edlffioe,  now  occupied  by  Tarious  public 
offices,  erected  in  its  stead.  The  imposing  principal  facade  to- 
wards the  Thames,  780  ft  in  length,  rises  on  a  terrace  50  ft. 
broad  and  50  ft.  high,  and  is  now  separated  from  the  river  by 
the  Victoria  Embankment.  The  quadrangular  court  contains  a 
bronze  group  by  Bacon ,  representing  George  III.  leaning  on  a 
rudder,  with  the  English  lion  and  Father  Thames  at  his  feet.  The 
two  wings  of  the  building  were  erected  during  the  19th  cent.  : 
the  eastern,  containing  King's  College  (p.  158),  by  Smirke,  in 
1828 ;  the  western,  towards  Wellington  Street,  by  Pennethomej  in 
1854-56.  The  sum  expended  in  constructing  the  latter  alone 
was  81,000i.;  and  the  cost  of  the  whole  building  amounted  to 
500,000i.  At  Somerset  House  no  fewer  than  1600  officials  are  em- 
ployed, with  salaries  amounting  in  the  aggregate  to  350,000Z.  The 
building  is  said  to  contain  3600  windows.  The  public  offices 
established  here  include  the  Audit  Office;  the  Inland  Revenue 
Office,  in  the  new  W.  wing,  where  stamps  are  issued  and  public 
taxes  and  excise  duties  received;  the  Office  of  the  Registrar- General 
ofBirthSy  Deaths,  and  Marriages;  and  the  Probate  Registry.  The  last, 
to  which  Doctors^  Commons  Will  Office  (p.  94)  was  transferred  in 
1874,  is  the  great  repository  of  testamentary  writings  of  all  kinds. 
The  will  of  Napoleon  I.,  executed  at  St.  Helena,  used  to  be  kept 
here,  but  was  handed  over  to  the  French  in  1853.    The  registers 

160  12.  SAVOY  CHAPEL  The  West  End. 

of  wills  go  back  to  the  14th  centnry.  The  lowest  recorded  amount  of 
personalty  is  1«.  7d.,  in  a  will  of  1882.  Visitors  (daily,  10-3)  are 
allowed  to  read  copies  of  wills  preyions  to  1700,  from  which  also 
pencil  extracts  may  be  made.  For  showing  wills  of  a  later  date  a 
charge  of  1«.  is  made.  A  fee  of  la.  is  also  charged  for  searching 
the  calendars.  No  extracts  may  be  made  from  these  later  wills, 
but  official  copies  may  be  procured  at  8d.  per  folio  page. 

On  the  W.  side  of  Somerset  House  is  Wellington  Street,  lead- 
ing to  *WateTloo  Bridge.  This  bridge,  one  of  the  finest  in  the 
world,  was  built  by  John  Rennie  for  a  company  in  1811-17,  at  a 
cost  of  over  1,000, OOOt.  It  is  460  yds.  long  and  42  ft.  broad,  and 
rests  upon  9  arches,  each  of  120  ft.  span  and  35  ft.  high,  and 
borne  by  granite  buttresses.  It  commands  an  admirable  view  of  the 
W.  part  of  London  between  Westminster  and  St.  Paul's,  of  the 
Thames  Embankment,  and  of  the  massive  but  well-proportioned 
facade  of  Somerset  House.  In  1878  the  bridge  was  sold  to  the 
Metropolitan  Board  of  Works  for  475,000i.  and  opened  to  the  public 
toll-free.  —  Waterloo  Bridge  Road,  on  the  S.  side  of  the  river,  leads 
to  Waterloo  Station  (p.  29). 

On  the  N.  side  of  the  Strand  we  next  observe  the  Oaiety  Theatre 
(p.  45),  at  the  W.  extremity  of  the  4sland- block'  between  the 
Strand  and  Aldwych  (p.  158),  then  the  imposing  offices  of  the 
^Momir^  Post\  and,  beyond  Wellington  St.,  the  Lyceum  Theaire 
(p.  46).  Between  Burleigh  Street  and  Exeter  Street  (commemorating 
Exeter  House,  the  residence  of  Queen  Elizabeth's  Lord  Chancellor), 
the  large  New  Strand  Hotel  Is  being  built  on  the  site  of  Exeter 
Hall,  famous  for  its  religious  and  philanthropic  meetings. 

To  the  left  is  Savoy  Street,  leading  to  the  Savoy  Chapel  i  de- 
dicated to  St.  John  the  Baptist ,  and  built  in  the  Perpendicular 
style  in  1505-11,  during  the  reigns  of  Henry  VII.  and  Henry  VIII., 
on  the  site  of  the  ancient  Savoy  Palace. 

The  chapel,  created  one  of  the  Chapels  Royal  by  George  III.  and  now 
a  *Royal  Peculiar^  attached  to  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster,  was  serioasly  iigared 
by  tire  in  1864,  but  restored  at  the  expense  of  Queen  Victoria.  Th« 
handsome  wooden  ceiling  is  modem.  Bishop  Gavin  Douglas  of  Dunkeld 
(d.  1522),  the  poetical  translator  of  Virgil,  is  buried  in  the  chancel  (with 
brass),  and  George  Wither  (d.  1667),  the  poet,  was  also  buried  here.  Fine 
stained  glass.  A  memorial  window  to  Mr.  D'  Oyly  Carte  (d.  1901),  by 
E.  J.  Priest,  was  placed  to  the  right  of  the  main  entrance  in  1902.  Savoy 
Palace  was  first  built  in  1245,  and  was  given  by  Henry  HI.  to  Peter,  Count 
of  Savoy,  the  uncle  of  his  queen,  Eleanor  of  Provence.  The  captive  King 
John  of  France  died  here  in  1364,  and  Chaucer  was  probably  married  here 
when  the  palace  was  occupied  by  John  of  Gaunt.  It  lay  between  the  present 
chapel  and  the  river,  but  has  entirely  disappeared.  At  the  Savoy,  in  the 
time  of  Cromwell,  the  Independents  adopted  a  Confession  of  Faith,  and 
here  the  celebrated  'Savoy  Conference*  for  the  revision  of  the  Prayer  Book 
was  held,  when  Baxter,  Calamy,  and  others  represented  the  Nonconformists. 
The  German  chapel  which  used  to  stand  contiguous  to  the  Savoy  Chapel 
was  removed  in  widening  Savoy  Street,  which  now  forms  a  thoroughfare 
to  the  Thames  Embankment.  The  French  Protestants  who  conformed  to 
the  English  church  had  a  chapel  here  from  the  time  of  Charles  IT.  til) 
1737.     See  Afemorials  of  the  Saroy^  by  the  Rev.  W.  J.  Loftie. 

The  West  End,      12.   SOCIETY  OF  ARTS.  161 

Farther  on,  to  the  left,  U  Terry's  Theatre  (p.  47),  beyond  which, 
between  Founiam  Court  and  Savoy  Court  lise  the  handsome  new 
Savoy  Buildings,  masking  the  Sayoy  Hotel  (p.  4).  Savoy  Court 
(formerly  Beaufort  Buildings)  leads  to  the  hotel  and  to  the  Savoy 
Theatre  (p.  46);  on  the  wall  to  the  left  are  tablets  commemorating 
the  historical  associations  of  this  site. 

At  No.  13  Cecil  Street,  to  the  left  (now  engulfed  by  the  H6tel 
Cecil),  Sir  W.  Congreve  (d.  1828),  the  inTentor  of  the  Congreve 
Rocket,  resided  and  made  his  experiments,  firing  the  rockets 
across  the  Thames.  Edmund  Eean  (1787-1833)  liyed  at  No.  21 
in  the  same  street. 

A  little  to  the  N.  of  this  part  of  the  Strand  lies  Covent  Garden 
Market  (p.  210).  On  the  right,  between  Southampton  Street  and 
Bedford  Street,  is  the  Vaudeville  Theatre  (p.  47);  beyond  it,  the 
Adelphi  Theatre  (p.  44).  David  Garrick  lived  at  No.  27  Southamp- 
ton Street  from  1750  to  1772  (tablet).  In  Bedford  Street  is  a 
store  of  the  Civil  Service  Supply  Association  (p.  64). 

To  the  S.  of  the  Strand,  opposite  the  Adelphi  Theatre,  is  the 
region  known  as  'The  Adelphi*,  built  by  four  brothers  called  Adam, 
whose  names  are  commemorated  in  Adam  St.,  John  St.,  Robert  St., 
James  St.,  and  William  St.,  and  in  the  Adelphi  Terrace.  In  John  St. 
rises  the  building  of  the  Society  of  Arts  (PL  R,  30 ;  /i) ,  an  asso- 
ciation established  in  1754  for  the  encouragement  of  arts,  manu- 
factures, and  commerce,  which  took  a  prominent  part  in  promoting 
the  Exhibitions  of  1851  and  1862.  The  large  hall  (open  daily, 
10-4,  Sat.  10-1)  contains  six  paintings  by  Barry  (1777-83),  re- 
presenting the  progress  of  civilization,  —  Adelphi  Terrace,  over- 
looking the  Thames  and  the  Embankment,  contains  the  house 
(No.  5)  in  which  David  Garrick  died  in  1779  (tablet).  Nos.  6  and 
7  in  this  terrace  are  occupied  by  the  Savage  Club;  No.  8  by  the 
Irish  Literary  Society;  and  No.  9  by  the  Royal  Statistical  Society, 
The  arches  below  l^e  terrace  were  once  a  resort  of  bad  characters  of 
various  kinds,  but  are  now  enclosed  as  wine-cellars. 

On  the  right,  where  King  William  Street  joins  the  Strand,  stands 
the  Charing  Cross  Hospital;  and  in  King  William  Street  is  the 
Westminster  Ophthalmic  Hospital,  Farther  on,  on  the  site  of  the  old 
Lowther  Arcade,  are  the  new  premises  of  Coutts^s  Bank,  a  very 
noted  firm,  with  which  the  royal  family  has  banked  for  200  years. 
Till  Aug.  1904  this  bank  occupied  a  building  on  the  S.  side  of  the 
Strand,  nearly  opposite.  The  names  of  several  streets  on  the  S.  side 
of  the  Strand  here  (George,  Yilliers,  Duke,  Buckingham)  refer  to 
George  Yilliers,  Duke  of  Buckingham,  who  once  owned  their  site 
(comp.  p.  126).  'Of  Lane  has  disappeared.  No.  15  Buckingham 
Street  formed  part  of  York  House  (p.  126)  and  contains  old  ceilings 
adorned  with  stucco  and  paintings ;  it  was  once  tenanted  by  Peter 
the  Great.  The  chambers  on  the  top-floor  of  this  house  are  identi- 
fied with  those  taken  by  Miss  Trotwood  for  David  Copperfleld. 

Babdbebb^s  London.    ISth  Bdit.  11^ 

162  13.  TRAFALGAR  SQUARE.    27»e  West  End, 

William  Black,  tlie  novelist,  had  rooms  here.  No.  14  stands  on  the 
site  of  Pepys's  old  house ;  in  the  present  hnilding  the  rooms  once 
occupied  by  Etty,  the  painter,  are  still  preseryed. 

At  the  W.  end  of  the  Strand,  on  the  left,  is  Charing  Cross 
Station  (with  a  large  Hotels  p.  4) ,  a  West  End  terminus  of  the 
South  Eastern  Railway  (p.  27),  built  by  Barry  on  the  site  of 
Hungtrford  Market^  where  the  mansion  of  Sir  Edward  Hungerford 
stood  until  it  was  burned  down  in  1669.  In  front  of  it  stands  a  mod- 
ern copy  of  Eleanor's  Cross,  a  Gothic  monument  erected  in  1291  by 
Edward  I.  at  Charing  Gross  (p.  164),  near  the  spot  where  the  coffin 
of  his  consort  was  set  down  during  its  last  halt  on  the  way  to  West 
minster  Abbey.  The  original  was  removed  by  order  of  Parliament  in 
1647.  The  river  is  here  crossed  by  the  Charing  Cross  Railway  Bridge, 
on  one  side  of  which  is  a  footway  (freed  from  toll  in  1878;  the  most 
direct  route  to  Waterloo  Station).  —  To  the  E.  of  the  station  is 
ViUiers  Street,  which  descends  to  the  Embankment  Oardens  (p.  126) 
and  to  the  Charing  Cross  Station  (p.  32)  of  the  Metropolitan  District 
Railway. —Benjamin  Franklin  lived  at  No.  7  Craven  Street  (denoted 
by  a  memorial  tablet),  to  the  W.  of  the  station.  —  Tube  Stations, 
see  pp.  34,  36. 

13. .  Trafalgar  Square. 

Nelson  Column.   St.  Martin's  in  the  Fields.    Charing  Cross. 

*Trafklgar  Square  (PI.  R,  26 ;  //,  IV),  one  of  the  finest  open 
places  in  London  and  a  great  centre  of  attraction,  is,  so  to  speak, 
dedicated  to  Lord  Nelson^  and  commemorates  his  glorious  death  at  the 
battle  of  Trafalgar  (22nd  Oct.,  1805),  gained  by  the  English  fleet  over 
the  combined  armaments  of  France  and  Spain.  By  this  victory  Na- 
poleon's purpose  of  invading  England  was  frustrated.  The  ambitious 
Emperor  had  assembled  at  Boulogne  an  army  of  172,000  infantry 
and  9000  cavalry,  and  also  2413  transports  to  convey  his  soldiers  to 
England,  but  his  fleet,  which  he  had  been  building  for  many  years 
at  an  enormous  cost,  and  which  was  to  have  covered  his  passage  of 
the  Channel,  was  destroyed  by  Nelson  at  this  famous  battle.  The 
Admiral  is,  therefore,  justly  revered  as  the  saviour  of  his  country. 

In  the  centre  of  the  square  rises  the  massive  granite  Columiii 
145  ft.  in  height,  to  the  memory  of  the  hero.  It  is  a  copy  of 
one  of  the  Corinthian  columns  of  the  temple  of  Mars  Ultor,  the 
avenging  god  of  war,  at  Rome,  and  is  crowned  with  a  Statue  of 
Nelson,  by  Baily ,  17  ft.  in  height.  The  pedestal  is  adorned  with 
reliefs  in  bronze ,  cast  with  the  metal  of  captured  French  cannon. 
On  the  N.  face  is  a  scene  from  the  battle  of  Aboukir  (1798) :  Nel- 
son, wounded  in  the  head,  declines  to  be  assisted  out  of  his  turn 
by  a  surgeon  who  has  been  dressing  the  wounds  of  a  common  sailor. 
On  the  E.  side  is  the  battle  of  Copenhagen  (1801) :  Nelson  is  re- 
presented as  sealing  upon  a  cannon  the  treaty  of  peace  with  the 

TheW,End,   13.  ST.  MA^RTIN'S  IN  THE  FIELDS.  163 

conquered  Danes.  On  tlie  S.  is  the  death  of  Nelson  at  Trafalgar 
f2l8t  Oct.,  1805);  beside  the  dying  hero  is  Captain  Hardy,  com- 
mander of  the  Admiral's  flag-ship.  Below  is  Nelson's  last  sig- 
nal: 'England  expects  erery  man  will  do  his  duty'.  On  the  W. 
side  is  a  representation  of  Nelson  receiTing  the  sword  of  the  Span- 
ish commander  after  the  battle  of  St  Vincent  (1797). —  Four  colossal 
bronze  lions ,  modelled  by  Sir  Edwin  Landaeer  (d.  1871)  in  1867, 
conch  npon  pedestals  mnning  ont  from  the  column  in  the  form  of  a 
cross.  —  The  monument  was  erected  in  1843  by  voluntary  con- 
tributions at  a  total  cost  of  about  45,000Z.  To  the  E.  is  an  entrance 
to  the  Trafalgar  Square  Station  of  the  Baker  Street  and  Waterloo 
Railway  (p.  34). 

Towards  the  N.  side  of  the  square,  which  is  payed  with  asphalt, 
are  two  fountains.  A  Statue  of  Sir  Henry  Havelocky  the  deliTcrer  of 
Luoknow  (d.  1857),  by  Behnes,  stands  on  the  E.  (Strand)  side  of 
the  Nelson  Column,  and  a  Statxu  of  Sir  Charlea  James  Napier,  the 
conqueror  of  Scinde  (d.  1853),  by  AdamSy  on  the  other.  The  N.E. 
corner  of  the  square  is  occupied  by  an  Equestrian  Statue  of  George  IV. , 
in  bronze,  by  Chantrey,  Between  the  fountains  is  a  Statue  of  Gen- 
eral Gordon  (d.  1885),  by  Hamo  Thomycroft,  erected  in  1888. 

On  the  terrace  on  the  N.  side  of  the  square  rises  the  National 
GalUry  (p.  165),  adjoined  by  the  National  Portrait  Gallery  (p.  197). 
Near  it,  on  the  E.,  is  the  church  of  St.  Martin  in  the  Fields, 
with  a  noble  Grecian  portico,  erected  in  1721-26  by  Gibbs,  on  the 
site  of  an  earlier  church.  The  tower  and  spire  are  185  ft.  high.  In  the 
church,  at  the  W.  end  of  the  nave,  is  a  bust  of  Gibbs,  by  Byshrach. 
Nell  Gwynne  (d.  1687),  Farquhai  the  dramatist  (d.  1707),  Roubiliac 
the  sculptor  (d.  1762),  and  James  Smith  (d.  1839),  one  of  the 
authors  of  ^Rejected  Addresses',  were  buried  in  the  churchyard. 

Adjoining  Morley's  Hotel,  on  the  B.  side  of  the  square,  is  the  build- 
ing of  the  Boyal  Humane  Society,  founded  in  1774  for  the  rescue 
of  drowning  persons.  This  valuable  society  possesses  a  model  house 
on  the  N.  bank  of  the  Serpentine  in  Hyde  Park,  containing  models 
of  the  best  appliances  for  saving  life,  and  apparatus  for  aiding 
bathers  and  skaters  who  may  be  in  danger.  It  also  awards  prizes 
and  medals  to  persons  who  have  saved  others  from  drowning. 

On  the  W.  side  of  Trafalgar  Square,  between  Cockspur  Street 
and  Pall  Mall  East,  is  the  Union  Club  (p.  76),  adjoining  which  is  the 
Boyal  College  of  Physicians.,  built  by  Smirke  in  1826,  and  containing 
a  number  of  portraits  and  busts  of  celebrated  London  physicians. 

Down  to  1874  Northumberland  House,  the  noble  mansion  of  the 
Dnke  of  Northumberland,  with  the  lion  of  the  Percies  high  above 
the  gates,  rose  on  the  S.E.  side  of  Trafalgar  Square.  It  was  purchas- 
ed in  1873  by  the  Metropolitan  Board  of  Works  for  497, 000^.,  and 
was  removed  to  make  way  for  Northumberland  Avenue,  a  broad  new 
street  from  Charing  Cross  to  the  Thames  Embankment  (comp.  p. 
125).  The  Grand  H6tel  (p.  4)  occupies  part  of  the  site.  Two  other 


164  13.   CHARING  CROSS.        The  West  End, 

large  hotels,  the  HdtelMitropole  and  the  Hdtel  Victoria,  have  been 
built  on  the  opposite  side  of  Noithnmberland  Ayenue.  Next  dooz 
to  the  Grand  H6tel  is  the  Constitutional  Club,  a  handsome  bnilding 
of  red  and  yellow  terracotta  in  the  style  of  the  German  Renaissance, 
by  Edis,  erected  in  1886.  At  the  corner  of  Northumberland  Avenue 
and  Whitehall  Place,  facing  the  Thames,  is  the  magnificent  build-  « 
ing  of  the  National  Liberal  Club,  by  Waterhouse,  opened  in  1887, 
with  a  spacious  terrace  oyerlooking  the  Embankment  Gardens. 

Charing  Cross  (PI.  R,26,  and  /F;  probably  so  called  from  the 
village  of  Cherringe  which  stood  here  in  the  13th  cent.),  on  the  S. 
side  of  Trafalgar  Square,  between  the  Strand  and  Whitehall,  is  the 
principal  point  of  Intersection  of  the  omnibus  lines  of  the  West  End, 
and  the  centre  of  the  4  and  12  miles  circles  on  the  Post  Office  Di- 
rectory Map.  The  Equestrian  Statue  of  Charles  I. ,  by  Le  Sueur,  which 
stands  here,  is  remarkable  for  the  vicissitudes  it  has  undergone.  It 
was  cast  in  1633,  but  had  not  yet  been  erected  when  the  Civil  War 
broke  out.  It  was  then  sold  by  the  Parliament  to  a  brazier,  named 
John  Rivet,  for  the  purpose  of  being  melted  down,  and  this  worthy 
sold  pretended  fragments  of  it  both  to  friends  and  foes  of  the 
Stuarts.  At  the  Restoration,  however,  the  statue  was  produced 
uninjured,  and  in  1674  it  was  erected  on  the  spot  where  Eleanor^ a 
Cross  (p.  162)  had  stood  down  to  1647.  In  Hartshorn  Lane,  an 
adjoining  street ,  Ben  Jonson ,  when  a  boy ,  once  lived  with  his 
mother  and  her  second  husband,  a  bricklayer. 

In  connection  with  the  National  Memorial  to  Queen  Victoria  (see  p.  S23) 
a  number  of  houses  at  the  S.W.  angle  of  Charing  Gross  are  about  to  be 
pulled  down,  to  permit  the  extension  of  the  Mall  (p.  822)  to  Charing  Cross 
(comp.  PI.  B,  36;  IV).  Buckingham  Palace  and  the  Memorial  will  then  be 
visible  from  Charing  Cross. 

Chabino  Cboss  Road  (PI.  R,  27;  //,  IV),  a  great  and  much 
needed  thoroughfare  from  Charing  Cross  to  Tottenham  Court  Road, 
cuts  through  a  number  of  low  streets  and  alleys  to  the  N.  of  St. 
Martin's  Church.  At  the  S.  end  of  this  street,  to  the  left,  is  the 
National  Portrait  Gallery  (p.  197),  in  front  of  which  a  Statue  of 
Sir  Henry  Irving  (by  Brock)  is  about  to  be  erected.  To  the  right 
are  the  Westminster  City  Hall  and  Public  Library,  the  Qarrick 
Theatre  (p.  46),  and  Wyndharns  Theatre  (p.  47).  No.  22,  on  the  same 
side,  is  the  headquarters  of  the  Royal  National  Life  Boat  Institution, 
founded  in  1824  and  supported  entirely  by  voluntary  contribu- 
tions. This  society  now  possesses  a  fleet  of  280  life-boats  stationed 
round  the  British  coasts,  and  in  1907  was  instrumental  in  saving 
1166  lives  and  43  vessels.  The  total  number  of  lives  saved  through 
the  agency  of  the  Institution  from  its  foundation  down  to  1907  was 
47,345.  The  expenditure  of  the  society  in  1907  was  90,2382.  Sec, 
Mr.  Charles  Dibdln.  —  On  the  left  side  of  Charing  Cross  Road  are 
an  entrance  to  the  Alhanibra  (p.  48)  and  the  Hippodrome  (p.  48). 
The  road  then  expands  into  Cambridge  Circus,  in  which  is  the 
handsome  facade  of  the  Palace  Music  HaU  (p.  48),  erected  as  the 

The  West  End.     14.  NATIONAL  .GALLERY.  165 

Royal  English  Opera  House  in  1891.  In  the  section  of  Charing  Gross 
Road  to  the  N.  of  the  Circus  is  the  church  of  8U  Mary  the  Virgin^  Soho, 
on  the  site  of  the  first  Greek  church  in  London  (167T).  —  Shaftbs- 
BTTRY  ATENxm,  auothei  wide  street  opened  in  1886,  runs  from 
Piccadilly  Circus,  past  the  Liyrie^  the  Apollo^  the  Hieks^  the  QueerCs^ 
and  the  Shaftesbury  Theatres  (pp.  45-47),  to  meet  Charing  Cross 
Road  at  Camhridge  Circus,  and  is  prolonged  to  New  Oxford  Street 
opposite  Hart  Street,  Bloomshury. 

14.  The  National  Gallery. 

Among  the  huildings  round  Trafalgar  Square  the  principal  in 
point  of  size,  although  perhaps  not  in  architectural  merit,  is  the 
**Hatioxial  Gallery  fpi.  R,  26;  //),  situated  on  a  terrace  on  the  N. 
side,  and  erected  in  1832-38,  at  an  original  costof96,000f.,  on  the 
site  of  the  old  King's  Mews.  The  building,  designed  by  Wilkins^  is  in 
the  Grecian  style,  and  has  a  facade  460  ft.  in  length.  The  Gallery 
was  considerably  altered  and  enlarged  in  I860;  an  extensiye  ad- 
dition (Including  the  central  octagon)  was  made  by  Mr.  E.  M. 
Barry  in  1876;  andflye  other  rooms,  including  a  gallery  86  ft.  long, 
were  opened  in  1887.  Yet  another  addition  is  now  in  course  of 

Tbe  nucleus  of  the  National  Gallery,  which  was  formed  by  Act  of  Par- 
liament in  1824,  consisted  solely  of  the  Angerstein  collection  of  38  pictures. 
It  has,  however,  been  rapidly  and  greatly  extended  by  means  of  dona- 
tions, legacies,  and  purchases,  and  is  now  composed  of  over  2O0O  pictures, 
about  1100  of  which  are  exhibited  in  the  22  rooms  of  the  Gallery ^  while 
Ae  others  are  either  housed  in  the  Tate  Gallery  (modern  British  pictures ; 
comp.  p.  251)  or  are  lent  to  provincial  collections.  Among  the  most  im- 
portant additions  have  been  the  collections  presented  or  bequeathed  by 
Robert  Vernon  (1847),  J.  M.  W.  Turner  (1856),  and  Wynn  EUis  (1876)? 
and  the  Peel  collection,  bought  in  1871.  A  number  of  works,  temporarily 
lent  by  private  owners,  are  also  to  be  seen  on  the  walls.  For  a  long  period 
part  of  the  building  was  occupied  by  the  Royal  Academy  of  Arts,  which, 
however,  was  removed  to  Burlington  House  (see  p.  265)  in  1869.  There  are 
other  national  collections  at  South  Kensington  (p.  355)  and  at  Hertford 
House  (p.  275). 

From  the  number  of  artists  represented  the  collection  in  the  National 
Gallery  is  exceedingly  valuable  to  students  of  the  history  of  art.  The 
older  Italian  masters  are  especially  important.  The  paintings  are  arranged 
in  schools,  with  as  close  an  adherence  as  possible  to  a  chronological  order. 
Each  picture  is  inscribed  with  the  name  of  the  painter,  the  year  of  his 
birth  and  death,  the  school  to  which  he  belongs,  and  the  subject  represented. 
The  catalogues  originally  prepared  by  Mr.  Womum  (d.  1877),  and  since 
re-issued  with  corrections  and  additions  (Foreign  Schools  1<.,  abridgment 
6<f.,  1906}  British  School  6d.,  1906),  comprise  short  biographies  of  the 
different  artists.  In  a  few  instances  this  Handbook  differs  from  the  Cata- 
logue in  its  ascriptions  of  authorship.  The  *Pall  Mall  Gazette  Guide  to 
the  National  Gallery'  (6d.;  sold  outside  the  doors)  contains  a  descriptive 
catalogue  and  a  scheme  for  studying  the  gallery  in  a  series  of  twelve 
^half-holiday  visits'.  Mr,  E.  T.  Cook's  'Popular  Handbook  to  the  National 
Gallery*  (London;  Hacmillan  &  Co.)  includes  an  interesting  collection  of 
notffs  on  the  pictures  by  Mr.  Ruskin  and  others.  Mr.  Cosmo  Monkhouse's 
'In  the  National  Gallery'  (1895)  may  also  be  consulted.  'The  National 
Gallery',  edited  by  Sir  Edward  J.  Pointer,   is  a  monumental  work   in 

166  14.  NATIOJfAL  GALLERT.     The  West  End: 

three  volumea,  with  reproductions  of  every  picture  in  the  National  and 
Tate  Galleries  (1900-1901;  price  11.  7s.). 

The  present  director  is  Sir  Charles  Eolroi/d,  and  the  keeper  and  sec- 
retary is  Afr.  Hatoes  Turner. 

Photographs  of  the  paintings,  by  Morelli,  are  sold  in  the  gallery  at 
prices  ranging  from  U.  to  10a.  Others,  and  perhaps  better,  may  be  found  at 
DeigTUon's^  i  Grand  Hotel  Buildings  (on  the  other  side  of  Trafalgar  Square) . 
at  Han/staengrs,  16  Pall  Mall  East,  and  at  the  Autotype  Fine  Art  Gallery 
74  New  Oxford  Street. 

Admission  to  the  Gallery,  see  p.  82.  Thursday  and  Friday  are 
students*  days  and  should  be  avoided  by  the  ordinary  yisltor,  as  the 
crowds  of  easels  preclude  a  satisfactory  view  of  the  pictures.  The 
Gallery  is  closed  for  cleaning  on  the  Thursday,  Friday,  and  Satur- 
day before  Easter  Sunday.  Sticks  and  umbrellas  may  be  left  at 
the  entrance  (no  charge). 

Hall.  The  main  staircase  facing  us  as  we  enter  ascends  to 
Room  I,  in  which  begins  the  series  of  Italian  works.  The  staircase 
to  the  left  leads  to  the  British  Schools ;  that  on  the  right  to  the  French 
and  Spanish  Schools. 

To  the  extreme  left  is  a  staircase  descending  to  a  room  con- 
taining Water  Colour  Copies  of  paintings  by  early  Italian  and  other 
masters,  executed  for  and  presented  by  the  Arundel  Society. 
To  the  extreme  right  is  a  flight  of  steps  (with  a  bronze  bust  of 
Napoleon  at  the  top)  descending  to  the  collection  of  *Tumef^8  Water 
Colours  (catalogue  by  Ruskin,  !«.),  now  occupying  four  rooms.  An- 
other room  contains  copies  of  paintings  by  Velazquez  at  Madrid  and 
by  Rembrandt  at  St.  Petersburg. 

On  the  walls  of  the  left  (W.)  half  of  the  hall  are  paintings  of 
the  British  School :  on  the  left,  725.  Wright  of  Derby,  Experiment 
with  an  air-pump;  317.  Stothard,  Greek  \intage;  922.  Sir  Thomas 
Lawrence  J  Child  with  a  kid.  On  the  wall  of  the  staircase  :  129. 
Lawrence,  Portrait  of  Mr.  Angerstein  (p.  165);  J.  8.  Copley,  787. 
Siege  of  Gibraltar,  733.  Death  of  Major  Peiison;  1349,  1360. 
Landseer,  Studies  of  lions;  *1242.  AUx.  Nasmyth  (176B-1840, 
painter  of  portraits  and  landscapes  at  Edinburgh ;  father  of  Patrick 
Nasmyth),  Stirling  Castle. 

Sir  David  Wilkie  describes  Ales.  Nasmyth  as  ^the  founder  of  the 
landscape  school  of  Scotland,  and  the  first  to  enrich  his  native  land  with 
the  representation  of  her  romantic  scenery'. 

In  the  right  (E.)  half  of  the  hall  are  foreign  paintings:  on  the 
right,  811.  Salvator  Rosa,  Forest  scene  with  Tobias  and  the  angel; 
1013.  Hondecceter,  Poultry ;  238.  WeerUx  the  Younger,  Dead  game. 
On  the  staircase- wall:  2106.  Benedetto  Oennari,  Portrait  of  himself ; 
172,  Carouay^io,  Christ  at  Emmaus;  1130.  Tintoretto,  Christ  washing 
his  Disciples'  feet;  etc. 

The  Vbstibulb  op  the  Main  Staircase  is  roofed  by  a  glass 
dome  and  embellished  with  marble  columns  and  panelling,  of  green 
*cipollino',  *giallo  antico',  '  pavonazzetto ',  etc.  Here  are  hwng 
several  large  paintings  of  the  Beitish  School.    To  the  left  (W.)  : 

The  West  End,    14.  NATIONAL  GALLERY.  167 

1413.  Sir  Tho8,  Lawrence^  Portrait  of  Mr.  Philip  Sansom;  789. 
Thomas  Oainsborough  (p.  196),  Family  group ;  Sir  Henry  Raeburn 
(Scottish  School;  d.  1823),  1435.  Portrait  of  Lieut.  Col.  McMurdo, 
1146.  Portrait  of  a  lady;  1228.  Fu8eli(d,  1825),  Titaniaand  Bottom; 
1102.  Longhi^  Andrea  Iron,  Procurator  of  St  Mark's,  Venice  (placed 
here  temporarily).  To  the  right  (E.):  1449.  Philippe  de  Champaigne 
(d.  1674),  Cardinal  Richelieu;  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  (p.  193),  •143. 
Equestrian  portrait  of  Lord  Ligonier,  681.  Capt.  Orme;  684.  Oains- 
borough,  Dr.  Schomberg ;  144.  5ir  Thomas  Lawrence  (1769-1830), 
Benjamin  West,  the  paint^;  i404.  John  Jackson,  Portrait  of  James 
Northcote,  R.  A.  —  The  North  Vestibule  (see  Plan),  in  the  centre 
of  which  is  a  Renaissance  copy,  in  porphyry,  of  the  head  of  the 
Dying  Alexander  in  the  Ufflzi,  is  now  devoted  mainly  to  the  works 
of  the  Eablt  Tuscan  School,  chiefly  of  historical  interest.  To 
the  right:  1466.  Italian  School,  Virgin  and  Child  with  angels;  594. 
Emmanuel  (Greek  priest ;  Byzantine  School),  SS.  Cosmas  and  Damian 
(one  of  the  earliett  pictures  in  the  Gallery  in  point  of  artistic  de- 
velopment) ;  564.  Margaritone  (Arezzo ;  1216-93),  Virgin  and  Child ; 
681.  SpintUo  Aretino  (Tuscan  School;  d.  1410),  Three  saints;  568. 
School  of  Oiotto,  Coronation  of  the  Virgin ;  579.  School  of  Taddeo 
Oaddi  (d.  1366;  chief  pupil  of  Giotto),  Baptism  of  Christ;  680a. 
J,  Landini,  Holy  Trinity  and  Annunciation,  61Q&,  School  of  Oaddi, 
Almighty,  Virgin,  and  St.  Isaiah,  both  belonging  to  No.  680.  To 
the  left:  1466.  Spinello  Aretino,  Crucifixion;  1842.  Tuscan  School, 
Heads  of  Angels ;  569.  Andrea  Orcagna  (1303-68),  Coronation  of  the 
Virgin,  with  saints  (large  altar-piece  from  San  Pietro  Maggiore  in 
Florence;  school-piece);  1437.  Barnaba  da  Modena  (second  half 
of  14th  cent.),  Descent  of  the  Holy  Ghost;  1216-1216  B  (above), 
Spinello  Aretino,  Fragments  of  frescoes.  Also,  eleven  interesting 
Greek  portraits  of  the  2nd  and  3rd  cent  from  mummies  found  in 
the  Fayiim. 

Boom  I  is  devoted  to  the  Tuscan  Schools  (15-16th  cent.).  — 
To  the  left:  226.  Tuscan  School  (copy  of  Botticelli?),  Madonna  and 
Child,  with  John  the  Baptist  and  angels,  with  a  rose-hedge  in  the 
background  (fine  circular  frame);  648.  Lcrenzo  di  Credi,  Virgin 
adoring  the  Infant  (in  his  best  style);  218.  Copy  of  Baldossare 
Perutzi,  Adoration  of  the  Kings;  782.  Botticelli,  Madonna  and 
Child;  1124.  FiUppino  Lippi  (pupil  of  Botticelli;  1457-1504), 
Adoration  of  the  Magi  (school-piece);  1199.  Tuecan  School,  Madonna 
and  Oliild  with  the  Infant  St.  John  and  Angels;  1143.  Ridolfo 
Ohirlandaio  (son  of  the  more  famous  Domenico  Ghirlandaio ;  1483- 
1561),  Christ  on  the  way  to  Golgotha. 

•1034.  Sandro  nUpepi,  called  J5ot«cef«  (1447-1510),  The  Na- 
tivity; to  the  left  the  Magi,  to  the  right  the  Shepherds,  in  front 
shepherds  embraced  by  angels.  ^ 

The  subject  is  conceived  in  a  manner  highly  mystical  and  symbolical. 
At  the  top  of  the  picture  is  a  Qreek  inscription  to  the  following  effect. 

168  14.   NATIONAL  GALLERY.      The  West  End. 

^This  picture  I,  Aless&ndro,  painted  at  the  end  of  the  year  1500,  in  the 
(troubles)  of  Italy  in  the  half-time  after  the  time  during  the  fulfilment 
of  the  eleventh  of  St.  John  in  the  second  woe  of  the  Apocalypse,  in  the 

loosing  of  the  devil  for  three  years  and  a  half.    Afterwards  he  shall  be 
chained  and  we  shiJl  see  him  trodden  down  as  in  this  picture\ 

248.  Fra  Filippo  Lippi  (1406-69),  Vision  of  St  Bernard;  •592. 
Botticelli,  Adoration  of  the  Magi.  —  809.  In  the  manner  of  idichael 
Angela,  Madonna  and  Child,  with  John  the  Baptist  and  angels  (un- 
finished); 727.  Franc,  Pesellino  (1422-57),  Triniti;  790.  Michael 
Angela  Buonarroti  (1475-1564),  Entombment  (unfinished  and 
youthful  work;  in  tempera,  on  wood).  —  •296.  School  of  VerroeehiOj 
Virgin  adoring  the  Infant  Christ,  with  angels. 

This  painting  is  executed  with  great  carefulness,  but  the  conception 
of  the  forms  and  proportions  is  hardly  worthy  of  a  master  of  the  first 
rank,  such  as  Verrocchio,  to  whom  some  critics  assign  the  work. 

781.  ISucan  School,  Tobias  and  the  Angel;  8.  School  of  Michael 
Angelo,  A  dream  of  human  life;  1194.  Marcello  Venu^ti  (follower 
of  Michael  Angelo ;  d.  ca.  1580),  Jesus  expelling  the  money-changers 
from  the  Temple ;  895,  Piero  di  Cosimo  (pupil  of  Cosimo  Rosselli 
and  teacher  of  A.  del  Sarto;  d.  ca.  1521),  Warrior  in  armour.  — 
♦292.  Antonio  Pollaiuolo  (d.  1498),  Martyrdom  of  St.  Sebastian. 

This  picture  was  painted  in  1475  for  the  altar  of  the  Pucci  chapel, 
in  the  church  of  San  Sebastiano  de''*Seryi  at  Florence,  and  according  to 
Vasari  is  the  artist's  masterpiece.  The  head  of  the  saint,  which  is  of 
great  beauty,  is  the  portrait  of  a  Capponi. 

1150.  Ascribed  to  Jacopo  da  Pontormo  (1494-1557),  Portrait  of 
a  man;  no  number,  B.  del  Ohirlandaio,  Portrait  (on  loan).  — 21. 
Oristofano  AUoH  (1577-1621),  Portrait ;  1035.  Francia  Bigio,  Portrait 
of  a  young  man  j  •293.  Filippino  Lippi,  Madonna  and  Child,  with 
SS.  Jerome  and  Dominic,  an  altar-piece  (rich  landscape)  with 
predella;  1323.  Angelo  di  Cosimo,  called  Bron&ino  (1502-72), 
Piero  de' Medici;  no  number,  Dom.  del  Qhirlandaio,  Portrait  of 
Costanza  de'  Medici  (on  loan);  1131.  Pontormo,  Joseph  and  his 
Brethren ;  according  to  Vasari,  the  boy  seated  on  the  steps,  with 
a  basket,  is  a  portrait  of  Bronzino.  1430.  Beccafumi,  Esther  before 
Ahasuerus;  no  number,  Bernardino  Fungai  (d.  1516),  Holy  Family 
(on  loan);  1033.  Filippino  Lippi,  Adoration  of  the  Magi;  670. 
Bronzino,  Knight  of  St.  Stephen;  649.  Ascribed  to  Pontormo,  Por- 
trait of  a  boy,  in  the  style  of  Bronzino  (probably  a  youthful  work  of 
the  latter) ;  17.  Andrea  del  Sarto  (the  greatest  master  of  the  school; 
1486-1531),  Holy  Family  (school-piece);  246.  Oirolamo  delPacchia 
(d.  after  1535),  Madonna  and  Child.  —  589.  Fra  Filippo  Uppi^ 
Virgin  with  the  Holy  Child  and  an  angel ;  ^690.  Andrea  del  Sarto, 
Portrait,  a  masterpiece  of  chiaroscuro ;  1694.  Fra  Bartolomeo  (1475- 
1517),  Holy  Family;  698.  Piero  di  Cosimo,  Death  of  Procris,  in  a 
beautiful  landscape.  —  651.  Bronzino,  Venus,  Cupid,  Folly,  and 
Time,  an  allegory. 

'Bronzino  painted  a  picture  of  remarkable  beauty,  which  was  sent 
into  France  to  King  Francis.  In  this  picture  was  pourtrayed  a  naked 
Venus  together  with  Cupid,  who  was  kissing  her.    On  the  one  side  were 

TheWestEnd.     14.  NATIONAL  GALLERY.  169 

Pleasure  and  Mirth,  with  other  Powers  of  Love,  and  on  the  other  Deceit, 
Jealousy,  and  other  Passions  of  Love.'  —  Va$ari. 

Italian  School  (16th  cent.),  932.  Portrait,  1048.  Portrait  of  a 
Cardinal;  *915.  Bottieellij  Mars  and  Venus;  650.  Bronsmo,  Por- 
trait; •SOS.  Lorenzo  di  Credi  (Florence,  pUpil  of  Veirocchio  at  the 
same  time  as  Leonardo  da  Vinci;  d.  1537),  Madonna  and  Child; 
927.  FUippino  Lippi^  Angel  (fresco);  704.  Bronzino,  Cosimo  I., 
Duke  of  Tuscany;  626.  Botticelli ^  Young  man;  645.  Mariotto 
Albertinelli  (d.  1616),  Virgin  and  Child;  1301.  Tuscan  School, 
Savonarola  (on  the  back,  his  martyrdom);  2082,  School  of  Botticelli^ 
Symbolic  angel;  no  number,"  Jacopo  del  SeUaio,  Virgin  and  angels 
adoring  the  Child  (on  loan). 

Boomll.  SiENESE  AND  otheb,Tu8CAnMastb£s.  To  the  left:  1849. 
Jac,  Pacchiarotto  (1474-1540),  Nativity;  1147.  Amb.  Lorenzetti 
(d.  after  1345),  Heads  of  nuns  (in  fresco) ;  Fra  Filippo  Lippi,  ♦666. 
Annunciation,  *667  (farther  on),  John  the  Baptist  and  six  other 
saints,  seated  on  a  marble  bench  (both  painted  for  Cosimo  de'  Medici 
and  marked  with  his  crest);  573-576  and  (farther  on)  576-678. 
OrcagnOy  Small  pictures  belonging  to  the  large  altar-piece,  No.  569 
(p.  167);  1461.  MatUo  di  Gfiovanni  da  Siena  (d.  1496),  St.  Sebastian ; 
567.  Segna  di  Buonaventura  (Sienese  school;  ca.  1310),  Christ  on  the 
Cross ;1 109.  Niccolb  di  Buonaccotso,  Marriage  of  the  Virgin;  1113. 
Tietro  Lorenzetti  (d.  ca.  1348),  Legendary  subject;  1108.  Sienese 
School  (15th  cent.).  Virgin  enthroned.  —  227.  Cosimo  RosseUi 
(d.  1607 ;  school-piece),  Various  saints  (names  on  the  original  frame) ; 
766,  767.  Domenico  Venezano  (d.  1461),  Saints  (in  fresco).  —  283. 
Benozzo  Oozzoli  (pupil  of  Fra  Angelico;  1420-98),  Virgin  and 
Child  enthroned,  with  saints. 

^The  original  contract  for  this  picture,  dated  23d  Oct.,  1461,  is  still, 
preserved.  The  figure  of  the  Virgin  is  in  this  contract  specially  directed 
to  be  made  similar  in  mode,  form,  and  ornaments  to  the  Virgin  Enthroned, 
in  the  picture  over  the  high-altar  of  San  Marco,  Florence,  by  Fra  Giovanni 
(Angelico)  da  Fiesole,  and  now  in  the  Academy  there".  —  Catalogue. 

•663.  Fra  Angelico  da  Fiesole  (d.  1455),  Christ  with  the  banner 
of  the  Resurrection,  surrounded  by  a  crowd  of  saints,  martyrs,  and 
Dominicans,  *so  beautiful',  says  Vasari,  'that  they  appear  to  be  truly 
beings  of  Paradise';  586.  Zenobio  MacchiaveUi  (pupil  of  Benozzo 
Gozzoli;  1418-79),  Madonna  enthroned;  1406.  JVa  An^eKco,  An- 
nunciation (school-piece).  —  ^566.  Duccio  di  Buoninscgfna  (founder 
of  the  school  of  Siena;  d.  about  1339),  Madonna  and  Child. 

*A  genuine  picture,  which  illustrates  how  well  the  master  could 
vivify  Byzantine  forms  with  tender  feeling\ 

6di,  Benozzo  Oozzoli,  Rape  of  Helen  (school-piece);  1156.  Matteo 
di  Oiovanniy  Assumption,  the  Virgin  throwing  down  her  girdle  as 
a  proof  to  the  incredulous  St.  Thomas ;  1331.  Bernardino  Fungai, 
Virgin  aiid  Child  surrounded  by  cherubim ;  Ugolino  da  Siena,  1188. 
Betrayal  of  Christ,  H89.  On  the  way  to  Calvary;  1682.  Francesco 
di  Giorgio  (1439-1502),  Virgin  and  Child;  1317.  Tuscan  School 
(15th  cent.).  Marriage  of  the  Virgin;   1138.  Andrea  del  Castagno 

170  14.   NATIONAL  GALLERY.     TheWestEnd. 

(d.  1457),  Crucifixion  J  Duccio  di  Buoninsegna,  1140.  Christ  healing 
the  blind,  1330.  Transfiguration,  1139.  Annunciation ;. 909.  Ben- 
venuto  da  Siena  (d.  ca.  1518),  Madonna  and  Child;  247.  Matteo  di 
Oiovanni,  EcceHomo;  582.  Fra  Anp«Wco  (school-piece),  TheMagi« 

Boom  m.  Tuscan  Schools.  To  the  left ;  215,  216.  School 
of  Taddeo  Qaddi,  Saints;  1227.  Marcello  Venuiti,  Holy  Family 
(from  a  design  by  Michael  Angel o) :  1196.  Tuscan  School^  Amor 
and  Oastitas;  916.  Botticelli^  Venus  and  Cupid  (school  -  piece) ; 
♦583.  Paolo  Vccello  (d.  1479),  Cavalry  Engagement  at  Sant'  Egidio 
(1416),  one  of  the  earliest  Florentine  representations  of  a  secular 
subject;  1299.  Dom,  Ohirlandaio  (?),  Portrait  of  a  youth  (school- 
piece,  much  restored);  928.  Ascribed  to  Antonio  Pollaiuolo,  Apollo 
and  Daphne;  701.  JuBtut  of  Padua  (School  of  Giottoj  d.  1400), 
Coronation  of  the  Virgin,  dated  1367  (a  small  triptych,  of  cheerful, 
soft,  and  well-blended  colouring);  565.  Oiov.  Cima6iz<! (1240-1302?), 
Madonna  and  Child  enthroned  ('the  early  efforts  of  Cimabue  and 
Giotto  are  the  burning  messages  of  prophecy,  delivered  by  the 
stammering  lips  of  infants'.  —  Ruskin);  275.  Botticelli^  Virgin  and 
Child  (a  circular  picture  in  a  fine  old  frame) ;  598.  Filippino  Lippi  (?), 
St.  Francis  in  glory.  — 1412.  Filippino  Lippi,  Virgin  and  Child,  with  the 
young  John  the  Baptist;  1897.  Lorenzo  Monaco  (d.  1425),  Coronation 
of  the  Virgin;  652.  Francesco  Rossi  (De'Salviati),  Charity;  1230.  Ohir- 
landaio,  Portrait.  —  1126.  Botticelli  (?),  Assumption  of  the  Virgin. 

In  the  centre  of  the  upper  part  of  the  picture  is  the  Virgin,  kneeling 
before  the  Saviour,  while  around  are  cycles  or  tiers  of  angels,  apostles, 
saints,  and  seraphim.  Below  are  the  apostles  gathered  round  the  tomb  of 
the  Virgin,  with  portraits  of  the  Palmieri,  the  donors  of  the  altar-piece. 
The  picture  was  probably  executed  by  a  pupil  from  a  cartoon  by  Botticelli. 
In  the  background  are  Florence  and  Fiesole,  with  the  Villa  Palmieri. 

570-  572.  Orcagna,  Th  e  Trinity,  with  adoring  angels ;  580.  Jacopo 
Landini  di  Casentino  (d.  ca.  1390),  St.  John  the  Evangelist  lifted 
up  into  Heaven. 

Soom  IV.  Schools  of  Lombabdy  jlsh  Parma.  To  the  left: 
729.  Vincenzo  Foppa  (d.  1492),  Adoration  of  the  Magi;  2089. 
Milanese  School  (16th  cent.).  Madonna  and  Child;  no  number, 
Unkrkown  Master ^  Portrait  of  a  musician  (on  loan);  *923.  Andrea 
da  Solaria  (Milan;  d.  after  1515),  Venetian  senator  (recalling 
Anton,  da  Messina);  1295.  Qirolamo  Giovenone  (Vercelli;  early 
16th  cent.),  Madonna  and  Child  with  saints ;  1438.  Milanese  School^ 
Head  of  John  the  Baptist;  1661,  1662  (farther  on),  Amhrogio 
de  Predis  (ca.  1500),  Angelic  musicians;  *1093.  Leonardo  da  Vinei 
(1452-1619),  Madonna  and  Child,  with  John  the  Baptist  and  an 
angel,  a  studio-copy,  with  alterations,  of  'La  Vierge  aux  Rochers' 
in  the  Louvre,  bought  from  the  Earl  of  Suffolk  in  1880  for  9000^. 
(the  nimbi  and  cross  are  later  additions);  219.  Lombard  School 
(16th  cent.).  Dead  Christ;  700.  Bern,  Lanini  (d.  ca.  1578),  Holy 
Family,  with  Mary  Magdalen,  Pope  Gregory,  and  St.  Paul  (dated 
1543);  1337.  Oiov.  Antonio  Bazziy  surnamed /S»odoma (Siena,  pupil 

TheWeaiEnd.     14.   NATIONAL  GALLERY.  171 

of  Leonardo  da  Vinci;  d.  1649),  Head  of  Christ;  1665.  A.  dt  Fredis, 
Portrait;  *734.  Solario^  Portrait,  a  work  of  much  power  and  finish 
(1506);  1465.  QaudentioFerrarHd,  after  1547),  Resurrection;  •728. 
Oiov.  Ant.  BoUraffio  (pupil  of  Da  Vinci  at  Milan;  d.  1616),  Madonna 
and  Child  (an  effective,  though  simple  and  quiet  composition,  suf- 
fused in  a  cool  light).  —  208iB.  Btmardino  Luini  (Milan;  pupil  of 
Da  Vinci;  ca.  1475-1535),  Christ  teaching ;  no  numbers,  Ambrogio 
dt  FrediSy  Portrait  of  Bona  of  Savoy,  Beltraf/io^  Virgin  and  Child 
(both  on  loan);  1152.  Martino  Piazza  (16th  cent.),  John  the  Baptist; 
♦16.  Correggio  (Antonio  AUegri;  d.  1634),Ecce  Homo ;  •IB.  Bernardino 
Luiniy  Christ  disputing  with  the  doctors ;  1410.  Ambrogio  Borgognone 
(architect  and  painter,  Milanese  School;  ca.  1455-1523),  Virgin 
and  Child;  1149.  Marco  da  Oggionno  (Milanese  School,  pupil  of 
Da  Vinci;  d.  1540),  Madonna  and  Child;  76.  After  Correggio^ 
Christ's  Agony  in  the  Garden  (original  in  Apsley  House,  p.  335) ; 
•23.  CorreggiOy  'La  Madonna  della  Cesta*,  or  'La  Vierge  an  Panier'. 
.  •lO.  Correggio,  Mercury  instructing  Cupid  in  the  presence  of 
Venut,  of  the  master's  latest  period. 

This  picture  has  passed  through  the  hands  of  numerous  owners, 
chiefly  of  royal  blood.  It  vras  bought  by  Charles  I.  of  England  with  the 
rest  of  the  Duke  of  Mantua''s  collection  in  1630.  From  England  it  passed 
to  Spain,  Naples,  and  then  to  Vienna,  where  it  was  purchased  by  the 
Marquis  of  Londonderry,  who  sold  it  to  the  National  Gallery.  It  has 
suffered  considerable  damage  during  its  wanderings. 

Mr.  Rnskin,  who  describes  Correggio  as  *the  captain  of  the  painter*s 
art  as  such,  the  master  of  the  art  of  laying  colour  so  as  to  be  lovely* 
couples  this  picture  with  Titian^s  Bacchus  (p.  175),  as  one  of  the  two 
paintings  in  the  Gallery  he  would  last  part  with. 

753.  AUobello  Melone  (Cremona;  15th  cent.),  Christ  and  the 
Disciples  on  the  way  to  Emmaus;  no  number,  Solario^  Virgin  and 
Child  (on  loan);  *1144.  Sodoma,  Madonna  and  Child,  with  St.  Cath- 
arine of  Siena,  St.  Peter,  and  a  monk;  1201,  1200.  Macrino  d'AUba 
(ca.  1500),  Saints ;  Ambrogio  Borgognone,  779,  780.  Family  por- 
traits, painted  on  two  fragments  of  a  silken  standard,  attached  to 
wood,  1077.  Virgin  and  Child,  Agony  In  the  Garden,  Bearing  of  the 
Cross,  a  triptych,  one  of  the  master's  earlier  works;  806.  Boccaccio 
Boecaceino  (Cremona;  d.  1525),  Procession  to  Calvary;  298." 
Borgognone,  Marriage  of  St.  Catharine  of  Alexandria,  to  the  right 
St.  Catharine  of  Siena. 

Boom  V.  Schools  op  Fbrhara  and  Bologna.  To  the  left: 
Cosimo  Tttra  (Ferrara;  1420-95),  905.  Madonna,  773.  St.  Jerome  in 
the  wilderness,  772.  Madonna  and  Child,  with  angels ;  597.  Fr,  Cossa 
(end  of  16th  cent.),  St.  Vincent  Ferrer;  1234.  Do$so  Dossi  (?), 
Poet  andMuse(?);  82.  Mazzolino  da  F«jrrara  (1480-1528),  Holy 
Family ;  no  number,  Francia,  Bartolomeo  Bianchini,  the  poet  (on 
loan);  94.  Annibale  Caracci  (younger  brother  of  Lodovico,  and 
founder  along  with  him  of  the  Bolognese  Academy,  d.  1609), 
Bacchus  playing  to  Silenus,  quite  in  the  style  of  the  ancient  frescoes. 
—  *j-M§i  .^^•gQ^g  ^'  Giulio  Qrandi  (Ferrara;  d.  1531),   Madonna 

172  14.  NATIONAL  GALLERY.     TheWeatEnd, 

enthroned,  with  John  the  Baptist  and  St.  William ;  the  throne  is 
adorned  with  sculptural  panels  (a  masterpiece).  —  *19i^  Ouido 
Reni  (d.  1642),  Youthful  Christ  embracing  St.  John,  averycharac- 
,teristic  work,  and  the  best  picture  by  Guide  in  this  collection; 
2083.  Loremo  Costa,  Battista  Fiera  of  Mantua ;  642.  Benvenuto 
TiaiOy  surnamed  Oarofalo  (d.  1659),  Agony  in  the  Garden;  93. 
Annibale  Caracci,  Silenus  gathering  grapes ;  214.  Ouido  Bent  (?), 
Coronation  of  the  Virgin;  Francesco  Francia(^Baibolini,  early  school 
of  Bologna,  also  a  goldsmith ;  d.  1517),  Portrait  (on  loan);  *671, 
^  Oarofalo,  Madonna  and  Child  enthroned,  surrounded  by  SS.  William, 
'  Clara,  Francis,  and  Anthony  (altar-piece,  destitute  of  the  charm  of 
colouring  seen  in  his  smaller  works) ;  75.  Domenico  Zampieri,  sur- 
named Domenichino,  Landscape,  wit£*St.  George  and  the  Dragon; 
271.  OmdoBeni,  EcceHomo.  —  170.  Oarofalo,  Holy  Family;  638. 
Francia,  Madonna  and  Child,  with  saints,  *180.  Piet^  (the  lunette 
of  No.  179,  see  below) ;  '629.  Lorenzo  Coata  (teacher  of  Franoia ; 
d.  1535),  Madonna  enthroned,  dated  1505 ;  22.  Oiovanni  Franceaeo 
Barbieri,  surnamed  Ouercino,  Angels  weeping  over  the  body  of 
Christ  (a  good  example  of  this  painter,  resembling  Carayaggio  in  the 
management  of  the  light,  and  recalling  the  picture  of  the  same 
subject  by  Van  Dyck  in  the  Antwerp  Museum) ;  770.  Oiovanni  Oriolo 

Serrara;  d.  after  1461),  Leonello  d'Este,  Marquis  of  Ferrara 
.  1450);  Ma%zolino,  1495.  Christ  disputing  with  the  doctors,  169. 
Holy  Family;  11.  Ouido  Reni,  St.  Jerome;  752.  Lippo  di  Dalmasio 
(end  of  the  14th  cent.)^  "Madonna  and  Child ;  *17§^  Franc.  Franda, 
Virgin  enthroned  and  St.  Anne  (this  and  No.  J80  are  the  finest  spe- 
cimens of  the  school  in  the  collection);  no  numBerJ  ErcoledeRoberti^ 
A  concert  (on  loan);  26.  Annibale  Caracci,  St.  John  in  the  wilderness. 
—  641.  Mazzolino,  The  Woman  taken  in  adultery;  ♦SI.  Oarofalo, 
Vision  of  St.  Augustine;  73.  Ercole  Orandi,  Conversion  of  Saint 
Paul;  640,  Dosso  Dossi  (Ferrara;  d.  1542),  Adoration  of  the  Magi; 
669.  L*Ortolano(^Oiov.  Battista  Benvermti,  of  Ferrara;  d.  ca.  1626), 
SS.  Sebastian,  Rochus,  and  Demetrius;  1062.  Ferrarese  School, 
Battle;  Ercole  d^  Roberti  (d.  1496),  1217.  Israelites  gathering 
manna,  1127.  Last  Supper,  1411.  Diptych;  690.  Marco  Zoppo 
(Bologna;  d.  after  1498),  Dead  Christ,  with  John  the  Baptist  and 
Joseph  of  Arimathea. 

Room  VI.  Umbbian  Sohool.  To  the  left :  Piero  della  Francesco 
(ca.  1460),  769.  St.  Michael  and  the  dragon,  908.  Nativity  (injured), 
758.  Portrait;  1051.  Bertucci,  Incredulity  of  St.  Thomas;  249. 
Lorenzo  da  San  Severino  (second  half  of  the  15th  cent.).  Marriage 
of  St.  Catharine;  58o.  Umbrim  School,  Portrait;  1843.  Benedetto 
Bonfigli  (ca.  1420  -  ca.  1496),  Adoration  of  the  Magi ;  1107.  NiccoU)  da 
Foligno  (^Alunno ;  end  of  the  15th  cent.).  The  Passion,  a  triptych; 
1103.  Fiorenzo  di  Lorenzo  (end  of  16th  cent.),  Madonna  and  saints 
(lucid  colouring).  —  910.  Ascribed  to  Signorelli  (more  probably  by 
Oenga  da  Urbino),  Triumph  of  Chastity,  a  fresco ;  702.  Umbrian 

The  West  End.     14.  NATIONAL  GALLERY.  173 

School  J  Madonna  and  Child;  1104.  Oiannicola  Manni  (a  pupil  of 
Perogino;  d.  1644),  Annunciation;  693.  Bernardino  Pinturicchio 
(d.  1513),  St.  Catharine  of  Alexandria;  1441.  Pietro  Fannucct  (called 
PeruginOy  the  master  of  Baphael;  1446-1523),  Adoration  of  the 
Shepherds  (a  large  fresco);  912-914.  Pinturicchio (Vmbii&a  school- 
pieces),  Story  of  Griselda  (from  Boccaccio's  Decameron) ;  911.  Pintu- 
ricchio, Return  of  Ulysses ;  703.  Fioremto  diLorento  (not  Pinturicchio), 
Madonna  and  Child ;  1032.  Lo  Spagna  (Oiovanni  di  Pietro,  a  Spanis)! 
pupil  of  Perugino ;  d.  after  1530),  Agony  In  the  Garden ;  1812.  At- 
trihuted  to  Lo  Spagna,  Same  suhject.  —  1133.  Lujca  SignoreUi 
(d.  1523),  Adoration  of  the  Holy  Child  (school -piece?);  2118. 
Oiovanni  Francesco  da  Riminiy  Madonna  and  Child;  751.  Oiovanni 
Santi  (Umhrian  painter  and  poet,  Raphael's  father;  d.  1494),  Ma- 
donna; 1847.  Luca  Siqnorelli^  Coronation  of  the  Virgin;  Perugino, 
181.  Mad onnalCndUhild,  1431.  Baptism  of  our  Lord  (a  forgery  ac- 
cording to  Prof.  Bicci),  •288.  Madonna  adoring  the  Infant,  with  the 
archangel  Michael  on  thFIeft  and  Raphael  with  Tobias  on  the  right 
(a  masterpiece);  691.  Ascribed  to  Lo  Spagna,  Eoce  Homo. 

♦^13.  Eaphad  (Sansio ;  1483-1620),  Vision  of  a  knight  (a  youth- 
ful work,  as  fine  in  its  execution  as  it  is  tender  in  its  conception). 

This  little  gem  reveals  the  influence  of  Baphaers  early  master  Ti- 
moteo  Viti ,  without  a  trace  of  the  later  manner  learned  from  Perugino. 
The  original  *Oartoon  hangs  beneath. 

*Two  allegorical  female  figures,  representing  respectively  the  noble 
ambitions  and  the  joys  of  life,  appear  to  a  young  knight  lying  asleep 
beneath  a  laurel,  and  offer  him  his  choice  of  glory  or  pleasure\  —  Pnusavant. 

••1171,  Raphael,  Madonna  degli  Ansidei,  bought  from  the  Duke 
of  MarTborough  in  1886  for  70,000i.,  the  largest  sum  ever  given  ^ 
by  a  public  gallery  for  a  picture. 

This  Holy  Family  was  painted  by  Baphael  in  1606  for  the  ehapel  of 
the  Ansidei  family  in  the  Servite  church  at  Perugia.  In  1764  it  was 
purchased  by  Lord  Bobert  Spencer,  brother  of  the  third  Duke  of  Marl- 
Dorough.  The  two  figures  flanking  the  Virgin  are  those  of  John  the 
Baptist  and  St.  Ificholas  of  Bari,  the  latter  represented  in  his  epis- 
copal robes.  The  small  round  loaves  at  his  feet  refer  to  his  rescue  of 
the  town  of  Myra  from  famine.  In  the  background  is  a  view  of  the 
Tusean  hills.  From  the  canopy  hangs  a  rosary.  —  This  great  work,  the 
most  important  example  of  Baphael  in  the  country,  was  executed  under 
the  influence  of  Perugino  and  is  in  admirable  preservation. 

•168.  Baphael,  St.  Catharine  of  Alexandria,  painted  in  the 
master's  Florentine  period. 

^In  form  and  feeling  no  picture  of  the  master  approaches  nearer  to  it 
than  the  Entombment  in  the  Borghese  Palace,  which  is  inscribed  1007.' —  W, 

1776.  SignoreUi,  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds;  ^1075.  Perugino, 
Virgin  and  GhUd,  with  SS.  Jerome  and  Francis;  1220.  L'Ingegno 
{Andrea  di  Luigi;  ca.  1484),  Madonna  and  Child. 

•744.  Baphael,  Madonna,  Infant  Christ,  and  St.  John  (the  *Aldo- 
brandini'  or  *Qarvagh  Madonna*). 

^The  whole  has  a  delicate,  harmonious  effect.  The  flesh,  which  is 
yellowish  in  the  lights,  and  lightish  brown  in  the  shadows,  agrees  ex- 
tremely well  with  the  pale  broken  rose-colour  of  the  under  garment,  and 
the  delicate  bluish  grey  of  the  upper  garment  of  the  Virgin.     In  the 

174  14.   NATIONAL  GALLERY.     The  West  End, 

seams  and  glories  gold  is  used,   though  very  delicately\  —    Waagen^ 
^Treasures  of  Art  in  Qreat  Britain\ 

This  work  belongs  to  Baphaers  later  period,  and  some  authorities  be- 
lieve he  painted  it  with  the  aid  of  his  pupils. 

.  No  nnmber,  Raphael,  Madonna^  Infant  Ohrigt,  and  saints,  known 
^  <as  the  Madonna  de  St.  Antoine  de  Padoue  or  the  'Grand  Raphael 
de  Oolonna'  (lent  by  Mr.  J.  Pier pont  Morgan);  929.  After  Raphael, 
Madonna  and  Child;  *2069.  Raphael^  The  Madonna  of  the  Tower; 
*1128.  SignoreUij  Circumcision,  a  dramatic  composition  (the  flgnre 
of  the  child  has  been  altered  by  repainting);  Unknown  Master 
(15th  cent.),  646.  St.  Catharine,  647.  St.  Ursula;  27.  Raphael,  Pope 
Julius  II.  (an  old  copy  of  the  original  in  Florence).  —  9.  Ann. 
Caracd  (?),  Christ  appearing  to  St.  Peter  after  his  Resurrection  (the 
difficulties  of  foreshortening  have  been  but  partly  overcome);  200. 
Sassoferrato  {Qiov,  Bait.  Salvi;  d.  1686),  Madonna  in  prayer  (crude 
in  colouring,  common  in  form,  and  lighted  for  effect),*-^—  29.  Baroccio 
{Federigo  Barocci,  a  follower  of  Correggio;  1628-1612),  Holy  Family 
(*La  Madonna  del  Gatto',  so  called  from  the  cat  introduced). 

'The  chief  intention  of  the  picture  is  John  the  Baptist  as  a  child, 
who  teases  a  cat  by  showing  her  a  bullfinch  which  he  holds  in  his  hand. 
The  Virgin,  Christ,  and  Joseph  seem  much  amused  by  this  cruel  sport.'  —  W. 

174.  Carlo  Afaratia (Roman  painter;  d.  1713),  Portrait  of  Cardinal 
Cerri ;  69.  Pietro  Franc,  Mola  (d.  1668),  St.  John  in  the  wilderness. 
—  740.  Sassoferrato,  Madonna  and  Child. 

The  composition  is  not  by  Sassoferrato,  but  is  from  an  earlier  etching 
by  Cav.  Ventura  Salembeni  (d.  1613).    See  Catalogue. 

138.  Panini  (Roman  school;  d.  1768),  Ancient  ruins;  1092. 
^  Zaganelli  (Bernardino  da  Cotignola;  ca.  1506-27),  Martyrdom  of  St. 
v>^'^^Btephett^232.  Umbrian  Master  (;pio\)iblY  Bertticei  of  Faenza^  belong- 
ing to  the  Eclectic  School),  Madonna  and  Child  enthroned;  Justus 
van  Oent  (?  here  ascribed  to  Melozso  da  Forli),  766.  Music,  765  (farther 
on).  Rhetoric  (similar  representations  in  Berlin) ;  596.  Marco  Pal- 
mezzano  (pupil  of  Melozzo;  d.  after  1537),  Entombment;  624.  As- 
cribed to  Oiulio  Romano  (Roman  School,  pupil  of  Raphael;  d.  1646), 
Infancy  of  Jupiter;  666.  Piero  delta  Franeesca,  Baptism  of  Christ. 

Boom  yn.  Ybnbtian.  AND  Bbbsoian  Schools.  To  the  left :  no 
number,  Venetian  School  (16th  cent.).  Portrait  of  a  youth  (on  loan); 
269.  Oiorgione  [Qiorgio  Barbarelli,  a  fellow-pupil  of  Titian  under 
Giov.Bellini;  d.l611).  Knight  in  armour;  iS77.Oiov.Gir.  Savoldo 
(Bre8cia;aboutl480-1628), Adoration ofthe Shepherds; 234.  Catena 
(Treviso,  d.  1631  at  Venice ;  a  follower  of  Giov.  Bellini),  Warrior 
adoring  the  Infant  Christ;  1121.  Venetian  School,  Young  Man; 
1173.  School  of  Oiorgione,  Unknown  subject;  287.  Bart.Veneziano 
(rare  Venetian  master,  first  half  of  the  16th  cent.),  Portrait,  painted 
in  1530  (rich  in  colour) ;  no  number,  Sehastiano  del  Piomho,  Daughter 
of  Herodias  (on  loan) ;  School  of  Oiorgione,  930.  The  Garden  of  Love, 
1123.  Venus  and  Adonis;  1160.  Oiorgione,  Adoration  of  the  Magi; 
1695.  Venetian  School,  Landscape  with  nymphs  and  shepherds;  no 

The  West  End.     14.   NATIONAL  GALLERY.  175 

number,  Canani,  Italian  nobleman  (on  loan") ;  1416.  Afa«»oto,Virgin 
and  Child  ^Ith  two  saints. 

y70,  Titian  (Tiziano  Vecellio;  1477-1576),  Christ  and  Mary 
Magdalen  after  the  Resurrection  (^Noll  me  tangere'). 

A  youthful  work  of  the  master.  The  slenderness  of  the  figures,  which 
are  conceived  in  a  dignified  but  somewhat  mundane  spirit,  and  the  style 
of  the  landscape  reveal  the  influence  of  Giorgione. 

1202.  Bonifazio  Veronese  (d.  1640),  Madonna  and  Child,  with 
saints.  — S^Titian^  Holy  Family,  with  adoring  shepherd.  >^ 

This  brilliantly  coloured  picture  is  an  early  work  of  the  master  and 
is  painted  in  the  manner  afterwards  adopted  by  his  pupil  PalmaVecchio. 

•1944.  Titian,  Portrait  of  Ariosto,  acquired  in  1904  for  30,000i.  J  i 
596.  Venetian  School,  Portrait;    41.    Oiov.  Cariani  (?),    Death  of 
St,  Peter  Martyr.  —  *35.  Titian,  Bacchus  and  Ariadne,  painted  in^. 
1514  for  Alphonso,  ituke'of  Ferrara. 

*Thi8  is  one  T>f  the  pictures  which  once  seen  can  never  be  forgotten 
....  Bich  harmony  of  drapery  tints  and  soft  modelling,  depth  of  shade 
and  warm  flesh  all  combine  to  produce  a  highly  coloured  glow ;  yet  in 
the  midst  of  this  glow  the  form  of  Ariadne  seems  incomparably  fair. 
Nature  was  never  reproduced  more  kindly  or  with  greater  exuberance 
than  it  is  in  every  part  of  this  picture.  What  splendour  in  the  contrasts 
of  colour,  what  wealth  and  diversity  of  scale  in  air  and  vegetation  •,  how 
infinite  is  the  space  —  how  varied  yet  mellow  the  gradations  of  light 
and  shade!'  —  C.  A  €. 

636.  Titian,  Portrait  of  a  poet  j  1309.  Bernardino  Lidnio  (Venice; 
flor.  1524-41),  Portrait  of  a  young  man;  Titian,  2^^.  The  Tribute 
Money  (school-piece),  •636.  Madonna  and  Child,  with  SS.  John  the 
Baptist  and  Catharine  (the  latter  probably  the  portrait  of  an  aristo-> 
cratlclady);  1025.  Moretto{Alessandro  Bonvicino,  the  greatest  painter 
of  Brescia;  1498-1565),  Italian  nobleman  (1626). 

H^ebastian  del  Piomfto  (of  Venice,  follower  of  Michael  Angelo  j 
d.  1547),  Raising  of  Lazarus. 

^The  transition  from  death  to  life  is  expressed  in  Lazarus  with  won*  \ 
derful  spirit,  and  at  the  same  time  with  perfect  fidelity  to  Scripture. 
The  grave-clothes,  by  which  his  face  is  thrown  into  deep  shade,  vividly 
excite  the  idea  of  the  night  of  the  grave,  which  but  just  before  enveloped 
him;  the  eye  looking  eagerly  from  beneath  this  shade  upon  Christ,  his 
Redeemer,  shows  us,  on  the  other  hand,  in  the  most  striking  contrast, 
the  new  life  in  its  most  intellectual  organ.  This  is  also  expressed  in  the 
whole  figure ,  which  is  actively  striving  to  relieve  itself  from  the  bonds 
in  which  it  was  fast  bound'.  —  W. 

The  picture  was  painted  in  1517-19  in  competition  with  Raphael's  Trans- 
figuration.   The  figure  of  Lazarus  is  quite  in  the  spirit  of  Michael  Angelo. 

1041.  Paolo  Veronese  (?),  St.  Helena;  Sebastian  del  Piombo,  20. 
Portraits  of  the  painter,  with  his  seal  (*piombo')  of  office  in  his  hand, 
and  Cardinal  Ippolito  de' Medici,  painted  after  1531,  *1460.  Holy 
Family,  24.  Portrait  of  a  lady  as  St.  Agatha;  277.  Bassano  [Jacopo 
da  Ponte,  Venetian  painter  of  the  late  Renaissance ;  1510-92), 
Good  Samaritan;  3.  School  of  Titian,  Concert;  34.  Titian,  Venus 
and  Adonis  (an  early  copy  of  the  original  In  Madrid);  1031.  Savoldo, 
Mary  Magdalen  at  the  Sepulchre ;  173.  Jac,  Bassano,  Portrait  of  a 
nobleman;  32.  School  of  Titian,   Rape  of  Ganymede.  —  1313, 

176  14.   NATIONAL  GALLERY.     TU  West  End. 

Tintoretto  (Jaeopo  Robusti^  Venice;  d.  1694),  Origin  of  the  Milky 
Way  (ceiling-decoration). 

Jupiter,  descending  tbrougli  the  air,  hears  the  fnfant  Hercules  towards 
Juno,  while  the  milk  escaping  from  the  hreasts  of  the  goddess  resolyes 
itself  into  the  constellation  known  as  the  Via  Lactea  or  Milky  Way. 

•16.  Tintoretto,  St  (Jeorge  and  the  Dragon  (an  early  work); 
2094.  Oiambattista  Moroni  (portrait-painter  at  Bergamo,  pupil  of 
Moretto;  d.  1678),  II  Cavaliere;  623.  Oirolamo  da  Treviso  (a  fol- 
lower of  Raphael;  d.  1644),  Madonna  and  Child  (mentioned  by 
Vasari  as  the  painter's  masterpiece);  •1047.  Lorenzo  Lotto  (1480- 
1655),  Family  group;  1845.  Pari*  Bordone  (TreyiBO,  celebrated  for 
his  female  portraits;  ITTS^O),  Light  of  the  world;  •1316.  Qiam- 
battitta  Moroniy  Portrait  of  an  Italian  nobleman ;  >*297.«. II  Bomanino 
(Oirolamo  Romani,  Brescia,  a  rival  of  Moretto;  d^  1666),  Nativity 
(an  altar-piece  in  five  compartments).  —  Moretto,  2091.  Angel, 
2092.  St.  Joseph,  •625.  Madonna  and  Child,  with  saints,  2090. 
Angel,  2093.  St.  Jerome,  1165.  Virgin  and  Child,  with  saints;  931. 
Paolo  Veronese  (Ccdiari;  1528-88),  Mary  Magdalen  laying  aside  her 
jewels;  2096.  II  Romanino,  The  man  with  a  beard;  Moroni,  •1022. 
Nobleman,  1023.  Portrait  of  a  lady,  j,024^  An  ecclesiastic,  J^JJ* 
Portrait  of  a  tailor  ('Tagliapanni'),  a  masterpiece  praised  by  con- 
temporary poets ;  228.  Jocopo  Bassano,  Christ  expelling  the  money- 
changers from  the  Temple;  674.  Paris  Bordone,  A  lady  of  Genoa; 
•299.  Moretto,  Italian  nobleman;  742.  Moroni^  Portrait  ofaUwyerj 
1105.  Lotto,  The  apostolic  prothonot'ary  Juliano ;  ^SY.^ar iTSorSonc, 
Daphnis  and  Chloe;  1052.  Milanese  School,  Portrait  of  a  young  man ; 
♦748.  Oirolamo  dai  Libn  (Verona;  d.  1556),  Madonna  and  Child, 
with  St.  Anne,  clear  in  colour  and  harmonious  in  tone,  heralding 
the  style  of  Paolo  Veronese ;  699.  Lotto,  Portraits  of  Agostino  and 
NicGold  della  Torre  (1616);  Paolo  Morando  {Cavazxola,  the  most 
important  master  in  Verona  before  Paolo  Veronese;  1486-1622), 
•777.  Madonna  and  Child,  with  John  the  Baptist  and  an  angel,  a 
masterpiece  of  this  'Raphael  of  Verona',  *735.  St,  Rochus  with  the 
angel,  an  excellent  specimen  of  his  work.  —  1409.  Cordelle  Agii 
(Andrea  Cordegliaghi,  pupil  of  Giov.  Bellini),  Marriage  of  St.Catharine ; 
Oiovanrd  BeUini,  often  shortened  into  OiambeUino  (ca.  1428-1616 ; 
the  greatest  Venetian  painter  of  the  15th  cent.,  described  by  Mr. 
Ruskin  as  Hhe  mighty  Venetian  master  who  alone  of  all  the  painters 
of  Italy  united  purity  of  religious  aim  with  perfection  of  artistical 
power'),  •726.  Christ  In  Gethsemane,  an  early  work  revealing  the 
influence  of  Mantegna,  who  has  treated  the  same  subject  (comp. 
No,  1417,  p,  177),  ♦280,  Madonna  of  the  Pomegranate;  no  number, 
Andrea  Ptevitali,  Salvator  Mundi  (on  loan) ;  749.  Niccolo  Oiolfino^ 
Portraits  of  the  Giusti  family,  of  Verona;  812.  Oiov,  Bellini,  Death 
of  St.  Peter  Martyr  (a  late  work). 

*i£&^  Oiov.  Bellini,  The  Doge  Leonardo  Loredano. 

This  masterly  portrait  is  remarkable  alike  for  its  drawing,  its  colour^ 
ing,  and  its  expression  of  character.    Loredano,  who  held  office  from  1501 

TheWestEnd.     14.   NATIONAL  GALLERY.  177 

io  1521f  was  one  of  the  most  powerful  of  the  Venetian  Doges.  His  face 
is  that  of  a  bora  ruler  —  ^fearless,  faithfal,  patient,  impenetrable,  im- 
placable —  every  word  a  fate'  (Rutiin). 

1213.  OentiU  BcUini  (d.  1507),  Portrait  of  a  mathematician; 
750.  La%%aro  Ba«t/oni  (Venice,  d.  1512;  master  of  Vittore  Carpaccio, 
to  whom  this  painting  was  formerly  ascribed),  Madonna  and  Child, 
with  the  Doge  Giovanni  Mocenigo  in  adoration;  1418.  AnioneUo 
da  Messina  (said  to  haye  imported  painting  in  oil  from  Flanders 
into  Italy;  d.  after  1493),  St  Jerome.  —  673.  Ant.  da  Messina^ 
Salvator  Mundi  (1465). 

*The  earliest  of  his  pictures  which  we  now  possess.  It  is  a  solemn 
but  not  an  elevated  mask ;  half  Flemish,  half  Italian".  —  C.  4^  C 

1233.  Oiov,  BeUiniy  The  Blood  of  the  Redeemer;  Antonello 
da  Messina,  1166.  Gmciflxion  (in  a  monntainons  landscape),  1141. 
Portrait  of  a  yonng  man  (painted  in  1474);  Oiov,  Bellini,  ^1440. 
St.  Dominic,  808.  St.  Peter  Martyr  (with  very  delicate  gradations 
in  the  flesh-tones),  1455.  Circumcision,  599.  Madonna  and  Child; 
695.  Andrea  Previtali  (d.  1528),  Monk  adoring  the  Holy  Child; 
778.  Martina  da  Udine,  snmamed  Pellegrino  da  8anDaniele(VTiul\, 
pnpil  of  Bellini;  d.  1547),  Madonna  and  Child;  •300.  Cima  da 
Conc^Wano  (Venice;  contemporary  of  Bellini ;  d.  1517),  Madonna 
and  Child;  694.  Catena,  St.  Jerome  in  his  study;  Cima  da  Con- 
egliano,  1120.  St.  Jerome  in  the  wilderness  (on  panel),  634.  Ma- 
donna and  Child,  816.  Christ  appearing  to  St.  Thomas,  1310.  Ecce 
Homo;  ^281.  Marco  Basaiti  (Venetian  School;  ca.  1520),  St.  Je- 
rome reading. 

Boom  Vm.  Paduan  and  Eably  Venetian  Schools.  To  the  left : 
1336.  LiberaU  da  Fefono(?),  Death  of  Dido;  1145.  Andrea  Mantegna 
(d.  1506;  School  of  Padua),  Samson  and  Delilah  (on  the  tree  is 
the  motto  ^foemina  diabolo  trihus  assibus  est  mala  peior');  Carlo 
Crivelli  (ca.  1468-93),  907.  SS.  Catharine  and  Mary  Magdalen, 
602.  Dead  Christ  supported  by  angels.  —  776.  Vittore  Pisano  of 
Verona,  often  called  Vittore  PisaneUo  (founder  of  the  Veronese  school, 
painter  and  medallist ;  d.  1451),  SS.  Anthony  and  George,  with  a 
vision  of  the  Virgin  and  Child. 

In  the  frame  are  inserted  casts  of  two  of  Pisano's  medals.  The  one  above 
represents  Leonello  d'Este,  his  patron;  the  other,  the  painter  himself. 

804.  Marco  MarziaU  (Venetian  painter;  flor.  ca.  1492-1507), 
Virgin  and  ChUd;  •1436.  Vitt,  Pisano,  Vision  of  St.  Eustace;  1417. 
Andrea  Mantegna,  The  Agony  in  the  Qarden,  an  early  work,  from 
the  Northhrook  GaUery  (comp.  No.  726,  p.  176,  hy  Bellini);  807. 
CriveUi,  Madonna  and  Child  enthroned;  •274.  A.  Mantegna,  Virgin 
and  Child  with  the  Baptist  and  the  Magdalen  (conscientiously  minute 
in  execution  and  of  plastic  distinctness  in  the  outlines);  803. 
MarziaU,  Circumcision  (1500). 

•902.  Andrea  Mantegna,  Triumph  of  Scipio,  or  the  reception 
of  the  Phrygian  mother  of  the  gods  (Cybele)  among  the  publicly 
recognized  divinities  of  Borne. 

Basi>kkxb*8  London.  15th  Edit.  12 

178  14.  NATIONAL  GALLERY.     TheWestEnd. 

In  obedience  to  the  Delphic  oracle,  the  ^worthiest  man  in  Rome^  was 
selected  to  receive  the  goddess,  and  the  choice  fell  npon  Pablins  Gome- 
lias  Scipio  Nasica  (B.C.  204).  The  picture  was  painted  for  a  Venetian 
nobleman,  Francesco  Gornaro,  whose  family  claimed  to  be  descended  from 
the  Roman  ffens  Cornelia.  It  was  finished  in  1506,  a  few  months  before 
the  painter's  death,  and  is  *a  tempera%  in  chiaroscuro.  It  is  not  so  im- 
portant a  work  of  Mantegna  as  the  series  at  Hampton  Gonrt  (p.  409),  but 
also  exhibits  Mantegna^s  wonderful  feeling  for  the  antique  and  his  share 
in  Hhat  sincere  passion  for  the  ancient  world  which  was  the  dominating 
intellectual  impulse  of  his  age.' 

668.  Crivelli,  The  Beato  Ferretti.  — •  906.  CriveUi,  Madonna  in 

*724.  Carlo  Crivelliy  Madonna  and  C&ild,  with  saints. 

This  picture  is  known,  from  the  swallow  introduced,  as  the  ^Madonna 
della  rondine\  *It  may  be  said  of  the  predella,  which  represents  St.  Gatharine, 
St.  Jerome  in  the  wilderness,  the  Nativity  of  our  Lord,  the  Martyrdom 
of  St.  Sebastian,  and  St.  George  and  the  Dragon,  that  Grivelli  never  con- 
centrated so  much  power  on  any  small  composition\  —  C.  A  C. 

OriveUi^  788.  Madonna  and  saints  (large  altar-piece  in  13  sections, 
painted  in  1476;),  739.  Annunciation,  dated  1486.  —  1125.  Ascribed 
to  Mantegna^  Two  allegorical  flgnres  of  the  Seasons,  in  grisaille; 
904.  Gregorio  Schiavone  (the  'Slavonian',  a  native  of  Dalmatia; 
ca.  1470),  Madonna  and  Child. 

Octagonal  Hall.  Yabiovs  Schools.  In  the  angles  of  the  oc- 
tagon (above):  Paolo  Veronese,  1324.  Scorn,  1325.  Respect,  1326. 
Hap)py  Union,  1318.  Unfaithfulness,  a  series  of  allegorical  ceiling- 
paintings.  To  the  left  (on  entering  from  R.  VIII):  1696.  BeUini, 
Madonna  and  Child;  1417a.  Italian  School  (16th  cent.),  Illuminated 
initial  letter  (copied  from  No.  1417,  p.  177);  1134.  LtfteraZe  da  y«rono 
(1451-1535),  Madonna  and  Child ;  2095.  Alvise  Vivarini^d.  1503),  The 
man  in  black;  1478.  Oiovanni  Mansuetiy  Symholical  representation 
of  the  Crucifixion;  802.  Bart,  Montagna  (d.  1523),  Madonna  and 
Child;  631.  Francesco  Bissolo  (?  d.  ca.  1530),  Portrait;  no  number, 
Cariani,  Madonna  and  Child  (on  loan);  1136,  1135  (farther  on), 
Veronese  School  (15th  cent.),  Legend  of  Trajan  and  the  widow.  — 
286.  Francesco  Tacconi  (Cremona;  d.  after  1490),  Virgin  and  Child 
enthroned  (the  only  signed  work  of  this  master  extant);  285. 
Francesco  Morone  (early  Veronese  painter;  d.  1529),  Madonna  and 
Child ;  1212, 1211  (farther  on),  Domenico  Aforonc (Veronese  School; 
b.  1442),  Tournament  scenes;  1476.  Andrea  MeldoUa,  surnamed 
Schiavone  (1522-82),  Jupiter  and  Semele;  1214.  Michele  daVerona^ 
Meeting^of  Coriolanus  withVolumnia  and  Veturia;  1300.  Milanese 
School^  Virgin  and  Child ;  1953.  Lazzaro  Bastiani^Yiigin  and  Child ; 
1466.  Lelio  Orsi  (1511-86),  The  road  to  Emmaus.  —  768.  Antonio 
Vivarini  (d.  ca.  1470),  SS.  Peter  and  Jerome;  1098.  Bart,  Montagna, 
Madonna  and  Child;  284.  Bartolomeo  Vivarini  (Venice ;  end  of  the 
15th  cent.).  Virgin  and  Child  with  SS.  Paul  and  Jerome;  1872. 
Alvise  Vivarinif  Madonna  and  Child ;  1284.  Antonio  Vivarini,  SS. 
Francis  and  Mark.  —  632.  Oirolamo  da  Santacroce  (flor.  1520-49), 
Saint;  692.  Lodovico  da  Parma  (?;  early  16th  cent.),  Head  of  a  monk; 

TheWettEnd,     14.  NATIONAL  GALLERY.  179 

Franc.  Mantegna  (son  of  Andrea;  d.  after  1517),  HOG.  Resurrection, 
1381.  The  Holy  "Women  at  tlie  Sepulchre;  630.  Oregorio  Schiavoncj 
Madonna  and  Child  enthroned,  with  saints  (altar-piece) ;  771.  Bono 
da  Ferrara  (flor.  1460),  St.  Jerome;  639.  Franc.  MantegrhGy  Christ 
and  Mary  Magdalen  in  the  Garden ;  633.  Oirolamo  da  Santaeroce^ 
Saint;  736.  Francesco  Bonaignori  (1456-1519),  Venetian  senator. 

Boom  IX,  adjoining  Room  YIL  Later  Italian  School.  What 
is  known  as  the  Eclectic  or  Academic  School  of  Painters  arose  in 
Italy  with  the  foundation  of  a  large  academy  at  Bologna  by  the 
Caracci  in  1589.  Its  aim  was  to  combine  the  peculiar  excellences 
of  the  earli^T  masters  with  a  closer  study  of  nature.  The  best  re- 
presentatives of  the  school  are  grouped  together  in  this  room,  which 
also  contains  examples  of  the  later  Venetian  masters. 

To  the  left:  88.  Annibale  Caracci,  Ermlnia  taking  refuge  with 
the  shepherds  (Tasso);  Canaletto  (^ArUonio  Canale,  of  Venice; 
d.  1768),  938.  Regatta  on  the  Canal  Grande,  Venice,  941.  Grimani 
Palace, Venice,  939.  Piazzetta  of  St.  Mark;  Francesco  Guardi  (archi- 
tectural and  landscape  painter,  closely  allied  to  Canaletto;  d.  1793), 
1054.  View  in  Venice,  1454.  Gondola;  28.  Lodovico  Caracci 
(d.  1619),  Susannah  and  the  Elders;  63.  Ann.  Caracci^  Landscape; 
1059.  Canaletto,  San  Pietro  in  Castello,  Venice;  2099.  Francesco 
Quardi,  The  Doges'  Palace,  Venice;  2101.  Sebastiano  Ricci,  Esther 
at  the  throne  of  Ahasuerus ;  Pietro  Longki  (Venetian  genre-painter, 
sometimes  called  the  Italian  Hogarth;  1702-62),  1101.  Masked 
visitors  at  a  menagerie,  1100.  Domestic  group,  1334.  Fortune-teller; 
*268.  Paolo  Veronese,  Adoration  of  the  Magi,  painted  in  1573  for 
the  church  of  St.  Sylvester  at  Venice.  —  •56.  AnrUbale  Caracci, 
Landscape  with  figures. 

'Under  the  influence  of  Titian's  landscapes  and  of  Paul  Bril,  'who  vvas 
so  justly  esteemed  by  him,  Annibale  acquired  that  grandeur  of  composition, 
and  beiuty  of  outlines,  which  had  so  great  an  influence  upon  Claude  and 
Oaspar  Poussin\  —  W. 

198.  Ann.  Caracci,  Temptation  of  St.  Anthony,  unattractive; 
i429.  Canaletto,  Interior  of  the  Rotunda  at  Ranelagh  (p.  367), 
painted  in  1754;  2098.  Fr.  Guardi,  Santa  Maria  della  Salute,Venice ; 
1192,  1193.  Tiepolo,  Sketches  for  altar-pieces;  48.  Domenichino 
(Domenico  Zampieri;  d.  1641),  Tobias  and  the  angel;  33.  Parmi- 
gianino  {Francefco  Maria  Maxzola;  d.  1640),  Vision  of  St.  Jerome ; 
1206.  SalvatorRosa  (Neapolitan  landscape-painter;  d.  1673),  Land- 
scape; 940.  Canaletto,  Doges'  Palace;  210.  Ouardi,  Piazza  of  St.  Mark, 
Venice.  —  .'^4.  Paolo  Veronese,  Family  of  Darius  at  the  feet  of 
Alexander  theSTeat,  bought  for  13,650Z. 

'In  excellent  condition ;  perhaps  the  only  existing  criterion  by  which 
to  estimate  the  genuine  original  colouring  of  Panl  Veronese.  It  is  re- 
markable how  entirely  the  genius  of  the  painter  precludes  criticism  on 
the  quaintness  of  the  treatment.  Both  the  incident  and  the  personages 
are,  as  in  a  Spanish  play,  romantically  travestied'.  —  Rumohr  (MS.  notes). 

Mr.  Buskin  calls  this  picture  Hhe  most  precious  Paul  Veronese  in  the  i 
world^  . .  •    'The  possession  of  the  Pisani  Veronese  will  happily  enable  the 


180  14.  NATIONAL  GALLEBY.     TheWeHEnd, 

English  pablic  and  the  English  artist  to  convince  themselves  how  sincerity 
and  simplicity  in  statements  of  fact,  power  of  draughtmanship ,  and  joy  in 
colour  were  associated  in  a  perfect  balance  in  the  great  workmen  in  Venice\ 

935.  8alv,  Rosa^  River-  scene ;  135.  Canaleiio,  Landscape  with 

♦942.  CanalettOj  Eton  College  in  1746,  with  the  Thames  in  the 
foreground . 

This  picture  was  painted  daring  the  artistes  visit  to  England  in 
1746-48,  perhaps,  as  Mr.  Cook  points  out,  in  the  same  year  (1747)  as  Gray 
published  his  well-known  'Ode  on  a  distant  Prospect  of  Eton  College". 

26.  Paolo  Veronese^  Consecration  of  St.  Nicholas;  196.  Guido 
Renij  Susannah  and  the  Elders  (^a  work',  says  Mr.  Ruskin,  'devoid 
alike  of  art  and  decency');  127.  Canaletto,  View  of  the  Scuola  della 
Caritlt,  now  the  Accademia  delle  Belle  Arti,  Venice.  —  193.  gmdo 
Reniy  Lot  and  his  daughters;  163.  Canaletto,  Grand  Canai, Venice; 
70.  Padovanino  (^AUssandro  Varotari^  of  Venice ;  d.  1650),  Cornelia 
and  her  children  (children  were  this  artist's  favourite  subject); 
936.  Ferdinando  Bihiena  (Bologna;  1657-1743),  Performance  of 
Othello  in  the  Teatro  Farnese  at  Parma;  Oiov,  Bait.  Tiepolo,  1333. 
Deposition  from  the  Cross,  2100.  Marriage  of  the  Emperor  Frederick ; 
77.  DomenichinOj  Stoning  of  St.  Stephen;  •84.  Salv.  Rosa^  Mercury 
and  the  woodman.  —  937.  CanaUtto^  Scuola  di  San  Rocco,  Venice 
(figures  by  Q.  B.  Tiepolo), 

The  picture  represents  Hhe  ceremony  of  Giovedi  Santo  or  Maundy 
Thursday,  when  the  Doge  and  ofticers  of  state  with  the  fraternity  of  St.  Bock 
went  in  procession  to  the  church  of  St.  Mark  to  worship  the  miraculous 
blood\  —  Catalogue. 

Soom  X.  Dutch  School.  This  room  contains  good  examples 
of  Rembrandt,  the  great  Dutch  contemporary  of  Rubens  and  Van 
Dyck,  principally  of  his  later  period.  His  pupil,  Nicolas  Maas  or 
Maes,  and  his  contemporaries  of  the  17th  cent,  are  also  well  re- 
presented.  Many  of  the  paintings  belong  to  the  Peel  Collection. 

To  the  left :  A.  van  der  Neer  (1603-77;  Amsterdam),  239.  River 
by  moonlight,  969.  Frost-scene;  Rembrandt  van  Ryn  (^Harmenszot 
Hermanszoon^  Amsterdam ;  1607-69),  43.  Descent  from  the  Cross, 
♦47.  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds  (1646);  2062.  Herman  Saftleven, 
Christ  teaching  from  St.  Peter's  ship;  1168.  Van  der  Vliei  (Delft; 
d.  1642),  Portrait  of  a  Jesuit;  ♦775.  Rembrandt,  Old  lady  (1634). 

♦45.  Rembrandt,  The  Woman  taken  in  adultery,  dated  1644. 

'The  colouring  of  the  'Woman  taken  in  adultery^  is  in  admirable 
keeping.  A  subdued  light,  an  indescribable  kind  of  glow,  illumines  the 
whole  work,  and  pervades  it  with  a  mysterious  harmony.  The  idea  of 
the  work  is  most  effectively  enhanced  by  the  magic  of  chiaroscuro .... 
The  different  lights,  the  strongest  of  which  is  thrown  on  the  yellow  robe 
of  the  woman,  on  the  group  on  the  stairs,  and  on  the  gilded  altar,  are 
united  by  means  of  very  skilful  shading.  The  whole  of  the  background 
is  bathed  in  dark'but  warm  shades\  —   Vosmaer. 

1701.  A.  van  Everdingen,  Landscape;  1896.  P.  Saenredam, 
Church-interior;  1288.  A.  van  der  Neer,  Frost-scene;  •1277.  Nicolas 
Maes  or  Afaa«  (1632-93 ;  figure-painter  atDort,a  pupil  of  Rembrandt), 
Portrait  (dated  1666);  1312.  Jan  Victors  or  Victoors  (b.  at  Amster- 

The  West  End,     14.  NATIONAL  GALLERY.  181 

dam  in  1620),  Village  cobbler;  1293.  J.  Af.  Molenaer  (d.  1668), 
Maslcal  party;  1008.  Pi«««r  Pott«r  (? ;  fath  er  of  Paul  Potter ;  d.  1662), 
Stag-hunt;  837.  Lingelbaeh,  The  Hay  Harvest;  1700.  Ihitch  School, 

♦672.  Rembrandt,  His  own  portrait  (1640). 

^If  Rembrandt  has  often  ebosen  to  represent  himself  in  more  or  less 
eccentrie  costumes,  he  has  here  preferred  to  pose  as  a  man  of  qnlet  and 
dignified  simplicity ....  The  portrait  is  admirable  in  design  and  tone. 
A  delicate  and  warm  light  shines  from  above  on  part  of  the  forehead, 
cheek ,  and  nose ,  and  imparts  a  golden  hue  to  the  shirt  collar,  while  a 
stray  beam  brings  the  hand  into  like  prominence.  The  execution  is  ex- 
cellent, the  effect  of  light  delicate  and  yigorous".  —  Vosma§r. 

732.  A,  van  der  Neer,  Canal  scene  (daylight  scenes  and  can- 
vases of  so  large  a  size  as  this  were  rarely  executed  byYan  der  Neer) ; 
829.  Jan  Hackaert  (Amsterdam;  17th  cent.).  Stag-hunt;  1012. 
Matthew  Merian  (b.  at  Bdle  in  1621,  d.  1687;  painted  portraits  at 
Nuremberg  and  Frankfort),  Portrait;  51.  Rembrandt,  Jewish 
merchant;  152.  Van  der  Netr,  Evening- scene,  with  figures  and 
cattle  by  Cuyp,  whose  name  is  inscribed  on  the  pail;  1311.  Jan 
Beerstraaten  (1622-66),  Winter-scene;  1352.  Frid.  de  Moucheron 
(d.  1686),  Landscape  with  ruins. 

Rembrandt,  ♦1674.  Burgomaster;  ♦I 675  (farther on),  Portrait  of 
an  old  lady. 

These  two  fine  portraits  were  purchased  from  Lord  de  Sanmarez  in 
1899  for  16,0501.    The  former  seems  to  be  in  the  nature  of  a  study. 

♦1172.  Sir  Anthony  van  Dyck  (1599-1641),  Charles  I.  mounted 
on  a  dun  horse  and  attended  by  Sir  Thomas  Morton. 

This  fine  specimen  of  Van  Dyck  was  acquired  at  the  sale  of  the 
Blenheim  Collection  in  1885  for  17,500/.  It  was  originally  in  Somerset 
House  and  was  sold  by  Cromwell  for  150;.  The  great  Duke  of  Marl- 
borough discovered  and  bought  it  at  Munich.  —  When  the  other  Flemish 
paintings  were  removed  from  this  room  in  1907,  this  work  was  left  un- 
disturbed on  account  of  its  size. 

842.  Fred,  de  Moucheron,  Garden  scene,  bounded  by  trees ;  974. 
Phil,  de  Koninck  (pupil  of  Rembrandt;  d.  1688),  Hilly  wooded 
landscape,  with  a  view  of  the  Scheldt  and  Antwerp  Cathedral; 
J.  vanRuysdael  (Haarlem ;  1628-82),  854.  Forest-scene,  855.  Land- 
scape with  a  waterfall ;  190.  Rembrandt,  Jewish  Rabbi ;  ♦836.  Phil, 
de  Koninck^  Landscape,  figures  by  A.  van  de  Velde;  J,  van  Ruysdael, 
986.  The  water-mills,  737.  Landscape  with  waterfall ;  221.  Rem- 
brandt, The  artist  at  an  advanced  age;  ♦995.  Meinderi  Hobbema 
(Amsterdam;  pupil  of  Ruysdael;  1638-1709),  Forest-landscape,  of 
peculiarly  clear  chiaroscuro;  956.  Jan  Both  (Utrecht,  painter  of 
Italian  landscapes  in  the  style  of  Claude;  d.  1652),  Italian  scene; 
1137.  Jac,  van  Oost  (d.  1671),  Portrait  of  a  boy. 

♦243.  Rembrandt,  Portrait  of  a  man,  dated  1659. 

^This  picture  is  one  of  those  darkly  coloured  pieces  which  Rembrandt 
meant  to  be  strongly  lighted.  The  head  alone  is  in  the  full  light,  the  hands 
are  in  the  half-light  only.  The  most  conspicuous  colours  are  vivid  brown 
and  red.  The  features,  with  the  grey  beard  and  moustache,  though  heavily 
painted,  are  well  defined,  and  look  almost  as  if  chiselled  by  the  brush, 
while  the  effect  is  enhanced  by  the  greenish  tint  of  the  colouring.    The 

182  14.  NATIONAL  GALLERY.     TheWestEnd. 

face,  and  the  dark  eyes  in  particular,  are  fall  of  animation.  The 
whole  work  is  indeed  a  marvel  of  colouring,  expression,  and  poetry'.  — 

1397.  J.  van  Aacken  (17th  cent.),  Old  woman  sewing;  72, 
Rembrandt^  Landscape  (Tobias  and  the  angel).  —  289.  Oerrit  Lundens 
(1622-77;  Amsterdam),  Amsterdam  Musketeers. 

^This  picture,  although  but  a  greatly  reduced  copy  of  the  renowned 
work  by  Rembrandt  in  the  State  Museum  at  Amsterdam,  has  a  unique 
interest  as  representing  the  pristine  condition  of  its  great  original  before 
it  was  mutilated  on  all  four  sides  and  shorn  of  some  of  its  figures  .... 
in  order  to  suit  the  picture  to  the  dimensions  of  a  room  to  which  it  was 
at  that  time  (early  part  of  18th  century)  removed'.  —  Official  Catalogue. 

1339.  Bernard  Fabritius  (fior.  1650-72),  Birth  of  John  the  Baptist ; 
166.  Rembrandt,  A  Capuchin  friar;  ^1247.  Nic.  Maas,  The  card-players 
(an  exceedingly  graphic  group  of  lifesize  figures) ;  679.  Ferdinand 
Bol  (pupil  of  Rembrandt;  d.  1680),  Astronomer  (1652);  1338. 
-B.  FabritiuSy  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds ;  237.  Rembrandi,  Portrait 
of  a  woman  (one  of  his  latest  works,  dated  1666).  —  1937.  Bart, 
van  der  Heist  (one  of  the  best  Dutch  portrait-painters ;  b.  at  Haar- 
lem in  1611  or  1612;  d.  1670),  Portrait  of  a  lady;  1342.  J.  de  Wet 
(17th  cent.),  Landscape;  *767.  School  of  Rembrandt,  Christ  blessing 
little  children;  1007.  Jan  Wila  (d.  before  1670),  Landscape;  *1248. 
Bart,  van  der  Heist,  Portrait  of  a  girl  (dated  1645);  Aelbert  Cuyp 
(Dort;  1606-91),  *824.  Ruined  castle  in  a  lake  (*gildedby  the  most 
glowing  evening-sun'),  823.  River-scene,  wiih  cattle;  967.  Jan 
Both,  Cattle  and  figures;  1002.  Jac,  Walscnppelle  (d.  alter  1717), 
Flowers  and  Insects;  1096.  Jan. Baptist  Weenix,  Hunting  scene; 
A,  Cuyp,  1289.  Landscape  with  cattle,  1683.  Study  of  a  horse,  962. 
Cattle  and  figures,  960.  Landscape  with  wind- mills;  1001.  Jan  van 
Huysum  (1682-1749),  Flowers ;  202.  MeUhior  d'Hondecoeter  (ani- 
mal-painter at  Utrecht;  d.  1695),  Poultry  ('this  cock  was  Honde- 
coeter's  favourite  bird,  which  he  is  said  to  have  taught  to  stand  to 
him  In  a  fixed  position  as  a  model');  A,  Cuyp,  961.  Cattle  and 
figures,  *53.  Landscape  with  cattle  and  figures  (with  masterly  treat- 
ment of  light  and  great  transparency  of  shadow) ;  1903.  Jan  Fyt 
(animal-painter  at  Antwerp  in  the  time  of  Rubens ;  d.  1661),  Land- 
scape with  dogs  and  game;  1917.  Jan  Both,  Italian  landscape. 

*822.  A.  Cuyp,  Horseman  and  cows  in  a  meadow. 

'Of  exquisite  harmony,  in  a  bright  cool  light,  unusual  with  him'.  —  W. 

*797.  A.  Cuyp,  Portrait,  dated  1649.  —  71.  Jan  Both,  Landscape 
with  figures;  1423.  J  van  Ravesteyn  (1572-1657),  Portrait  of  a 
lady;  1479.  H.  Avercamp  (1586-1663),  Ice-scene ;  1Q61.  Frans  Hals 
(ca.  1580-1666),  Portrait;  1074.  Dirck  Hals  (younger  brother  of 
Frans;  d.  1656),  Merry  party;  1346.  H.  Avercamp,  Winter  scene ; 
1446,  1445.  Rachel  Ruysch  (1664-1760),  Studies  of  flowers  (lent  by 
the  Victoria  and  Albert  Museum);  1469.  Willem  K.  Heda  (d.  ca. 
1680),-Still-llfe;  1021.  FransHals,  Portrait;  965.  Com,vanPoelen' 
burg  (d.  1667;  Utrecht,  imitator  of  the  Roman  School),  Ruin,  with 
women  bathing;  1278.  Hendrik  Gerritz  Pot  (d.  ca.  1656),  Convivial 

TheWestEnd,    14.  NATIONAL  GALLERY.  183 

party;  13!20.  C,  Jarmens  (b.  at  Amsterdam  ca.  1594;  painted  in 
England),  AgloniusVoon;  J.  van  G^oytfri  (1696-1666),  137.  Land- 
Bcape,  1327.  Winter-scene;  20d,  Jan  Both,  Landscape  (flg ares  by 
PoeUnhurg) 'y  1321.  C,  Janstens,  Cornelia  Bemoens;  Salomon  van 
Ruysdael  (uncle  of  J.  van  Ruysdael;  d.  1670),  1439.  River-scene, 
1344.  Landscape;  1386.  WiUem  C.  Duyster  (Amsterdam;  1599- 
1636),  Soldiers  quarrelling;  1380.  Jan  van  Os  (1744-1808),  Fruit 
and  flowers;  1401.  Pieter  Snytn  (1681-1762),  Still-life;  1003.  Jan 
Fyi,  Dead  birds;  ♦212.  Thos.  dt  Peyser  (Amsterdam ;  1596-1667), 
Merchant  and  clerk;  1016.  Jan  van  Os,  Still-life;  1387.  WiUem 
C,  Duyster,  Players  at  backgammon;  Jan  Wynants  (d.  ca.  1680), 
971.  Landscape,  883.  Landscape,  with  accessories  by  Lingelbach 
(dated  1659),  884.  Landscape  (flgares  by  A.  van  dt  Velde\  972.  Land- 
scape; 1444.  Oerard  van  Honthorsty  Peasants  warming  themselves; 
151.  Jan  van  Goytn^  River-scene;  Remhmndt,  850.  Portrait,  1400. 
Christ  before  Pilate. 

*54.  Rembrandt^  Woman  wading,  dated  1654. 

*Her  eyes  are  cast  dovrn,  her  head  Inclined.  Is  she  hesitating  to 
enter  the  vrater  in  which  she  is  mirrored?  ....  The  charm  and  value 
of  this  painting  lie  in  the  brillant  touch  and  impasto ,  the  warm  and 
forcible  eolourbig,  the  middle  tints,  and  the  admirable  modelling".  — 
Votmatr,  ^Rembrandt^  $a  Vit  9t  tes  (Suvr€s\ 

On  a  Screen:  199.  Ood fried  Schaleken  (Dutch  genre  -  painter, 
famed  for  his  candle  -  light  effects,  and  a  pupil  of  Gerard  Dou ; 
d.  1706),  Lesbia  weighing  jewels  against  her  sparrow  (Catullus, 
Carmen  iii),  998.  The  duet;  1265,  Jan  Jamz  van  de  Veldt  (a  rare 
Amsterdam  painter;  ca.  1622-66),  Still-life ;  1256.  Herman  Steen- 
wyck  (Delft),  Still-life.  —  796.  Jan  van  Huysum,  Flowers.  —  The 
continuation  of  the  Dutch  School  is  to  be  found  in  R.  XII  (p.  185). 
Meanwhile,  however,  we  visit  — 

Boom  XI.  Early  Flbmibh  School.  The  small  pictures  by 
Flemish  masters  of  the  15th  cent,  though  not  usually  of  the  first 
class  nor  always  to  be  attributed  to  the  painters  whose  names  they 
bear,  are  of  great  interest  as  affording  a  varied  survey  of  the  realistic 
manner  of  the  school.  —  To  the  left:  1443.  IJendrick  Steenwyck 
the  Younger  (b.  at  Frankfort,  worked  at  Antwerp  and  at  London, 
where  he  supplied  architectural  backgrounds  toVan  Dyck's  portraits; 
1580-1649),  Churoh-interior;  713.  Jan  Moatatrt  (b.  1474),  Virgin 
and  Child;  Joachim  Patinir  (d.  ca.  1524),  717.  St.  John  in  Patmos, 
945.  Nun,  716.  St.  Christopher  bearing  the  Infant  Christ;  296. 
Quinttn  Matsys  (d.  1630),  Salvator  Mundi  and  Virgin  Mary  (two 
similar  pictures  at  Antwerp) ;  265.  FUmish  SchoolyYugin  and  Child ; 
721.  J.  van  Sehoreel  or  Secret  (d.  1562),  Portrait;  720.  J.  van 
8choretl(y)y  Rest  on  the  Flight  into  Egypt ;  714.  C.  Engelbertz  (1468- 
1533),  Mother  and  child;  1042.  Catharine  van  Hemeasen  (portrait- 
painter  at  the  Spanish  court ;  16th  cent.).  Portrait ;  2205.  P.  Neeffa 
(d.  ca.  1660),  Church-interior;  1082.  Pa«nir,  Visitation;  2204.  JBT. 
Sletnwycky  Church-interior;  7id»  Henrik  met  de  Bles  (*Henry  with 

184  14.  NATIONAL  GALLERY.     TheWestEnd. 

the  forelock' ;  Flemish  painter  of  the  i6th  cent.),  Mary  Magdalen ; 
FUmUh  School^  1089.  Virgin  and  Child  with  St.  Elizaheth,  1078. 
Deposition  from  the  Gross;  716.  Patinir,  Crucifixion;  Oheerardt 
David  (early  Flemish  painter  of  Bruges;  d.  1523),  •1046.  Wing  of 
an  altar-piece,  representing  Canon  Bernardino  di  Salviatis,  a 
Florentine  merchant  in  Flanders,  with  SS.  Martin,  Donatian,  and 
Bernardino  of  Siena,  a  masterpiece,  •1432.  Mystic  Marriage  of 
St.  Catharine,  with  the  kneeling  donor  to  the  left;  924.  P.  Neefs, 
Church-interior;  Flemish  School^  783.  Exhumation  of  St.  Hubert, 
1079.  Adoration  of  the  Magi,  1086.  Virgin  and  Child  (triptych) ; 
718.  Henrik  met  de  Ble8(1)^  Mt.  Calvary ;  Patitdr,  1298  (in  a  fine  old 
frame),  River-scene,  1084.  Flight  into  Egypt;  1010.  Ditck  van  Delen 
(architectural  painter  in  Zealand  j  d.  1673),  Extensive  palatial  build- 
ings of  Renaissance  architecture,  with  figures  by  A,  Palamedea,  — 
♦944.  Marinus  de  Zeeuw  or  Van  Romerswael  (d.  ca.  1570;  a  fol- 
lower of  Q.  Matsys),  Two  bankers  or  usurers  in  their  office;  2209. 
Dutch  School  (16th  cent),  Portrait.  —  656.  Bernard  van  Orley 
(d.  1642),  Reading  Magdalen;  Flemish  School^  1419.  Legend  of 
St.  Giles,  1063.  Portrait;  Jan  Idabuse  (Jan  Qossaert;  early  Flemish 
portrait  and  historical  painter ;  d.  1532),  ♦656.  Portrait  of  a  man 
dressed  in  black,  with  fur  over  his  shoulders  (drawing  and  colouring 
alike  admirable),  946.  Portrait,  2211.  Jacqueline  de  Bourgogne(?) ; 
2206.  P.  Neeffs,  Church-interior;  Dieriek  Bouts  (1400-75),  Virgin 
and  Child  (on  loan) ;  664.  Bogier  van  der  Weyden^  Deposition  in 
the  tomb ;  Flemish  School^  1083.  Christ  crowned  with  thorns,  1036, 
♦943.  Portraits,  774.  Madonna  and  Child  enthroned ;  711.  Ascribed 
to  Bogier  van  der  Weyden^  Mater  Dolorosa. 

♦290.  Jan  van  Eyck  (d.  1440;  founder  of  the  early  Flemish 
School),  Portrait  of  a  man,  dated  1432. 

^Tbe  drawing  is  careful,  the  painting  blended  to  a  fault'.  —  C,  ^  C. 

No  number,  Petrus  Cristus  (1444-72),  Portrait  of  a  young  man 
(on  loan) ;  667.  Jac,  Comelissen  (Amsterdam  ;  d.  ca.  1660),  Dutch 
lady  and  gentleman,  with  their  patron-saints,  Peter  and  Paul. 

♦186.  Jan  van  Eyck^  Portraits  of  Giovanni  Amolfini  and  Jeanne 
de  Chenany,  his  wife. 

*In  no  single  instance  has  John  van  Eyck  expressed  with  more  per- 
fection, by  the  aid  of  colour,  the  sense  of  depth  and  atmosphere  ^  he 
nowhere  blended  colours  more  carefully,  nowhere  produced  more  trans- 
parent shadows The  finish  of  the  parts  is  marvellous,  and  the 

preservation  of  the  picture  perfect'.  —  C.  d:  C, 

'Without  a  prolonged  examination  of  this  picture,  it  is  impossible 
to  form  an  idea  of  the  art  with  which  it  has  been  executed.  One  feels 
tempted  to  think  that  in  this  little  panel  Van  Eyck  has  set  himself  to 
accumulate  all  manner  of  difficulties,  or  rather  of  impossibilities,  for  the 
mere  pleasure  of  overcoming  them.  The  perspective,  both  linear  and 
aerial,  is  so  ably  treated,  and  the  truthfulness  of  colouring  is  so  great, 
that  all  the  details,  even  those  reflected  in  the  mirror,  seem  perspicuous 
and  easy  \  and  instead  of  the  fatigue  which  the  examination  of  so  laborious 
and  complicated  a  work  might  well  occasion,  we  feel  nothing  save  pleasure 
and  admiration'.  —  ReUety  ^Oazette  des  Beaux  ArU\  1878. 

The  signature  on  this  picture  is  ^Johannes  de  Eyck  fuit  hie'  ('Jan  van 

TheWatEnd.     14.  NATIONAL  GALLERY.  185 

Byck  was  liere%    The  inscription  on  No.  223  (see  below)  is  equally  modest : 
'Als  ich  kan'  ('As  I  can'). 

*222.  Jan  van  Eycky  Portrait  of  a  man. 
*This  is  a  panel  in  which  minate  finish  is  combined  with  delicate  mo- 
delling and  strong  relief,  and  a  brown  depth  of  colour'.  —  Crowe  and  Caval- 
caselle,  'Early  Flemish  Painters'. 

696.  Flemish  School,  Marco  Barbarigo ;  712.  Bogier  van  der 
Weyden,  Ecce  Homo. 

♦686.  Hans  Mending  or  Memlinc  (early  Flemish  master  of  Bruges; 
d.  ca.  1496),  Virgin  and  Child  enthroned,  marked  by  this  master's 
peculiar  tenderness  of  conception  and  yividness  of  tints,  No  number, 
Duke  of  Cleves  (on  loan) ;  Flemish  School^  1280.  Chxist  appearing 
to  the  Virgin  Mary,  ♦710.  Monk,  *a  vivid  and  truthful  portrait' ;  747. 
Attributed  to  MemUng,  St.  John  the  Baptist  and  St.  Lawrence,  *very 
minutely  and  delicately  worked' ;  Flemish  School,  709.  Virgin  and 
Child,  708.  Virgin  and  Child,  1433.  Portrait;  2207.  P.  Neeffs, 
Church-interior;  2163.  Antwerp  School,  Mary  Magdalen ;  664.  School 
of  Rogier  van  der  Weyden,  Mary  Magdalen ;  Flemish  School,  947. 
Portrait,  663.  Man  and  wife,  1081.  Portrait,  ♦668.  Death  of  theVirgin, 
1086.  Christ  appearing  to  Mary  after  his  Resurrection,  264.  Count 
of  Hainault  with  his  patron-saint,  1689.  Man  and  wife. 

"We  now  again  pass  through  Room  X  in  order  to  reach  — 

Boom  Xn.  Dutch  Schooi.  (17-18th  cent.).  To  the  left:  1332. 
Caspar  Netseher  (pupil  of  Terburg,  settled  at  The  Hague  ;  d.  1684), 
George,  first  Earl  of  Berkeley  (?).  —  ^826.  Oerard  Dou  (Leyden ; 
1613-76),  Poulterer's  shop. 

^Besides  the  extreme  finish,  in  which  he  holds  the  first  place,  it  sur- 
passes many  of  his  other  pictures  in  its  unusual  clearness,  and  in  the  agree- 
able and  spirited  heads."  —  W, 

1055.  H,  Sorgh  (Rotterdam,  pupil  of  Teniers  the  Younger ;  d. 
1682),  Card-players;  1221.  Ahr.  de  Fape  (d.  1666),  Interior.  — 
♦846.  Adriaen  van  Ostade  (figure-painter  at  Haarlem,  pupil  of  Frans 
Hals ;  1610-86),  The  alchymist. 

*The  effect  of  light  in  the  foreground ,  the  predominant  golden  tone 
of  extraordinary  brightness  and  clearness,  the  execution  equally  careful 
and  spirited,  and  the  contrast  of  the  ideep  cool  chiaroscuro  in  the  back- 
ground have  a  peculiar  charm\  —  W. 

958.  Jan  Both,  Outside  the  walls  of  Rome ;  211.  J.  vanHuchten- 
hurgh  (d.  1733),  Battle. 

♦864.  Oerard  Terburg  or  Ter  Borch  (Deventer,  the  greatest  Dutch 
painter  of  conversation-pieces ;  d.  1681),  Guitar-lesson. 

^Terburg  may  be  considered  as  the  creator  of  what  are  called  con- 
versation-pieces, and  is  at  the  same  time  the  most  eminent  master  in 
that  line.  In  delicacy  of  execution  he  is  inferior  to  none  *,  nay  in  a 
certain  delicate  blending  he  is  superior  to  all.  But  none  can  be  compared 
to  him  in  the  magical  harmony  of  his  silver  tones,  and  in  the  gradations 
of  the  aerial  perspective\  —  W. 

Oahrid  Metm  (Amsterdam;  1630-67),  ^839.  Music-lesson,  970. 
The  drowsy  landlady;  1004.  Nicolas  Berchem  (1620-83),  Italian 
landscape.  —  ^896.  Oerard  Terburg,  Peace  of  Miiiister. 

186  14.  NATIONAL  GALLERY:     TheWeatEnd. 

'This  pictare  represents  the  Plenipotentiaries  of  Philip  IV.  of  Spain 
and  the  Delegates  of  the  Dntch  United  Provinces  assembled  in  the  Rath- 
haus  at  Miinster,  on  the  16th  of  K&yj  1648,  for  the  purpose  of  ratifying 
and  confirming  by  oath  the  Treaty  ot  Peace  between  the  Spaniards  and 
the  Dutch,  signed  on  the  30th  of  January  previons".  (Catalogue).  It 
Is  one  of  the  master's  very  finest  works. 

1345.  Jan  Wouverman  (landscape  -painter  at  Haarlem ;  1629- 
66),  Landscape ;  *856.  Jan  Steen  (painter  of  hnmoroag  conversa- 
tlon- pieces;  Delft  andTbeHagne;  d.  1679),  The  music-master 
(an  early  and  very  carefully  finished  work). 

♦838.  Oabriel  Metsu,  The  duet. 

^Painted  in  the  warm,  full  tone,  which  is  especially  yaluable  in  his 
pictures'.  —  W, 

867.  Adriaen  van  de  Velde  (brother  of  Willem  and  pupil  of 
Wynants  at  Haarlem;  1639-72),  Farm  cottage;  1899.  0,  Terhwrg, 
Portrait  of  a  gentleman;  1329.  Quiryn  van  Brekelenkam  (d.  1668), 
Interior;  1421.  Jan  Steen,  Terrace-scene  with  figures ;  1005.  Nic, 
Berchem^  Landscape;  146.  Abraham  Storck  (d.  1710 V),  Shipping  on 
the  Maes ;  ♦849.  Paul  Potter  (The  Hague ;  1625-54),  Landscape  with 
cattle ;  ♦1459.  Gerbrand  van  den  Eeckhout  (1621-74),  The  wine-con- 
tract ;  Pieter  de  Hoogh  (1630-78),  ♦794.  Courtyard  of  a  Dutch  house, 
♦834.  Dutch  interior  (broad,  full  sunlight  effect).  —  '^835.  Pieter  de 
Hooghj  Court  of  a  Dutch  house  (1658). 

'Excites  a  joyful  feeling  of  summer.  In  point  of  fulness  and  depth  of 
tone  and  execution  one  of  the  best  pictures  of  the  master".  —  W. 

K.  duJardin  (1622-78),  828.  Landscape,  with  cattle,  985.  Sheep 
and  goats;  Philips  Wouverman  (Haarlem ;  1619-68),  8S2.  Landscape, 
973.  Sandbank  In  a  river,  880.  On  the  sea-shore,  selling  fish  (sup- 
posed to  be  his  last  work);  1009.  Paul  Potter^  The  old  grey  hunter; 
876.  Willem  van  de  Velde  the  Founper- (1633- 1707),  Gale;  •627. 
J.  van  Ruysdaely  Landscape  with  a  waterfall;  1470.  Jacob  Weiir 
(German  School;  d.  1670),  Battle-scene;  ^879.  P.  Wouverman,  In- 
terior of  a  stable  (very  delicately  finished).  —  ^976.  P.  Wouver- 
man, Battle. 

*FulI  of  animated  action,  of  the  utmost  transparency,  and  executed 
with  admirable  precision'.  —  W. 

881.  P.  Wouvermant  Gathering  faggots. 

♦878.  P.  Wouverman,  *La  belle  laitiSre'. 

^This  picture  combines  that  delicate  tone  of  his  second  period  with 
the  great  force  which  he  adopted  especially  toward  the  end  of  it.  The 
efi'ect  of  the  dark  figures  relieved  against  the  landscape  is  extraordin- 
ary'. —  W. 

1060.  p.  Wouvermany  Vedettes,  an  early  work;  1341.  Cornelius 
Gerritz  Decker  (Haarlem;  d.  1678),  Landscape;  J.  van  Ruysdael, 
989. Water- mills,  746.  Landscape,  ^990.  Landscape  (a  ehef'd*oeuvre\ 
987.  Rocky  landscape,  44.  Bleaching -ground,  1390.  View  near 
Scheveningen ;  1061.  Egbert  van  der  Poel{di.  i%M\  Delft),  View 
of  Delft  after  the  explosion  of  a  powder-mill  in  1654;  628.  J.  van 
Ruysdaelj  Landscape  with  a  waterfall;  833.  Meindert  Hobbema, 
Forest-scene;  988.  J.  van  Ruysdael,  Old  oak;  K,  du  Jardin,  ♦826.- 

.     TheWeHEnd.     14.  NATIONAL  GALLERY.  187 

Figures  and  animals  reposing,  827.  Fording  the  stream,  dated  1657; 
1462.  Hendrik  Duhbels  (Amsterdam;  d.  1676),  Sea-piece;  2143. 
JacobOchtervelt,  Lady  standing  at  a  spinet ;  1481.  C.  P.  Bega(iQ20M), 
The  philosopher;  1006.  Berchem,  Landscape;  979.  W.  van  de  Veldt 
the  Younger,  Shipping ;  240.  Berehem,  A  ford ;  841.  Willtm  van  Mieri» 
(d.  1747),  Fish  and  poultry  shop  (^1713) ;  1848.  Abraham  Raguineau 
(h,  1623,  d.  after  1681),  Portrait;  991.  J.  van  Ruysdael,  Prostrate 
tree;  1383.  Jan  Vermeer  of  Delft  (1632-75),  Young  lady  at  a  spinet; 
1699.  Ascribed  to  J.  Vermeer  of  Delft^  The  lesson. 

*869.  A,  van  de  Veldt,  Frost-scene. 

^Admirably  drawn,  touched  with  great  spirit,  and  of  a  very  pleasing, 
though,  for  the  subject,  perhaps  too  warm  a  tone".  —   W. 

1294.  W.  de  Poorter  (d.  after  1645),  Allegorical  subject;  1680. 
Dutch  School  (17th  cent. ;  attributed  to  K.  dn  Jardin),  Portrait ;  1442. 
L.  liafcAuiwn  (1631-1703),  Ships  in  a  gale ;  1347.  Isaac  van  Ottade 
(landscape  and  figure  painter,  pupil  of  his  elder  brother  Adriaen; 
1612-49),  Farmyard. 

*847.  haac  van  Ostade,  Village-scene  in  Holland. 

'This  delicately  drawn  picture  combines  the  greatest  solidity  with 
the  most  spirited  execution,  and  the  finest  impasto  with  the  greatest 
glow  and  depth  of  tone.  Paul  Pptter  himself  could  not  have  painted  the 
grey  horse  better'.  —  W. 

*848.  Isaac  van  Ostade,  Canal-scene  in  winter. 

'The  great  truth,  admirable  treatment,  and  fresh  feeling  of  a  winter's 
day  render  it  one  of  the  ehe/s-d'^oeuvre  of  the  master".  —  W. 

975.  Philips  Wouverman,  Stag -hunt;  1000.  Bakhuitenj  Ship- 
ping ;  *963.  /.  van  Ostade,  Frozen  river  (glowing  with  light,  very 
transparent  in  colour,  and  delicate  in  treatment) ;  W.  van  de  Velde 
the  Younger,  980.  Dutch  vessels  saluting,  981.  Storm  at  sea,  978. 
Biver-scene,  875.  Light  breeze,  977.  Sea-piece,  874.  Calm  at  sea. 

♦873.  W,  van  de  Velde  the  Younger,  Coast  of  Scheveningen. 

'The  numerous  figures  are  by  Adriaen  van  de  Velde.  The  union  of 
these  two  great  masters  makes  this  one  of  the  most  charming  pictures  of 
the  Dutch  School'.  —  W. 

*832.  Hobbema,  Village,  with  water-mills  (in  a  warm,  summer- 
like  tone);  Bakhuhen,  818.  Coast-scene,  819.  Off  the  mouth  of  the 

♦830.  Hobbema,  The  Avenue,  Middelharnis. 

'From  simple  and  by  no  means  beautiful  materials  a  picture  is  formed 
which,  by  the  feeling  for  nature  and  the  power  of  art,  makes  a  striking 
impression  on  the  intelligent  spectator.  Such  daylight  I  have  never 
before  seen  in  any  picture.  The  perspective  is  admirable,  while  the 
gradation,  from  the  fullest  bright  green  in  the  foreground,  is  so  delicately 
observed ,  that  it  may  be  considered  a  masterpiece  in  this  respect ,  and 
is,  on  the  whole,  one  of  the  most  original  works  of  art  with  which  I  am 
acquainted'.  —  W. 

685.  Hobbema,  Landscape;  1348.  A.  van  de  Velde,  Landscape; 
872.  W,  van  de  Velde,  Shipping;  984.  A.  van  de  Velde,  Landscape; 
W.  van  de  Velde,  149.  Calm  at  sea,  150.  Gale  at  sea ;  993.  Jan  van 
der  Heyden  (architectural  and  landscape  painter  at  Amsterdam; 
1637-1712),  Landscape ;  967.  Jan  van  de  Cappelle  (marine  painter 

188  14.   NATIONAL  GALLERY.     TheWest  End. 

of  the  17tli  cent,  at  Amsterdam;  under  the  influence  of  Rembrandt), 
Shipping;  223.  Bakhuizen,  Dutch  shipping;  983.  A.  van  de  Velde, 
Bay  horse,  cow,  and  goat;  Van  de  CappelUj  964.  River-scene,  865. 
Coast-scene ;  820.  Berchem,  Landscape,  with  ruin ;  994.  Jan  van  der 
JSTcf/rfen,  Street;  982.  A,  van  de  Velde,  Landscape.  —  ♦868.  A,  van 
de  Velde,  Ford. 

*The  composition  is  very  tasteful,  and  the  contrast  between  the  con- 
centrated mass  of  light  and  the  clear  half-shadow,  which  is  repeated  in  soft 
broken  tones  upon  Uxe  horizon,  is  very  attractive'.  —  W. 

1420.  0.  A.  Berckheyde  (Haarlem ;  1638-98),  View  in  Haarlem ; 
1915.  Jan  van  der  Heydin^  Dutch  church  and  market-place ;  999. 
G.  Schalcken,  Candle-light  effect;  1053.  £manu«Z  d«  Wi«e  (Amster- 
dam; 1607-92),  Church-interior;  1451.  Q,  A,  Berckheyde,  Church- 
interior  ;  1287.  Dutch  School,  Interior  of  an  art-gallery ;  Jan  van  der 
Heyden,  866.  Street  in  Cologne  (with  figures  by  A,  van  de  Velde"), 
992.  Gothic  and  classic  buildings,  1914.  Boyal  chateau  in  Holland. 
—  966.  Van  de  CappeUe,  River-scene ;  *870.  W.  van  de  Velde,  Sea- 
piece.  ' —  831.  Hobbema,  Ruins  of  Brederode  Castle. 

'Strongly  illumined  by  a  sunbeam,  and  reflected  in  the  dark  yet  clear 
water  which  surrounds  them'.  —  W. 

846.  NeUcher,  Lady  at  a  spinning-wheel  (finished  with  great 
delicacy ;  840.  Frans  van  Mierit  (d.  1681),  Lady  feeding  a  parrot 
(these  two  figures,  of  the  same  size  and  in  the  same  dress,  afford 
an  interesting  comparison  of  the  workmanship  of  the  two  masters) ; 
Maas,  *159.  The  Dutch  housewife,  dated  1655,  *207.  The  idle  ser- 
vant, a  masterpiece,  dated  1655,  *153.  Cradle;  997.  O.  Schalcktn, 
Old  woman.  —  *844.  Netscher,  Maternal  instruction. 

'The  ingenuous  expression  of  the  children ,  the  delicacy  of  the  hand' 
ling,  the  striking  efl'ect  of  light,  and  the  warm  deep  harmony  render 
this  one  of  the  most  pleasing  pictures  by  Netscher\  — .  W. 

Above  the  cupboard  in  the  background  there  hangs  a  small  copy  of 
Rubens's  'Brazen  Serpent'  in  this  collection  (So.  59,  see  p.  189). 

843.  Netscher,  Children  blowing  soap-bubbles  (1670) ;  965.  Van 
de  Cappelle,  River- scene;  871.  W,  van  de  Velde,  Sea-piece;  205. 
J.  W.  E.  Dietrich  (German  School,  court-painter  at  Dresden ;  d.  1774), 
Itinerant  musicians.  —  Then  five  modem  pictures  without  numbers, 
on  loan:  Jacob  Maria  (d.  1899),  Mother  and  child.  The  draw- 
bridge ;  Anton  Mauve  (d.  1888),Watering  horses ;  Johannes  Bosboom 
(d.  1891),  Interior  of  Haarlem  church;  Josef  Israels  (b.  1824),  The 
philosopher.  — 1918.  P.  laFargue,  Market-place  at  The  Hague ;  1222. 
M.  d'Hondeeoetery  Foliage,  birds,  and  insects;  ♦1660.  A.  van  der 
Wer/f  (1659-1722),  Portrait  of  the  artist ;  Oerard  Dou,  968.  Portrait 
of  his  wife,  1415.  Portrait  of  Anna  Maria  van  Schurman,  192. 
Portrait  of  himself;  1056.  H.  Sorgh,  Man  and  woman  drinking. 

A  small  comer-room,  entered  from  the  passage  between  RR.  XII  and 
XIII,  contains  Monochrome  Painting*  and  Crayon  Drawings. 

Boom  XIII.  Flemish  School.  Besides  works  by  Rubens  and 
Van  Dyck,  the  chiefs  of  t!ie  Flemish  school  of  the  17th  cent,  this 
room  contains  interesting  examples  of  Teniers  the  Younger.    To 

TheWe$tEnd,     14.  NATIONAL  GALLERY.  189 

the  left:  69.  Peter  Paul  Rubens  (Antwerp;  1677-1640),  Brazen  Ser- 
pent; 950.  David  Tenters  the  Elder  (pupil  of  Ruhens,  and  also  of  £ls- 
heimer  at  Rome;  d.  1649),  Conversation ;  David  Tenters  the  Younger 
(genre-painter  In  Antwerp,  pupil  of  A.  Brouwei  and  Rubens; 
1610-90),  158.  Boors  regaling,  164.  Musical  party,  953.  Toper; 
1353.  M.  Bykaert  (1587-1631),  Landscape  with  satyrs;  1895. 
J.  Jordaens,  Portrait;  Van  Dyck,  49.  Portrait,  ""^SO.  Miraculous 
Draught  of  Fishes  (after  Rubens) ;  *805.  Teniers  the  Younger,  Old 
woman  peeling  a  pear;  1810.  Fr.  Duchatel  (Brussels;  1616-94), 
Portrait  of  a  boy;  Rubens,  187.  Apotheosis  of  William  the  Silent, 
279.  Horrors  of  War,  coloured  sketch  for  a  large  picture  in  the  Pitti 
Palace  at  Florence,  853.  Triumph  of  Silenus. 

*278.  Rubens  f  Triumph  of  Julius  GsBsar,  freely  adapted  from 
Mantegna^s  famous  cartoons,  now  in  Hampton  Court  Palace  (p.  409). 

The  Flemiflh  painter  strives  to  add  richness  to  the  scene  by  Bacchan- 
alian riot  and  the  sensnality  of  imperial  Borne.  His  elephants  twist  their 
trunks ,  and  trnmpet  to  the  din  of  cymbals ;  negroes  feed  the  flaming 
candelabra  with  scattered  frankincense;  the  white  oxen  of  Glitamnos  are 
loaded  with  gaudy  flowers,  and  the  dancing  maidens  are  disheyelled 
Msenads.  But  the  rhythmic  procession  of  Mantegna,  modulated  to  the 
sounds  of  flutes  and  soft  recorders,  carries  our  imagination  back  to  the 
best  days  and  strength  of  Borne.  His  priesta  and  generals ,  captives  and 
chorie  women  are  as  little  Greek  as  they  are  modem.  In  them  awakes 
to  a  new  life  the  spirit-quelling  energy  of  the  Bepublic.  The  painter's 
severe  taste  keeps  out  of  sight  the  insolence  and  orgies  of  the  Empire  \ 
he  conceives  Bome  as  Shakspeare  did  in  ^Coriolanut''  (Spmonds). 

Rubens,  157.  Landscape,  1195.  Birth  of  Venus;  156.  Van  Dyck, 
Study  of  horses;  2130.  Jan  Siberechts,  The  water  lane;  Teniers  the 
Younger,  242.  Players  at  tric-trac  or  backgammon,  867-860.  The 
Seasons;  1231.  Sir  Anthony  More  or  Moro  (b.  at  Utrecht  in  1512; 
painted  portraits  in  England),  Portrait ;  1094.  Sir  4.  More  (?),  Portrait. 

•862.  Rubens,  Portrait,  known  as  the  'Chapeau  de  paille'. 

'The  chief  charm  of  the  celebrated  'Chapeau  de  Paille^  (chapeau  de 
poll)  consists  in  the  marvellous  triumph  over  a  great  difficulty,  that  of 
painting  a  head  entirely  in  the  shadow  ca<*t  by  the  hat,  and  yet  in  the 
clearest  and  most  brilliant  tones'.  —  ^Kugler\  edited  by  Crotoe. 

50.  Van  Dyckj  Emp.  Theodosius  refused  admission  to  the  Church 
of  Sant'  Ambrogio  at  Milan  by  St.  Ambrose  (copied,  with  slight 
alterations,  from  Rubens's  picture  at  Vienna);  949.  Teniers  the  Elder, 
Rocky  landscape ;  "'66.  Rubens,  Autumnal  landscape,  with  a  view  of 
the  Chateau  de  Stein,  the  painter's  house,  near  Malines.  —  1017. 
Unknown  Flemish  Master,  Landscape  (signed  D.D.V.,  1622);  Rubens, 
38.  Rape  of  the  Sabine  women,  67.  Holy  Family;  *62.  Van  Dyck, 
Portrait  (probably  Cornelius  van  der  Geest) ;  Gonzales  Coques  (An- 
twerp; d.  1684),  *1114-1118.  The  five  senses,  allegorical  and  finely 
executed  half-lengths,  1011.  Portrait;  Teniers  the  Younger,  817. 
Chateau  of  the  painter  at  Perck,  with  portraits  of  himself  and  his 
family,  861.  River-scene,  862.  The  husband  surprised;  ^821.  Coques, 
Family  portraits,  amply  justifying  the  artistes  claim  to  be  the  'Little 
Van  Dyck*;  961.  Teniers  the  Elder,  Playing  at  bowls.  —  194.  Rubens, 
Judgment  of  Paris. 

190  14.  NATIONAL  GALLERY.     TheWestEnd. 

Smaller  repetitions  exist  in  the  Louvre  and  at  Dresden.  Tlie  London 
picture,  though  possibly  not  painted  entirely  by  Rubeos'  own  hand,  was 
certainly  executed  under  his  guidance  and  supervision. 

962.  Teniers  the  Younger,  Village-fete,  dated  1643. 

^An  admirable  original  repetition  of  the  masterly  picture  in  the  pos- 
session of  the  Duke  of  Bedford,  though  not  equal  to  the  Bedford  picture 
in  delicacy*.  —  W, 

Teniers  the  Younger ,  166.  The  miserB,  863.  Dives  In  torment;  no 
number,  Adriacn  Brouwer,  Tavern-scene  (on  loan)i  *2127,  2144.  Van 
Dyck,  The  Marchese  Giovanni  Battista  Cataneo  and  his  v^ife;  Rubens, 
67.  Conversion  of  St.  Bavon,  46.  Peace  and  War  (presented  by  the 
painter  to  Charles  I.  in  1630);  *1262.  Frans  Snyders  (animal  and 
fruit  painter,  Antwerp  j  1579-1667),  Fruit. 

Boom  XIV.  Spanish  School.  To  the  left:  1122.  Domenico 
Theotocopuli  (d.  1625;  suinamed  II  Qreco\  A  Cardinal;  Velazquez 
(d.  1660),  ♦746.  Philip  IV.,  •197.  Philip  IV.  hunting  the  wild  boar, 
*741.  Dead  warrior  ('Orlando  muerto');  244.  Josef  Ribera,  sumamed 
Lo  Spagnoletto,  Shepherd  and  lamb ;  1930.  Zurbaran  (d.  1662),  Por- 
trait of  a  lady. 

1434.  Velazquez,  A  Betrothal  (little  more  than  a  sketch). 

This  picture  was  at  one  time  believed  to  represent  the  betrothal  of 
the  daughter  of  Philip  IV.  to  the  Emperor  Leopold,  but  it  is  perhaps  more 
probable  that  it  depicts  the  less  magnificent  betrothal  of  the  painter's  own 
daughter  to  his  confrere  El  Mazo.  In  this  case  the  knight  of  Santiago 
seated  at  the  table  is  probably  a  portrait  of  Velazquez. 

*13.  Bartolome  Esteban  Murillo  (influenced  by  Velazquez  and  Van 
Dyck;  d.  1682),  Holy  Family;  1291.  Juan  de  Valdes  Leal  (1630-91), 
Assumption;  *1467.  Theotocopuli^  Christ  expelling  the  traders; 
1473.  FrancUco  Ooya  (1746-1828),  Portrait.  —  Velazquez,  1129. 
Philip  IV.  (bought  at  the  Hamilton  sale  for  6300^.),  ♦2067.  Venus 
and  Cupid  (the  'Rokeby  Venus' ;  purchased  for  46,O0Oi.  in  1906 
and  presented  to  the  Nation),  *1316.  Portrait  of  Admiral  Pulido- 
Pareja.  —  1951.  Ooya,  Portrait  of  Dr.Peral;  1376.  Velazquez,  Duel 
in  the  Prado  near  Madrid  (sketch);  no  number,  Lo  Fil  de  Mestre 
Rodrigo  (16th  cent.).  Adoration  of  the  Magi  (lent  by  the  Victoria 
and  Albert  Museum);  Murillo,  ^74.  Spanish  peasant  boy,  1286.  Boy 
drinking;  1376.  Velazquez,  Christ  at  the  house  of  Martha.  —  1229. 
Morales  (1609-86;  surnamed  'the  Divine*  from  his  love  of  religious 
subjects),  Holy  Family,  a  highly  finished  little  work,  recalling  the 
Flemish  manner;  ^232.  Zurbaran,  Nativity  (formerly  considered  an 
early  work  of  Velazquez) ;  1676.  F.  de  Herrera  (1576-1656),  Christ 
and  the  Doctors;  Ooya,  1471.  Picnic,  1472.  Scene  from  a  play; 
230.  Zurbaran,  Franciscan  monk;  ♦1148.  Velazquez,  Scourging  of 
Christ;  235.  Ribera,  Dead  Christ;  ♦He.  MuriUo,  St.  John  and  the 

Eoom  XV.  Gbbman  School.  To  the  left :  1087.  Oerman  School 
(16- 16th  cent.),  Mocking  of  Christ;  706.  Master  of  the  ^Lyversberg 
Pastion'  (Cologne;  15th  cent.),  Presentation  in  the  Temple;  1088. 

TheWestEnd.     14.   NATIONAL  GALLERY.  191 

German  School  (16tb  cent.),  Cruciflxion  (side  compartments,  see 
below) ;  262.  School  of  the  Meister  von  Lieshom^  Crucifixion  •,  259. 
Meiater  von  Liesbom  (ca.  1465),  He&d  of  Ohrigt;  687.  WiUiam  of 
Cologne  (early  Cologne  painter;  14th  cent.),  St.  Veronica  with  her 
napkin;  Meister  von Liesbomj  265.  Saints,  256.  Annunciation,  254. 
Saints;  257.  Attributed  to  the  Meister  von  LUsbom^  Purltlcatlon  of 
the  Virgin  and  the  Presentation  of  Christ. 

*1314.  Han$  Holbein  the  Younger  (son  and  pupil  of  H.  Holbein 
the  Elder ;  worked  much  in  London;  1497-1543),  The  Ambassadors. 

The  picture,  along  with  Nos.  1315  (see  p.  190)  and  1316  (p.  176),  was 
purchased  firom  Lord  Radnor  in  1880  for  65,000/.  The  figure  on  the  left 
is  supposed  to  be  Jean  de  Dinteville,  Freneh  ambassador  In  London  in 
1533,  and  that  on  the  other  side  Qeorge  de  Selve,  Bishop  of  Lavaur. 
Another  theory,  elaborated  by  Mr.  W.  F.  Dickes,  identlflos  the  personages 
as  the  brothers  Otto  Henry  and  Philip,  Counts-Palatine  of  the  Rhine,  and 
.  describes  the  painting  as  a  commemoration  of  the  Treaty  of  Nuremberg 
in  1532. 

The  curious  object  in  the  foreground  is  the  distorted  projection  of  a 
skull,  as  will  be  seen  when  viewed  diagonally  from  the  right. 

MeUter  von  Werden,  251.  Saints,  252.  Conversion  of  St.  Hubert, 
250.  Saints,  253.  Mass  of  St.  Hubert;  261.  Meister  von  Liesborn, 
Saints ;  707.  German  School  (15th  cent.),  Two  saints.  —260.  Meister 
von  Liesbom^  Saints;  1427.  Hans  Baldung  Grien  (d.  1545),  Pletk; 
no  numbers,  Christoph  Amberger^  Portrait,  JBart.  Bruyn  (ca.  1524-55), 
Dr.  Fuschius  (on  loan);  1243.  C.  W.  Heimbach  (1613-78),  Portrait; 
1925.  Lucas  Cranach,  Portrait;  195.  German  School  (16th  cent.). 
Medical  professor;  722.  German  School^  Portrait ;  1080.  Lower  Rhenish 
School^  Head  of  St.  John  the  Baptist,  with  mourning  angels;  no 
number,  Hans  Holbein,  *Prlnces8  Christina  of  Denmark,  widow  of 
Francesco  Sforza,  Duke  of  Milan  (on  loan);  245.  Hans  Bqldung 
Grien  ^  Senator  (with  the  forged  monogram  of  Albrecht  DQrer);  1151. 
German  School,  Entombment;  184.  Nicolas  Lucidel  (ca.  1527-90; 
b.  In  Halnault,  painted  portraits  at  Nuremberg),  Young  German  lady 
(formerly  ascribed  to  More);  723.  Martin  Schoen,  Virgin  and  Child; 
1938.  Albrecht  Durer  (1471-1528),  Portrait  of  his  father;  1232. 
H,  Aldegrever  (d.  after  1555),  Portrait;  1424.  Adam  Elsheimer  (b.  at 
Frankfort  1578;  d.  at  Rome  16201,  Tobias  and  the  angel;  291.  Lucas 
Cranac/i  (1472-1553),  Young  lady;  1088  (see  above) ;  %9.  Rotten- 
hammer  (d.  1628),  Pan  and  Syrinx;  1049.  Westphalian  School  (;>), 
Cruciflxion;  705.  Attributed  to  Meister  Stephan  (d.  iibi\  Saints; 
258.  Meister  von  Liesbom,  Adoration  of  the  Magi;  1014.  Elsheimer, 
Martyrdom  of  St.  Lawrence;  1088  (see  above);  no  number,  Master 
of  the  Death  of  the  Virgin  (Cologne,  early  16th  cent.),  Virgin  and 
Child  with  donor  (on  loan). 

Soom  XVI  (adjoining  R.  XIV).  Fbbnch  School.  The  French 
landscape-painter  Claude  LorrainQClaude  GelUe ;  1600-1682),  who 
is  represented  in  this  collection  by  several  fine  examples,  Is  chiefly 
eminent  for  his  skill  In  aerial  perspective  and  his  management  of 
sunlight.   Salvator  Rosa  and  the  tv^o  Pousslns  lived  and  painted 

192  14.   NATIONAL  GALLERY.     The  West  End, 

at  Rome  contempoianeoasly  with  him.  iVicAo^asPofiMin  (1594-1665), 
more  famed  as  a  painter  of  JGLguies  than  of  landscapes,  was  the 
biother-in-law  of  Gaspar  PousHn  (properly  Oaspar  Dughet ;  1613- 
75),  a  follower  of  Claude. 

On  the  right:  1190.  Ascribed  to  Fr.  Clouet  (court- painter  to 
Francis  I. ;  d.  1672),  Portrait  of  a  boy;  Simon  Marmion  (16th  cent.), 
1302.  Soul  of  St.  Bertin  borne  to  heaven,  1303.  Choir  of  angels;  no 
numbers,  MaUre  de  FUmalle^  Virgin  and  Child  with  angels,  Master 
of  Jehan  Perreal,  St.  Clement  and  donor  (both  on  loan).  —  Then  two 
large  landscapes  by  Claude  and  two  by  Turner  (p.  196),  the  two 
latter  bequeathed  by  the  artist  on  condition  that  they  should  be 
hung  beside  the  Claudes.  *12.  Claude,  Landscape  with  figures  (with 
the  inscription  on  the  picture  itself,  ^Manage  d'Isac  avec  Rebeoa'), 
a  work  of  wonderfully  transparent  atmosphere,  recalling  in  its  com- , 
position  the  celebrated  picture  41  molino'  (the  mill)  in  the  Palazzo 
Doria  at  Rome,  painted  in  1648.  —  498.  Turner,  Dido  building 

This  picture  id  not  considered  a  favourable  specimen  of  Turner,  whose 
^eye  for  colour  unaccountably  fails  him'  (Buskin).  Mr.  Ruskin  comments 
on  the  'exquisite  choice'  of  the  group  of  children  sailing  toy  boats,  as 
expressive  of  the  ruling  passion  which  was  to  be  the  source  of  Carthage's 
future  greatness. 

The  visitor  will  scarcely  need  to  be  referred  to  'Modern  Painters' 
(Vol.  I),  for  Mr.  Ruskin's  eloquent  comparison  of  Turner  with  Claude 
and  the  other  landscape-painters  of  the  old  style  and  for  his  impassioned 
championship  of  the  English  master. 

♦14.  Claude,  Embarkation  of  the  Queen  of  Sheba  (1648). 

'The  effect  of  the  morning  sun  on  the  sea,  the  waves  of  which  run 
high,  and  on  the  masses  of  building  which  adorn  the  shore,  producing 
the  most  striking  contrast  of  light  and  shade,  is  sublimely  poetical'.  —  W. 

♦479.  Turner,  Sun  rising  in  a  mist.  —  Above  these,  O.  Poussiny 
96.  Landscape  with  Dido  and  JBneas,  with  sky  much  overcast; 
36.  Land-storm.  1336.  French  School  (15th  cent.).  Madonna;  no 
number,  French  or  Flemish  School  (15th  cent.).  Lady  as  Mary  Magdalen 
(on  loan).  —  660.  Ascribed  to  Fr,  Clouet,  Portrait;  1939.  Frerhch 
School,  Virgin  and  Child  with  saints ;  166.  N.  Poussin,  Plague  among 
the  Philistines  at  Ashdod.  —  *Si,  0.  Poussin,  Landscape,  with 
Abraham  and  Isaac. 

This  is  the  finest  picture  by  Poussin  here.  Seldom,  perhaps,  have  the 
charms  of  a  plain,  as  contrasted  with  hilly  forms  overgrown  with  the  richest 
forests,  been  so  well  understood  and  so  happily  united  as  here,  the  efi'ect 
being  enhanced  by  a  warm  light,  broken  by  shadows  of  clouds'.  —  W. 

104.  Nicolas  Lancret  (painter  of  'fetes  galantes';  d.  1743),  Age 
(the  rest  of  the  series.  Ages  of  man,  farther  on);  1019.  Jean  Oreuze 
(painter  of  fancy  portraits ;  d.  1806),  Head  of  a  girl  looking  upward ; 
G,  Poussin,  161.  Italian  landscape,  1169.  Calling  of  Abraham; 
206.  Greuze,  Head  of  a  girl;  103.  Lancret,  Manhood  (see  above). — 
1020.  Greuze,  Girl  with  an  apple;  101.  Lancret,  Infancy  (see  above); 
♦30.  Claude,  Embarkation  of  St.  Ursula;  2081.  Hyacinthe  Rigaud 
(portrait- painter  under  Louis  XIV.  and  Louis  XV.;  d.  1743),  Lulli 

TheWcitEnd,     14.   NATIONAL  GALLERY.  193 

and  his  fellow  mnsicfans  at  the  French  court;  1164.  Oreuze,  Girl 
with  a  lamb  j  102.  Lancret^  Youth  (see  p.  192);  N.  PouaHn^  39.  Nursing 
of  Bacchus,  65.  Cephalus  and  Aurora,  42.  Bacchanalian  festival ; 
19.  Claude^  Landscape,  with  Narcissus  and  Echo. — 40.  N,  PotMfin, 
Landscape,  with  Phocion. 

According  to  Mr.  Bntkin  ibis  is  *one  of  the  finest  landscapes  that  an- 
cient art  has  produced,  —  the  work  of  a  really  great  and  intellectaal  mind*. 

*62.  N,  Pou88in^  Bacchanalian  dance. 

This  is  the  best  example  of  Nicholas  Ponssin  in  the  gallery.    The 
composition  is  an  imitation  of  an  ancient  bas-relief. 

Boom  Xyn.  French  School.  To  the  left:  1422.  Eustache  Le 
5tt«ir(d.  1665),  Holy  Family;  61.  Ctourfc,  Landscape;  1664.  J.B,8. 
Chardin  (d.  1779),  *La  Fontaine';  64.  8.  Bourdon  (1616-71),  Return 
of  the  Ark  from  captivity;  1018.  Claude,  Classical  landscape  (dated 
1673);  91.  N.  Pousnn,  Sleeping  nymph  surprised  by  satyrs;  2216. 
J.  F,  de  Troy  (1679-1752),  *La  main  chaude';  55.  Ctoudc,  Land- 
scape with  death  of  Procris.  —  1319.  Claude,  Landscape  and  view 
in  Rome;  1653.  J»fm<r.  Fi^ir<rLeJ5run(1755-1842),  Portrait  of  herself; 
798.  Philippe  de  Ckampaigne  (d.  1674),  Three  portraits  of  Cardinal 
Richelieu,  painted  as  a  guide  in  the  execution  of  a  bust  (over  the 
profile  on  the  spectator's  right  are  the  words,  *De  ces  deux  profiles 
ce  cy  est  le  meilleur');  2217.  J.  L.  David  (d.  1825),  Elisa  Bona- 
parte, Grand  Duchess  of  Tuscany.  —  236.  C.  J.  Vemet  (1714-89; 
grand-father  of  Horace  Vemet),  Castle  of  Sant'  Angelo  at  Rome; 
2218.  Ingres,  Madam  Malibran;  2134.  Fantin-Latour,  Apples;  no 
number,  Narcisae  V.  Diaz  de  la  Pena  (1809-76),  Storm  (on  loan); 
2120.  Jacques  de  Saint- Aubin,  A  fencing-match ;  no  number,  Eugene 
Isaley,  Fish-market,  Dieppe  (on  loan)  ;  2135.  Jean  Baptiste  Corot, 
The  marsh  Arleux-du-Nord,  Noon,  The  wood-gatherer,  The  leaning 
tree,  Evening  on  the  lake  (these  four  on  loan) ;  Jaahey,  Grandfather's 
birthday  (on  loan) ;  *Q.  Claude,  Landscape  with  figures  (David  and 
Saul  in  the  Cave  of  Adullam);  1952.  Fantin-Latour,  Portraits;  1426. 
Le  Nain  (d.  1648),  Tasting  (portrait-group);  2078.  Euglne  Boudin, 
Trouville  harbour;  2162.  Joseph  Ducreux,  Portrait  of  the  artist; 
2058.  Diaz,  Sunny  days  in  the  forest;  5.  Claude,  Seaport  at  sunset, 
C. F.  Daubigny,  Willows  and  fishermen;  2133.  Fantin-Latour, Roses; 
1090.  Francois  Boucher  (1704-70),  Pan  and  Syrinx.  —  98. 0,  Poussin, 
Landscape;  903.  HyacintheRigaud,  Cardinal  Fleury;  1393.C.  J.Vemet, 
Mediterranean  seaport;  2.  Ctoude,  Pastoral  landscape  with  figures  (re- 
conciliation of  Cephalus  and  Procris);  68.  G,  Poussin,  Landscape; 
68.  Claude,  Landscape  with  goats;  1258.  J.  B.  8,  Chardin,  Still-life. 

To  reach  the  next  room,  we  return  through  R.  XVI  and  cross  the 
main  staircase. 

Boom  XVIII.  Oldbb  British  School.  In  the  doorway,  under 
glass,  are  the  palettes  of  John  Constable  (left)  and  Ford  Madox 
Brown  (right).  To  the  left:  314.  8am.  8cott  (d.  1772),  Old  West- 
minster Bridge ;  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  (portrait-painter  and  writer 

Baxdbkkk's  London.    i6th  Edit.  13 

194  14.   NATIONAL  GALLERY.     TheWestEnd, 

on  art,  founder  and  first  president  of  the  Royal  Academy;  4723-92), 
890.  George  IV.  as  Prince  of  Wales,  111.  Lord  Heatbfleld,  the  de- 
fender of  Gibraltar  in  1779-83,  106.  Portrait;  S02.  Richard  Wilson 
(1713-82),  Italian  scene;  Reynolds,  1924.  Mrs.  Hartley  and  child, 
885.  The  snake  in  the  grass,  ♦182.  Heads  of  angels.  —  Reynolds, 

.307.  Age  of  Innocence,  ♦1259.  Anne,  Countess  of  Albemarle,  ^.Gg. 

'IfiJant  Samuel.  1460.  J.  C.  Ibbetson  (1759-1817),  Smugglers  on  the 
''  Irish  coast;  1290.  R.  Wilson,  Landscape;  78 A.  Reynolds,  Holy 
Family;  R,  Wilson,  304.  Lake  Avernus,  with  the  Bay  of  Naples  in 
the  distance,  301.  View  in  Italy.  —  Reynolds,  887.  Dr.  Johnson, 
b"88.  James  Boswell,  the  biographer  of  Johnson;  1067.  George  Mor- 
land  (d.  1804),  Quarry  with  peasants;  1223.  S.  Scott,  Old  West- 
minster Bridge ;  Reynolds,  107.  The  banished  lord,  *754.  Portrait, 
306.  Portrait  of  himself;  267.  R.  Wilson,  Landscape;  Reynolds, 
79.  The  Graces  decorating  a  terminal  figure  of  Hymen  (portraits  of 
the  daughters  of  Sir  W.  Montgomery),  889.  His  own  portrait;  1071. 
R.  WUson,  Landscape;  Reynolds,  2077.  Lady  Cockburn  and  her 
children,  891.  Portrait  of  a  lady;  1064,  303.  R.  Wilson,  Landscapes; 
Reynolds,  305.  Portrait,  886.  Admiral  Keppel,  892.  Robinetta,  said 
to  be  a  study  of  the  Hon.  Mrs.  Tollemache  (painted  about  1786) ; 
313.  8,  Scott,  Old  London  Bridge. 

Boom  XIX.  Older  British  School.  To  the  left  of  the  door 
leading  from  the  staircase :  1652.  Unknown  Painter  (16th  cent.), 
Catherine  Parr;  1402.  Henry  Morland  (d.  1797),  The  laundry-maid ; 
1491.  Allan  Ramsay  (son  of  the  poet;  1713-84),  Portrait;  Hogarth 
(1697-1764),  1935.  Portrait  of  Quin,  the  actor,  ♦1046.  Sigismonda 
mourning  over  the  heart  of  Guiscardo;  1224.  Hudson  (d.  1779), 
Scott,  the  painter;  1076.  Uriknown  Master,  Portrait,  supposed  to  be 
the  poet  Gay;  Hogarth,  1161.  Miss  Fenton  the  actress  as  VPoUy 
Peachum'  in  the  ^Beggars'  Opera',  675,  1663  (farther  on),  Portraits 
of  his  sisters,  112.  Portrait  of  himself;  *1249.  William  Dobson 
(1610-46 ;  the  ^English  Van  Dyck'),  Endymion  Porter,  Groom  of 
the  Bedchamber  to  Charles  I.;  A.  W.  Devis  (d.  1822),  Portrait  of 
Governor  Herbert  (lent  by  the  National  Portrait  Gallery);  1464. 
Hogarth,  Calais  Gate  ('The  roast  beef  of  Old  England');  1016.  Sir 
Peter  Lely  (d.  1680),  Girl  feeding  a  parrot;  Francis  Cotes  (d.  1770), 
1281.  Portrait  of  Mrs.  Brocas,  1943.  Portrait  of  Paul  Sandby,  R.  A.; 
Hogarth,  1162.  Shrimp  Girl,  1374.  The  painter's  servants.  — 1844. 
Sir  James  T/iomMW  (1676-1734),  A  scene  from  the  life  of  St.  Francis; 
Hogarth,  1153.  Family  group,  113-118.  Marriage  k  la  mode  (in  1750 
Hogarth  received  only  126i.  for  the  series,  which,  when  sold  again 
in  1794,  realised  138U.);  1670.  Sir  William  Beechey  (1763-1839), 
Portrait;  108.  WUson,  Landscape;  1198.  A66ot  (1760-1803),  Por- 
trait. —  120.  Beechey,  Nollekens,  the  sculptor;  110.  R.  Wilson,  Land- 
scape, with  figures;  1671.  Beechey,  Portrait  of  a  gentleman;  1403. 
Henry  Morland,  The  laundry- maid ;  1496.  John  Bettes  (portrait- 
painter;  d.  ca.  1573),  Portrait. 

The  West  End.     14.  NATIONAL  GALLERY.  195 

Room  XX.  British  School.  To  the  left,  on  enteriDg  from 
R.  XIX :  1272.  John  Constable  (one  of  the  foremost  English  land- 
scape-palnterB,  who  has  exercised  great  influence  on  the  modern 
French  school  of  landscape;  1776-1837),  The  Cenotaph  erected  in 
memory  of  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  in  Coleorton  Park,  Leicestershire. 
Thomas  Qainsborough  (one  of  the  most  eminent  of  English  portrait- 
painters ;  1727-88),  1271.  Portrait,  ♦311. Rustic  children;  Constable, 
1246.  A  house  atHampstead,  1815,  Summer  afternoon  after  a  shower, 
1814.  Salisbury  Cathedral,  ♦ISOCornfleld,  1817.  The  gleaners,  ^' 
1821.  A  country  lane,  1818.  View  atEpsom,  1065.  Landscape,  *J2i^ 
Hay-wain.  1158.  Jamw  Ward  (d.  1859),  Harlech  Castle.  Constable, 
1819,  1820.  Landscapes  (small  sketches),  1822.  Dedham  Vale,  1816. 
The  mill  stream,  327.  The  valley  farm,  1066.  Landscape,  1813.  View 
on  Hampstead  HeaS^  1831 .  John  Crome  ('Old  Crome'  of  Norwich ; 
d.  1821),  Brathey  Bridge,  Cumberland ;  Constaftfe,  1823, 1274.  The 
glehe  farm  (two  versions  of  the  same  composition),"^ 1 2f3.  Flatford 
Mill;  Crome,  689.  Household  Heath  near  Norwich,  926.  Windmill ; 
1275.  Constable.  View  at  Hampstead.  —  1467.  R,  Ladfcroofrc(d.  1842), 
Landscape,  with  view  of  Oxford;  897.  Crome^  View  at  Chapelflelds, 
Norwich;  1658.  George  Lambert  (1710-65),  Landscape;  109.  Gains- 
borough^ The  watering-place;  119.  Sir  George  Beaumont  (1753- 
1827),  Landscape,  with  Jaques  and  the  wounded  stag;  1037.  Crome, 
Welsh  slate-quarries;  Gainsborough,  1174.  The  watering-place, 
925.  Landscape  in  Suffolk,  80.  The  market -cart,  310.  Land- 
scape, 309.  The  watering-place;  1111.  J.  S.  Cotman  (d.  1842), 
Wherries  on  the  Yare;  Gainsborough,  1811.  The  artist's  daughters, 
1485,  1486.  Landscapes ;  1487.  Zoffany[di.  1810),  Portrait  of  Gains- 
borough. —  Gainsborough,  678.  Study  for  a  portrait,  1044.  Portrait, 
*760.  Orpin,  parish-clerk  of  Bradford,  Wiltshire,  3C8.  Musidora, 
♦683.  Mrs.  Siddons,  1483.  Two  dogs,  1482.  Daughter  of  the  artist. 

Boom  XXI.  Bjiitish  School.  To  the  left :  1306.  Thomas  Barker 
(1769-1847),  Landscape;  229.  Gilbert  ^fuart  (1745-1828),  Portrait 
of  Benjamin  West,  P.R.A. ;  346.  Sir  A.  Callcott  (1779-1844),  En- 
trance to  Pisa  from  Leghorn;  Sir  David  Wilkie  (d.  1841),  *99.  The 
blind  fiddler,  122.  Village-festival;  1906.  George  RomneyXaTnyal 
of  Reynolds  antTGrainsborough;  1734-1802),  Portrait;  ♦1458.  Cotman, 
A  galiot  in  a  gale;  •1396.  Romrvey,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  Lindow; 
1830.  Thomas  Stothard  (1755-1834),  Shakespeare  characters;  1452. 
George  Stubbs  (1724-1806),  Landscape;  1667.  Romney,  Lady  and 
child;  1497.  George  Morland,  Rabbiting;  Romney,  1668.  Lady 
Hamilton  (sketch),  *312,  Lady  Hamilton  as  a  BacchantedLDOjJp/m 
8,  Copley,  R,A.  (b.  at  Boston,  Mass.,  in  1737;  d.  ifilBjr'tast 
public  appearance  of  the  Earl  of  Chatham,  who  fainted  in  en- 
deavouring to  speak  in  the  House  of  Peers  on  April  7th,  1778,  and 
died  a  month  later;  George  Morland,  1030j[nterior  of  a  stable,  1351. 
Door  of  a  village  inn;  Romnty,  lOO^The  parson's  daughter,  1669. 
Lady  Craven;  893.  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence  (1769-1830),  Princess 


196  14.   NATIONAL  GALLERY.     TheWestEnd, 

Lieven;  2056.  G.  Morland,  The  fortune-teller;  1163.  Stothard,  The 
Pilgrimage  to  Canterhury  (after  Chaucer);  iQ&JTWJfnney^  Portrait 
of  Mrs.  Mark  Currie;  1156.  George  Amald  (d.  1841),  On  the  Ouse, 
Yorkshire;  Turner  (see  below) ,^24^  ^i'^o  and  iEneas  leaving 
Carthage,  485.  View  of  Abingdon,  496.  Bligh  Sand.  —  Turner,  496. 
Apuleia  in  search  of  Apuleius,  483.  View  of  London  from  Green- 
wich, 486.  Windsor .mQ. Patrick  Nasmyth (1786-1831),  The  Severn 
off PoTtishead  -^HQ^STJohn  Millais  (1829-96),  Right  Hon.  W.  E. 
Gladstone;  1475.  C.  Brooking  (1723-69),  The  cilm;  1208.  John 
Opie  (d.  1807),  William  Godwin;  Lawrence,  1307.  Miss  Caroline 
Fry,  786.  Mrs.  Siddons;  900.  JohnHoppner  (1769-1810),  Countess 
of  Oxford;  899.  Thomas  Daniell  (1749-1840),  View  in  Bengal;  Sir 
Edwin  Landseer  (1802-73),  603.  Sleeping  bloodhound  (painted  in 
four  days),  606.  Shoeing  the  bay  mare;  1779.  R.WiUon,  River- 
scene  with  ruins ;  1837.  fifir//cnfy^ac6ufn  (1766-1823),  Portrait; 
1664.  G.  F.  Watts  (1817-1904),  Russell  Gurney,  late  Recorder  of 
London;  *604., Landaggn  Dignity  and  Impudence;  1167.  Opie,  Mary 
Wollstonecra?t  (Mrs.  Godwinl ;  1Q84.  PatWcfe  Nasmyth^  View  in 
Hampshire;  1941.  Millais,  Sir  flenry^hompson,  F.R.C.S.;  1836. 
Stothard,  Lady  reclining;  342.  CaUcott,  Landscape;  iS27 .  Stothard, 
Nymph  sleeping ;  409.  Landseer ^  King  Charles  spaniels;  784.  Opie, 
William  Siddons;  340.  CaUcott,  Dutch  peasants  returning  from 
market;  1175.  Jas.  Ward,  Regent's  Park  in  1807;  1039.  Thomas 
Barker,  Landscape;  124.  Jackson  (1778-1831),  Portrait. 

A  small  corner-room,  entered  from  tbe  passage  between  BR.  XXI  and 
XXII,  contains  small  works  by  William  Blake  (1757-1827),  Turner  (see  below), 
Hogarth,  StotJtard,  Nasmyth,  Wilkie,  CaUcott^  Gaintborough^  Constable^  and 
others.  Among  these  may  be  mentioned:  1110.  Blake,  Spiritual  form  of  Pitt 
guiding  Behemoth  (an  'iridescent  sketch  of  enigmatic  dream%  symbolising 
the  power  of  statesmanship  in  controlling  brute  force),  1164.  Procession  from 
Calvary.  —  Here  also  are  a  few  Miniaiwei  and  Turner's  palette. 

Boom  XXn  contains  an  admirable  collection  of  paintings  by 
J.  M.W.  rMrncr(l  775-1851),  the  greatest  English  landscape  painter 
(comp.  pp.  192,  252),  chiefly  bequeathed  by  the  artist  himself.  To 
the  left :  530.  Snowstorm,  steamboat  off  a  harbour  making  signals; 
370,  635,  544,  534.  Four  Venetian  pieces;  478.  Blacksmith's  shop 
(unlike  the  artist's  usual  style);  560.  Chichester  Canal;  813.  Fish- 
ing-boats in  a  breeze;  500.  The  field  of  Waterloo;  472.  Calais  pier, 
English  packet  arriving;  470.  Tenth  plague  of  Egypt;  480.  l»eath 
of  Nelson;  493.  The  ^Deluge;  ♦476.^ Shipwreck;  468.  Portrait  of 
the  artist;  559.  Petworth  Park ;  511.  Orvieto;  488.  Apollo  slaying 
the  Python;  477.  Garden  of  the  Hesperides;  513.  Vision  of  Medea ; 
516.  Childe  Harold's  Pilgrimage:  Italy;  473.  Holy  Family;  *497. 
Crossing  the  brook;  558.  Fire  at]^sea  (unfinished);  512.  Caligula's 
palace  and  bridge  at  Baias;  471.  Jason  ;  481.  Boat's  crew  recovering 
an  anchor  at  Spithead;  501.  Shipwreck  at  the  mouth  of  the  Meuse ; 
♦492.  Frosty  morning;  491.  Harvesters  at  Kingston;  506.  Dido  di- 
recting the  equipment  of  the  fleet  at  Carthage ;  *502.  Richmond 





I— I 

The  W(8t  End.     14.  NATIONAL  PORTRAIT  GALLERY.     197 

Hill ;  508.  Ulysses  deriding  Polyphemus ;  484.  St.  Mawes,  Cornwall ; 
505.  Apollo  and  the  Sibyl,  Bay  of  Baia;  474.  Destruction  of  Sodom ; 
•538.  Rain,  steam,  and  speed,  the  Great  Western  Railway ;  490. 
Snowstorm,  with  Hannibal  crossing  the  Alps;  468.  Clapham  Com- 
mon; USO.ClieTeden  on  Thames;  *528.  Burial  of  Sir  David  Wilkie 
at  sea;  465.  Mountain-scene;  561a.  Mountain -stream ;  536.  Fibhing- 
boats  towing  a  disabled  ship;  *524/The  'Fighting  Temeraire' towed 
to  her  last  berth  to  be  broken  up  (one  of  the  most  frequently  copied 
pictures  in  the  whole  gallery) ;  489.  Cottage  destroyed  by  an  ava- 
lanche; 369.  Prince  ofOrange  landing  at  Torbay;  548.  Queen  Mab's 
Grotto;  523.  Agrlppina  landing  with  the  ashes  of  Germanicus. 

15.  The  National  Portrait  Oallery. 

Adjoining  the  National  Gallery  on  the  N.E.  is  the  *♦  National 
Portrait  GaUery  (PI.  R,  26;  11%  erected  in  1890-95.  It  is  a  hand- 
some edifice  in  the  Italian  palatial  style,  designed  by  Mr,  Ewan 
Christian,  and  is  adorned  externally  with  busts  and  carving.  The 
entrance  (adm.,  see  p.  82)  is  on  the  E.  side,  facing  St.  Martinis  Place. 
The  cost  of  the  building  was  96,000^.,  of  which  80,000Z.  was  defrayed 
by  Mr,  W,  H.  Alexander,  the  remainder  by  Government.  The  direc- 
tor is  Mr,  Lionel  Cast,  Catalogue  (1903),  6d. 

The  collection,  which  was  founded  by  act  of  parliament  in  1856, 
now  contains  upwards  of  1200  portraits  of  men  and  women  eminent 
in  British  history,  literature,  art,  and  science,  and  deservedly  ranks 
among  the  most  interesting  sights  of  London.  The  present  building 
had  unfortunately  to  be  built  in  three  stories,  and  some  of  its  thirty 
odd  exhibition- rooms  are  small  and  not  too  weU  lighted.  The 
arrangement  and  numbering  of  the  rooms  are  also  somewhat  puzzling ; 
and  a  careful  study  of  the  plan  is  necessary.  The  pictures,  however, 
have  been  hung  with  great  taste  and  judgment;  on  the  upper  floor  a 
chronological  order  has  been  adhered  to,  while  downstairs  the  arrange- 
ment is  mainly  by  groups.  The  following  selection  of  the  most 
interesting  works  follows  a  chronological  order  as  far  as  possible  and 
begins  on  the  top  floor.  The  show-cases  scattered  throughout  the 
rooms  contain  engravings,  medals,  autographs,  and  the  like. 

From  an  artistic  point  of  view  the  finest  paintings  are  in  the  earlier 
rooms,  including  specimens  of  Van  Dyck,  Zucearo,  More,  Mierevelt,  Rey- 
nolds, Dobson,  Kneller,  Gainsborough,  Romney,  and  others.  The  falling 
off  is  particularly  noticeable  in  the  royal  portraits,  those  of  Queen  Victoria 
and  Prince  Albert  comparing  very  poorly  with  those  of  (e.g.)  the  Tudor 
period.  The  £ne  series  of  portraits  by  0.  F.  Watts  (p.  204),  however,  does 
something  to  redeem  the  mediocrity  of  the  Victorian  era. 


Room  I  (small)  contains  the  earliest  portraits  of  the  collection. 

Portraits  o{  Richard  II,  (1366-1400)  and  flenry /T.  (1366-1413), 

by  unknown  masters.   Facsimile  of  an  ancient  diptych  representing 

Richard  IL,  at  the  age  of  fifteen,  kneeling  before  the  Virgin  and  Child. 

198     16.  NATIONAL  PORTRAIT  GALLERY.     TheWest  End, 

Portrait  of  Oeofprey  Chaucer  (1340-1400).  Tracings  of  the  portraits 
of  Edward  III.  (1312-77)  and  his  family  formerly  on  the  E.  wall  of 
St.  Stephen's  Chapel,  Westminster  (date,  1356),  now  destroyed. 

Room  II,  chiefly  containing  portraits  of  the  Tudor  Period  (1485- 
1603).  To  the  left,  several  portraits  of  the  Plantagenet  period,  ex- 
ecuted at  a  later  date  and  of  little  artistic  value.  The  best  is  that  of 
Richard  III.  (1452-85) ,  in  the  act  of  putting  a  ring  on  his  finger, 
probably  by  a  Flemish  painter.  Henry  VIL  (1457-1609);  Catharine 
Howard  (1620-42),  by  a  pupil  of  Holbein ;  Henry  VIII.  (1491-1617), 
at  the  age  of  fifty-three,  an  early-Flemish  copy  of  the  portrait  by 
Luke  Horebout  at  Warwick  Castle;  Cardinal  Wbi«ei/ (1471-1630),  a 
crude  performance,  probably  after  an  Italian  original ;  Thomas  Cran- 
m«f ,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  (1489-1556),  by  Gerlacus  Flicius  ; 
Sir  Thomas  More  (1478-1636);  Lady  Jane  Orey  (1637-541  a  small 
work  by  Lucas  de  Heere;  two  portraits  of  Edward  VI.  (1537-63),  in 
the  manner  of  Holbein;  Queen  Mary  I.  (1616-68);  Ridley  (d.l566) 
and  Latimer  (d.  1665) ;  WiUiam  Herbert,  Earl  of  Pembroke  (1507-69), 
several  portraits  of  Queen  Elizabeth  (1633-1603);  portraits  of  the 
Earl  of  Essex  (d.  1601),  Sir  Walter  Raleigh  (d.  1618),  and  the  Earl 
of  Leicester  (1632-88;  by  Fed.  Zuccaro);  *Sir  Thomas  Oresham 
(1619-79),  founder  of  the  Royal  Exchange  (p.  115),  by  Sir  Anthony 
More;  Foxe  (1616-87),  author  of  the  'Book  of  Martyrs' ;  Sir  Henry 
Unton  (d.  1596),  a  curious  work  with  scenes  from  his  life,  by  an 
unknown  painter;  John  Knox  (1506-72),  the  Scottish  Reformer; 
portrait  of  the  ^Judicious  Hooker^  (d.  1600) ;  Peter  Martyr  VermUius 
of  Florence  (d.  1662),  preacher  of  the  Reformation  at  Oxford,  by 
Hans  Asper  of  Zurich ;  two  portraits  of  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots  (1642- 
87),  one  after  Clouet,  the  other  by  Oudry ;  Mary  of  Lorraine  (1616-60), 
mother  of  Mary  Stuart,  long  supposed  to  be  a  portrait  of  the  latter 
(so-called  Fraser-Tytler  portrait). 

Room  III  (Early  Stuarts;  1603-49).  King  James  I.  (1567- 
1625);  Jamts  VI.  of  Scotland  at  the  age  of  eight,  by  Zuccaro; 
oil-portrait  of  Shakspeare  (the  Chandos  portrait).  In  the  case  be- 
low are  an  engraving  from  the  first  folio  edition  of  the  plays  (1623), 
a  photograph  of  a  portrait  of  Shakspeare  in  the  Memorial  Gallery 
at  Stratford-on-Avon,  a  photograph  of  his  monument  in  the  church 
there,  and  specimens  of  his  signature.  BenJonson(6..  1637) ;  Michael 
Drayton  J  the  poet  (d.  1631);  James  J.,  in  the  royal  robes,  by  Van 
Somer;  Lord  Chancellor  Bacon  (1561-1626),  byVanSomer;  'Group 
of  eleven  statesmen,  assembled  at  Somerset  House  in  1604  to  ratify 
a  commercial  treaty  between  England,  Spain,  and  Austria,  by  Mar- 
cus Gheeraedts,  a  fine  work ;  Sir  Edward  Coke  (d.  1634),  the  famous 
legal  authority,  by  Cornelius  Janssens  van  Ceulen;  *Endymion  Porter, 
confidant  of  Charles  I.  (1587-1649),  by  Dobson;  CounUss  of  Pem- 
broke (d.  1621),  by  Gheeraedts; -Sir  Joftfi/SfttcWinp  (1609-41),  after 
Y&iiDyc^,  Robert  Cecil,  FirstEarlof  Salisbury  (A.  iQi2)',  SirDudley 
Carleton,  ViscourU  Dorchester  (1674-1632),  and  his  wife,  by  Miere- 

ThtWeitEnd.     15.  NATIONAL  PORTRAIT  GALLERY.     199 

-velt.  The  adjoining  caae  contains  small  portraits  of  Drummond  of 
Hawthomden^  James  F/.,  Robert  Carr^  Earl  of  Somerset  (d.  1646),  and 
Robert  CecUy  First  Earl  of  Salisbury.  Phineas  Pett  (1670-1647), 
master-builder  of  the  navy,  by  Dobson;  Francis  QuarUs  (1592- 
1644),  by  Dobson;  Earl  of  Newport  (1697-1665)  and  Lord  Goring 
(1608-1667),  by  W.  Dobson ;  Earl  of  Strafford  (d.  1641),  after  Van 
Dyck;il6p.  Laud  (1673-1646),  after  Van  Dyck ;  Children  of  Charles  I., 
early  copy  of  a  well-known  work  by  Van  Dyck  (see  p.  427) ;  Charles  I. 
(1600-49),  by OldStone, after VanDyck;  8irKenelmDighy(jl.iQQ6), 
by  Van  Dyck;  *Oeorge  ViUiers,  First  Duke  of  Buckingham  (d.  1628), 
and  bis  family,  by  Hontborst;  Richard  Weston^  First  Earl  of  Portland 
(1577-1636),  by  Com.  Janssens  van  Ceulen;  Sir  Thomas  Roe  (1581- 
1644),  by  Mierevelt;  John  Selden,  the  antiquary  (1684-1664); 
WiUiam  Dobson  (1610-46),  a  follower  of  Van  Dyck  and  the  first 
native  English  portrait-painter  of  any  eminence,  by  himself;  Sir 
Anthony  van  Dyck  (1699-1641),  by  himself.  In  the  case  below  is  a 
miniature  of  Queen  Elizabeth. 

Room  IV  (Commonwealth;  1649-60).  Queen  Elizabeth  of  Bo- 
hemia (d.  1662),  by  Hontborst  and  by  Mierevelt ;  Frederick  V.  of 
Bohemia  (1696-1632),  by  Mierevelt;  Jnigo  Jones^  the  architect 
(1573-1652),  by  Old  Stone,  after  Van  Dyck ;  Oliver  CromweU  (1699- 
1668),  by  Robert  Walker;  case  with  photographs  of  portraits  of  Oliver 
Cromwell;  Jreton  (1611-51),  by  Walker;  Oliver  Cromwell  at  the  age 
of  fifty-eight,  by  an  unknown  painter;  Milton  (1608-74),  by  Van  der 
Plaas ;  portraits  of  Baxter ^  Marvel,  Cocker  (the  arithmetician  who 
lives  in  the  phrase  ^according  to  Cocker' ;  comp.  p.  378),  and  Sir 
Matthew  Hale, 

Room  V  (Charles  II. ;  1660-86).  Portraits  of  Samuel  ButUr  by 
E.  Lutterel,  and  the  poet  Waller  by  Riley ;  Isaac  Barrow^  by  Claude 
le  Ffevre;  John  Owen;  Thomas  Hobbes,  the  philosopher  (d.  1679), 
by  J.  M.  Wright ;  Abp.  Tillotson  by  Mrs.  Beale ;  George  Monck,  Duke 
of  Albemarle,  by  Sir  Peter  Lely;  Sir  Peter  Lely,  by  himself;  WiUiam, 
Lord  RushU,  by  Riley ;  Algernon  Sidney ,  by  Justus  van  Egmont : 
Archbp.  Sancroft,  by  E.  Lutterel;  A,  A.  Cooper,  First  Earl  of  Shaftes- 
bury,  by  J.  Greenhill;  Prince  Rupert,  by  Lely;  Charles  II.,  by  Mrs. 
Beale;  Wycherley  and  several  other  male  portraits  by  Lely;  Sam. 
Pepys,  by  John  Hayls ;  *George  Villiers,  Second  Dvke  of  Buckingham 
(d.  1687),  by  Lely;  Cowley,  by  Mrs.  Beale;  Dryden,  by  Kneller.  On 
a  stand  in  the  centre :  distorted  portrait  oiEdxcard  VI,  (comp.  p.  198), 
to  be  viewed  through  the  aperture  in  the  screen  on  the  right. 

Room  VI  (Charles  IL  and  James  H.;  1660-1688).  Col.  Blood 
(see  p.  133),  by  Soest;  *John  Bunyan  (1628-88),  at  the  age  of  56, 
by  Thos.  Sadler;  portraits  of  Nell  Gwynne,  Mary  Davis,  the  actress. 
La  Belle  Hamilton,  and  other  beauties,  by  Sir  Peter  Lely:  the 
Countess  of  Shrewsbury,  by  the  same  artist ;  haak  Walton  (1 593-1  d83), 
by  Jacob  Huysman ;  Saint  Evremond  (see  p.235),  by  Parmentier;  Locke, 
the  philosopher,  by  Brownover  and  after  KneUer;  Mary  of  Modena, 

200     16.  NATIONAL  PORTRAIT  GALLERY.    The  West  End. 

second  wife  of  James  II.,  by  Wissing;  James  II.  (1633-1701),  by 
Riley;  Duchess  of  Cleveland ^  by  Kiieller(V);  Duke  of  Monmouth,  by 
Lely;  Robert  Boyle,  by  Kerseboom. 

UooM  YII  (Busts  and  Engravings).  Engravings  of  various  worthies 
of  the  17th  century.  Busts  of  CoUey  Cibber  (1671-1767),  attributed 
to  Roubiliac  (realistically  painted),  CromweUy  by  E.  Pierce  and  by 
an  unknown  artist  (latter  in  bronze),  and  John  Hampden  (terra- 
cotta; artist  unknown). 

Room  VIII  (William  UI.;  1688-1702).  Lord  Chancellor  Jeffreys, 
by  Kneller;  Sir  Isaac  Ntwton  (1642-1727),  by  Vanderbank  and  by 
R.  Walker;  *8ir  Chiistopher  Wren,  the  architect  of  St.  Paul's  Cathe- 
dral (1632-1723),  by  Kneller;  John  Lati>  (1671-1729),  by  BeUe; 
H,  Purcell  (1668-1695),  by  Klosterman ;  Mury  II,,  by  Gasp.  Ketschcr ; 
Mary  II.,  by  Wising;  Earl  of  Halifax  (1661-1716),  Karl  of  Rochester 
(d.  1711),  both  by  Kneller;  William  SomervdU  (1675-1742),  the 
poet,  ascribed  to  Kneller. 

Room  IX  (Queen  Anne;  1702-14).  J^^nalUn Suift  (1667-1745), 
by  0.  Jervas;  W.  Congreve  (d.  1729),  by  KneUer;  Alexander  Foye 
(1688-1744),  crayon  by  Hoare;  Qay,  uutinished  sketch  by  Kneller; 
Pope,  by  Kneller;  Joseph  AddUjn  (1672-1719),  old  copy  of  the  *kit- 
cat'  portrait  by  Kneller;  Bentley,  by  Thomhill;  Steele,  by  Richard- 
son ;  Viscount  Bolingbroke,  the  statesman  (1678-1761),  by  H.  Rigaud ; 
William,  First  Earl  Cowper  (1665-1723),  by  Kneller;  Duke  of  Marl- 
borough, by  Klosterman  and  by  Kneller  (the  latter  treated  allegoric- 
ally);  portraits  of  Queen  Anne;  Duchess  of  Marlborough,  by  Kneller; 
Admiral  Rooke  (1660-1709),  by  Dahl;  Bwft op  Cerfcc^y  (1684-1 768), 
by  Smibert;  James  Thomson,  the  poet  (d.  1748),  by  Paton;  Joseph 
Addison  (see  above),  by  Dahl;  Matthew  iVior  (1664-1721),  the  poet, 
by  Hudson,  after  Richardson. 

Room  X  (The  Pretenders).  President  Duncan  Forbes  of  Cullo- 
den  (1685-1747) ;  Pnnce  James,  the  Old  Pretender  (1688-1766),  by 
Mengs  arid  by  Belle;  Prince  Charles  Edward,  the  Young  Pretender 
(1720-88),  and  his  wife,  the  Countess  of  Albany  (d.  1824),  small 
portraits  by  Battonl;  his  brother.  Cardinal  York  (d.  1807),  by  Rosalba 
Garriera ;  other  portraits  of  the  Pretenders  and  Card.  York ,  by  Lar- 
giUiftre  and  by  Battoui;  Dr.  Isaac  Watts  (1674-1748),  by  Kneller; 
Edward  Young  (1684-1765),  author  of  *Night  Thoughts'. 

Room  XI  (George  I.  and  II.;  1714-60).  Handel,  the  composer 
(d.  1759),  by  Hudson  and  (terracotta  bust)  by  Roubiliac.  Chailes 
Boyle,  Fourth  Earl  of  Orrery,  by  Jervas ;  Earl  of  Chesterfield  (1694- 
17731  by  Allan  Ramsay,  and  another  by  Hoare;  Lord  Lyttelton 
(1709-73);  Chas.  SackwilU,  Sixth  Earl  of  Dorset,  by  Kneller;  Robert 
Harley,  Earl  of  Oxford,  after  Kneller;  Thomas  Gray,  by  Eccardt 
An  adjoining  case  has  small  portraits  and  autographs  of  Gray  and 
Horace  Walpole.  Horace  Walpole,  by  Eccardt  and  by  Hone;  Sir  Robert 
Walpole,  by  J.  B.  Van  Loo;  Oeorge  Washington,  by  Gilbert  Stuart; 
Wm.  Hogarth,  the  painter  (1697-1764),  by  himself;  CommitUe  of  the 

The  West  End.    l5.  NATIONAL  PORTRAIT  GALLERY.      201 

House  of  Commons  at  the  FUtt  Prison  (1729),  by  Hogarth;  *8imon 
Fraser,  Lord  Lovat  (p.  136),  by  Hogartb;  Bust  of  W.  Hogarth,  by 
Roubillac;  Sir  Hans  Stoane  (j^.*i>9i\  by  Slaugbter;  Samuel  Richardson 
(1689-1761),  by  Highmore;  Roubiliae,  by  Carpentiers. 

Room  XII  (Corridor  with  large  portraits).  Pope  and  Martha 
Blount,  by  Jervas;  Anthony  Leiyh  (d.  1692),  as  the  'Spanish  Friar', 
by  Kneller;  Philip  II,  of  Spain,  by  Coello;  James  II,,  by  Kneller; 
Henry,  Prince  of  Wales  (1594-1612),  by  Van  Somer;  Queen 
Henrietta  Maria  (^1609-69),  in  the  style  of  Van  Dyck;  Charles  I. 
(1600-49),  by  Mytens;  WiUiam  III.,  by  Wyck;  Lord  Mansfield 
(1706-93),  by  Copley;  Sir  Wm,  HamiUon  (1730-1803),  by  Sir 
Joshua  Reynolds ;  Shenstone,  by  Alcock.  —  Bust  of  Thomas  Qray, 
by  Bacon. 

Room  XIII  (Staircase  Landing ;  Royal  Portraits).  Various  royal 
portraits  by  Hudson,  Jervas,  etc.  —  Bust  of  Newton,  by  Baily,  after 

At  the  foot  of  the  fli  st  half  of  the  staircase,  on  either  side :  right, 
^Old  Parr\  the  centenarian  (see  p.  236),  after  Honthorst;  left,  Dr, 
WiUiam  Harvey  (1578-1667),  discoverer  of  the  circulation  of  the 


Room  XIV  (18th  century;  Divines,  Philosophers,  etc.).  Dr. 
Erasmus  Ddncin  (1731-1802),  by  Wright  of  Derby;  SamuelJohnson 
(1709-84),  by  Reynolds,  by  James  Barry  (unfinished),  and  by  Opie ; 
Olicer  Goldsmith  (1728-74),  by  a  pupil  of  Reynolds,  a  portrait 
familiar  through  engravings;  Sir  Richard  Arkwright,  the  inventor 
(1732-92),  by  Wright;  Benjamin  Franklin  (1706-90),  by  Baricolo; 
John  Wesley  (1703-91),  at  the  age  of  63,  by  Hone,  and  another,  at 
the  age  of  85,  by  Hamilton ;  Bust  of  Wesley,  by  an  unknown  artist ; 
Dr.  PaUy,  by  Beechey;  George  Whitefield,  the  preacher  (d.l770),  by 
Woolaston;  A6p.  iSecfccr,  after  Reynolds;  Bust  of  Samuel  Johnson, 
sijulptured  by  Baily  from  an  earlier  bust ;  Sir  Philip  Francis  (1740- 
1818),  by  Lonsdale. 

Room  XV  fStatesmen  and  Politicians).  ♦  W,  Pulteney ,  Earl  of 
Bath  (1682-1764),  by  Reynolds,  vigorously  handled.   To  the  right : 

Warren  Hastings  (1732-1818),  by  Sir  Thos.  Lawrence,  and  another 
by  Tilly  Kettle;  WilUam  Pitt,  first  Eari  of  Chatham  (1708-78),  by 
Hoare;  Edmund  Burke  (1729-97),  by  Reynolds;  •CharUs  James  Fox 
(1749-1806),  by  Hickel;  R,  B.  Sheridan  (1751-1816),  by  Russell; 

WilUam  Pitt  the  Fown^cr  (1759-1806),  by  Hoppner;  two  portraits 
of  Lord  Chancellor  Tkurlow  (1732-1806),  by  Phillips;  J. P.  Curran 
(1760-1817).  —  Busts  ^f  WiUiam  Pitt  and  CharUs  James  Fox,  by 
Nollekens;  of  Canning,  t>y  Chantrey,  etc. 

Room  XVI  (Actors  and  Dramatists).  Opposite  the  entrance  from 
R.  XV:  David  Garrick  (1717-79),  by  Pine  and  by  Luke  Sullivan; 
iir«m6fe  (1767-1823),  the  tragedian,  by  Gilbert  Stuart  ;Pcsf  Woffington 

202      15.  NATIONAL  PORTRAIT  GALLERY.    TheWeslEnd. 

(1720-60),  the  actress,  painted  as  she  lay  in  bed  paralysed,  by  A, 
Pond;  Edmund  Kean  (1787-1833),  by  Sam.  John  Stump;  Mrs. 
Siddons  (d.  1831),  by  Beechey ;  opposite,  above,  Joseph  Qrimaldi^  the 
famous  clown  (1779-1837),  by  Cawse.  —  Bust  of  Qarrich  (p.  201). 

Room  XVII  (Artists)  is  divided  into  three  sections  by  partitions. 
Ist  Section :  Busts  of  Sir  Charles  Easilake  (d.  1866),  by  Gibson,  and 
Wm.  Etty  (d.  1849),  by  Noble.  Portraits  of  William  Blake  (d.  1827) 
and  of  Chqntrey  (1781-1841),  by  Phillips ;  portraits  of  Landseer, 
John  Gibsony  the  sculptor  (1790-1866),  and  Lawrence  f  John  Flax- 
man  (1755-1826),  by  Romney ;  Lord  Leighton  (1830-96),  by  Watts ; 
John  Opie  (1761-1807),  by  himself;  NoUekens  (1737-1823),  by  Ab- 
bott ;  Watts  (1817-1904),  by  himself  (unfinished).  —  2nd  Section : 
Sir  David  Wilkie  (1785-1841),  by  himself ;  John  Leech  {iSi7-U), 
by  Millais;  Daniel  MacVse  (d.  1870);  C.  S.  Keene  (1823-91),  by 
Walton  Corbould;  Chantrey  (1781-1841),  by  himself  (chalk);  Sir 
John  Millais  (1829-96),  by  Keene  (pen-and-ink  sketch);  I>.  Q, 
Rossetti  (1828-82),  drawn  in  pencil  by  himself  in  1846;  Ford  Madox 
Brown  (1821-93),  by  Rossetti  (pencil);  J.  M.  W.  Turner  (1776- 
1851),  by  Chas.  Turner,  by  Chas.  Martin,  and  by  himself  (miniature) ; 
Patrick  Nasmyth(i7S7ASM),  by  Bewick;  Constable  (1776-1837), 
by  Macllse  and  by  himself  (lead-pencil) ;  Geo.  Morland  (1763-84), 
a  drawing  and  a  painting  by  himself.  —  3rd  Section:  Busts  of  Sir 
Thos.  Lawrence  (d.  1830),  by  Baily,  and  Benjamin  West  (d.  1820), 
by  Chantrey.  Portraits  of  Gainsborough  (d.  1788),  by  himself;  Sir 
Joshua  Reynolds^  two  portraits  by  himself;  Wright  o/Dcr6i/ (1734-97), 
by  himself;  Reynolds^  Chambers,  and  Wilton,  group  by  J.  F.  Rigaud ; 
James  Barry  (1741-1806),  by  himself;  Benjamin  Westj  by  Gilbert 
Stuart;  Romney  (d.  1802),  by  himself  (unfinished);  Angelica Kauff- 
mann  (d.  1807),  by  herself. 

XVIII.  Central  Corridob  (Miscellaneous).  On  the  right:  Sir 
Henry  Irving  (1838-1905),  by  MUlais ;  John  Howard  (d.  1790),  by 
Mather  Brown;  Sir  Rowland  Hill  (1795-1879),  by  Vinter;  Lord 
Campbell  (d.  1861),  by  Woolnoth.  —  Opposite  as  we  return:  Sydney 
fifrm't7i(1771.1845),byBriggs;Jo«cp/»HMmc(1777-1855),  by  Walton; 
*  Jeremy  Bentham,  the  economist  and  political  writer  (d.  1832),  by 
T.  Frye  (another  opposite,  by  H.  W.  Pickersgill) ;  Bishop  Colenso 
(d.  1883);  CharUsBabbageiilQI'iSli),  inventor  of  the  calculating 
machine,  by  S.  Laurence;  Herbert  Spencer  (1820-1903),  by  Burgess. 

Room  XIX  (Artists,  Men  of  Science,  etc.).  To  the  left  of  the 
door:  Portraits  of  Cruikshankj  Bewick,  and  other  artists.  Farther 
on:  Sir  John  Soane  (p.  208),  by  Jackson;  Pugin  (1812-52),  the 
architect;  Charles  Dib din  (^A.  1814),  by  Phillips;  Afacp^crson ('Ossian'; 
1736-96),  by  a  pupil  of  Reynolds;  William  Wood/aW  (1745-1803), 
the  printer  of  the  'Letters  of  Junius',  by*Beach ;  Tobias  Smolett 
(1721-71) ;  Family  of  Adam  Walker,  by  Romney. 

Room  XX  (Men  of  Science,  etc.).  Left:  John  i/omc  (1722-1808), 
author  of 'Douglas',  by  Raeburn;  Dr.Jenner  (d.  1823),  discoverer  of 

TheWestEnd.    15.  NATIONAL  PORTRAIT  GALLERY.     203 

the  protective  propeities  of  vaccination ,  by  Northcote;  John  Hunter 
(1728-93),  after  Sir  J.  Reynolds;  *Jame$  Watt  (1736-1819),  by 
0.  F.  de  Breda;  Sir  William  Herschel  (1738-1822), by  Abbott;  Mungo 
Park  (1771-1806),  miniature  after  Edridge.  —  In  tie  centre,  Benja- 
min Disraeli,  statuette  by  Lord  Ronald  Gower. 

Room  XXI  (Screen  Room;  Female  Portraits,  Drawings,  Sketches, 
etc.).  Ist  Section:  Hannah  More,  by  Pickersgill;  Ann  Taylcr  (Afrs. 
Oilbert;  1782-1866)  and  Jane  Taylor  (1783-1824),  by  their  father, 
Isaac  Taylor ;  Mn.  Fry^  after  Leslie ;  Lady  Hamilton,  by  Romney ; 
Mrs,  Trimmer  (1741-1810),  by  Henry  Howard;  Harriet  Martineau, 
by  Evans ;  Ma/ry  Mitford,  by  Lucas ;  Mary  Shelley ;  Jane  and  Anna 
Maria  Porter  (1776-1850  and  1780-1832),  by  Harlow  (crayons); 
Christina  Rossetti  (1830-94)  and  her  mother,  drawing  by  Dante 
Rossetti;  Marian  Evans  (George  Eliot)  and  her  father,  by  Mrs. 
Charles  Bray  (1842);  George  Eliot  (Mrs.  Cross;  d.  1880),  drawing  by 
Sir  F.  W. Burton;  Robert  Browning  (d.  1889)  and  Mrs^  Browning 
(d.  1861),  two  chalk  drawings  by  Talfourd;  Afr.  and  3fr«.  Piozzi  (Mrs. 
ThraU;  d.  1809  and  1821),  by  Geo.  Dance ;  two  portraits  of  Charlotte 
Bronte  {Mrs.  Nicholls;  1816-55);  Jane  Welsh  CarlyU  (1801-66),  by 
Sam.  Laurence;  Mary  Somerville  (1780-1872),  in  crayons,  by 
Swinton.  —  2nd  Section:  Thos.  Hood  (1799-1845)  and  his  wife; 
Charles  Lamb  (1775-1834),  probably  by  Henry  Meyer;  Leigh  Hunt 
(1784-1869),  by  Margaret  Gillies ;  Wm.  Cowper  (1731-1800),  by 
Harvey,  after  Abbot;  Edward  Fitzgerald  (1809-83),  posthumous 
miniature  by  Mrs.  Rivett  Camac;  Tennyson,  by  Arnault;  Lamb, 
Coleridge,  Southey,  and  Wordsworth,  four  small  drawings  in  one 
frame,  by  Hancock ;  James  Hogg  (d.  1833),  the  *Ettrick  Shepherd',  by 
Denning ;  James  BosweU  (1740-95)  and  Samuel  Rogers  (1763-1855), 
by  Dance;  Robert  Louis  Stevenson  (1850-94),  by  P.  F.  S.  Spence 
(pencil-drawing;  1893).  Under  the  window,  Charles  and  Henry 
Kingsley,  by  W.  S.  Hunt.  —  3rd  Section :  Wellington,  at  the  age  of 
thirty-five;  Nelson,  by  Edridge;  the  Marquis  of  Grariby  (1721-70), 
by  Sir  J.  Reynolds ;  Wolfe,  facsimile  of  a  sketch  made  at  Quebec  in 
1759;  Sir  Robert  Peel  (1788-1850),  by  Linnell;  W.  Wilber force,  the 
philanthropist  (d.  1833),  by  Sir  T.  Lawrence  (unfinished);  Henry 
Grattan  (i7AQ-iS20),  byWheatley;  Lord  Palmerston  (1784-1865) 
at  the  age  of  eighteen ;  Priestley  (1733-1804),  by  Mrs.  Sharpies ; 
Daniel  O'ConneU  (d.  1847),  by  Mulrenin;  John  Wilkes  (1727-97), 
by  Earlom ;  George  Washington,  by  Mrs.  Sharpies  (crayon).  Under  the 
window.  Rev.  Ed.  Irving  (1792-1834),  founder  of  the  Irvingite  or 
Catholic  Apostolic  Church,  drawing  by  Slater;  David  Livingstone 
(1813-73),  sketch  from  life  by  Bonomi.  —  Busts  of  Afr«.  Hemans 
(1793-1835;  Fletcher),  Mrs.  Jameson  (1794-1860;  Gibson),  Miss 
AmeUa  Edwards  (1832-92;  Ball),  and  Grace  Darling  (1815-42; 

XXII.  Corridor  (Miscellaneous  Busts  and  Portraits).  Lord 
Brougham  (1778-1868),  by  Lonsdale;  Francia  Corner,  the  politician 

204     16.  NATIONAL  POKTKAIT  GALLERY.    The  West  End. 

and  essayist,  one  of  the  founders  of  the  'Edlnbnrgh  Review^  (1778- 
1817),  by  Sir  Henry  Raeburn;  Bust  of  the  Duke  of  Wellington 
(d.l852),  by  Francis  J  George  Orote  (1794-1871),  the  historian  of 
Greece,  by  Stewardson;  Sir  Wm  ^Bku:k8tone(d,  1780),  by  Reynolds  j 
bronze  btatuette  of  Baron  Marochelti  (1806-67),  by  Ambrosio ;  busts 
of  Cobden  (by  Woolner)  and  Sir  Rchert  Peel  (by  Noble).  On  screens, 
portraits  in  chalk  by  George  Richmond  (Lzd(ion,JSr(c6^Pusq/,/?o^er5, 
Newman,  Ruakin,  etc.).  —  David  Livingstone  (d.  1873),  by  F.  Havill ; 
General  Gordon  (1833-86),  drawing  by  Edward  Clifford. 

XXIII.  Landing.  Full-length  portraits  of  Kemble  and  Mrs.  Sid- 
donSj  by  Sir  Thos.  Lawrence.  —  Busts  of  Dovglas  Jerrold  (d.  1857), 
by  BaUy;  of  CharUa  Knight  (d.  1873),  by  Durham;  and  of  Thomaa 
Moore  (d.  1862),  by  C.  Moore. 

We  now  descend  a  few  steps  to  another  landing,  from  which  we 
enter  the  East  Wing  of  the  First  Floor. 

XXIV.  Landing  (Royal  Portraits).  WilUam,  Luke  of  Curnbtr- 
land  (d.  1766),  by  Reynolds;  Prince  Albert  (d.  1861),  by  Winter- 
halter;  Queen  Victoria  (d.  1901)  in  her  coronation  robes,  by  Sir 
G.  Ha>ter;  Queen  Victoria  at  the  ages  of  66  and  80,  both  after  Angeli ; 
George  II J.  (1738-1820),  by  Allan  Ramsay;  Queen  Charlotte  (1744- 
1818),  wife  of  George  III.,  by  Ramsay. 

The  short  passage  leading  from  this  landing  to  R.  XXY  contains 
busts  of  Scott  (Chantrey),  B.  W.  Proctor  (Foley),  Tennyson  (Miss 
Grant),  and  Southey  (Lough),  and  paintings  of  Lord  NeLon  (after 
Guzzardi)  and  Lord  John  Russell  (by  Watts). 

Room  XXV  (Literary,  Military,  and  Naval).  Godwin 
(1766-1836),  by  Northcote;  Cowper,  by  Romney;  Robert  BurT,$ 
(d.  1796),  by  Nasmyth,  weU  known  from  engravings;  Sir  Walter 
Scott^d.  1832),  in  his  study  at  Abbotsford,  with  his  deer-hound  Malda, 
by  Sir  Wm.  Allan,  the  last  portrait  he  sat  for  (another  by  Landseer) ; 
Lord  Byron  (d.  1824),  in  Albanian  costume,  by  T.  Phillips,  and 
another  (over  the  door)  by  Westall;  Shelley  (1792-1821),  by  Miss 
Amelia  Curran  and  another  painted  from  this  portrait  by  George 
Clint;  John  Keati  (d.  1821),  by  Severn  (another,  by  Hilton,  over  the 
door);  Wilkie  Collins  (d.  1889),  by  Millais;  Thomas  Moore (1719- 
1852),  by  John  Jackson;  George  Crabhe  (d.  1832),  by  Pickersgill; 
Southey  (d.  1843),  by  Peter  Vand>ke;  -Sf.  T.  Coleridye  (d.  1834), 
by  Peter  Vandyke ;  Charles  Dickens  (d.  1870),  by  Maclise.  —  Fine 
series  of  portraits  by  G.  F.  Watts :  Sir  Henry  Taylor,  D.  G.  Rcasetti, 
Sir  Ant.  Panizzi,  Matt.  Arnold,  Tennyson^  Browning ^  Card.  Manning, 
Lord  Lawrence,  J.  S.  Mill,  William  Morris,  W.  E.  H.  Lecky,  Carlyle, 
Frederick,  First  Marquess  of  Dufferin  and  Ava,  Robert,  Third 
Marquess  of  Salitbury,  the  Earl  of  Shaftesbury,  George,  Eighth  Duke 
of  Argyll,  Dr.  Martineau,  Lord  John  Russell,  Gladstone,  Lord  Strat- 
ford de  RedcUffe,  Dean  Milman,  and  Lord  Lytton.  —  Then,  in  the 
row  above:  Chcs.  and  Mary  Lartib,  by  Gary;  Coleridge,  by  Allston; 
Thos.  CampbeU  (d.  1844),  by  Lawrence;    W.  S.  Landor  (d,  1864), 

ThtWesiEnd.    15.  NATIONAL  PORTRAIT  GALLERY.     205 

by  Fisher;  Robert  Browning  (d.  1889),  by  Lebmann;  Sir  Arthur 
Stdlivan  (d.  1900").  by  Millals;  CharUt  Vickena,  by  Ary  Scheffer; 
B'jtlwer  Lytton  (1803-73),  by  H.  Pickersgill;  Coventry  Patmore 
(d.  1896),  by  J.  S.  Sargent;  Thomas  CarlyU  (d.  1881),  by  MUIais; 
Thomat  de  Quineey  (1785-1869),  by  Sir  John  Watson  Gordon.  -— 
Above  these  another  series  by  Watts;  Robert  Lowe  (Lord  Sher- 
brooke),  Sir  Charles  HalU  (d.  1895),  Sir  John  Peter  Orant,  Max 
Mailer^  Lord  Lyndhurst,  and  Sir  Andrew  Clarke;  also,  W,  M. 
Thackeray  (d.  1863),  by  8.  Lanrence;  Theodore  Hook  (d.  1841),  by 
Eddis.  —  Beside  the  door:  Sir  Richard  Burton  (d.  1890),  by  Lord 
Leighton;  Fred.  Denison  Maurice  (d.  1872),  by  S.  Laurence;  Card. 
Newman  (d.  1890),  by  Miss  E.  Deane.  Over  the  door:  Cecil  John 
Rhodes  (1853-1902),  by  Watts  (nnflnished) ;  R.  L.  Stevemon 
(d.  1894),  by  Richmond.  —  On  the  W.  wall  are  various  military 
and  naval  celebrities,  including  Lord  Clive  (d.  1774),  by  Dance; 
Lord  Heathfield  (d.  1790),  by  J.  S.  Copley;  Oeneral  Wolfe  (1726- 
69),  by  Schaak;  Lord  Nelson  (d.  1805),  by  L.  J.Abbott  and  by 
H.  Fiiger  of  Vienna.  On  a  screen :  John  Ruikin  (d.  1900),  by 
Herkomer  (water-colour);  Cowper^  by  Romney.  —  In  the  centre 
are  busts  of  Lord  Byron  (by  BaitoUni),  Captain  Cook,  Porson,  and 
Richard  Jeff er its,  a  statuette  of  Thackeray,  a  medallion  of  Adam 
Smith,  an  electrotype  bust  of  Thackeray  as  a  boy,  and  an  electrotype 
mask  of  John  Keats. 

Room  XXVI  (Military  and  Naval).  To  the  right:  Sir  Sidney  Smith 
(d.  1841),  by  Eckstein ;  ^dmira^  Lord  Lyons  (d.  1858),  by  G.F.  Watts; 
the  Duke  of  Wellington,  by  the  Count  d'Orsay;  Sir  John  Moore  (1761- 
1809),  by  Lawrence;  Qen,  Gordon  (1833-85),  by  Leo  Diet;  Sir 
James  Outram  (d.  1863),  by  Brigstocke;  Marquis  Wellesley  (d.  1842), 
by  J.P.Davis. 

Room  XXVII  (Scientific  and  Literary).  Sir  David  Brewster  (1781- 
1868),  by  Watson  Gordon;  Capt.  Marryatt  (1792-1848),  by  John 
Simpson ;  Charles  Darwin  (1809-82),  by  Collier ;  Professor  Huxley 
(1826-96),  by  Collier;  Sir  Richard  Owen  (d.  1892),  by  Pickersgill; 
Michael  Faraday  (d.  1867),  by  PhiUips;  George  Stephenson  (1781- 
1848),  by  Pickersgill;  Professor  John  Wilson  (Christopher  North; 
d.  1854),  by  Gordon;  Douglas  Jerrold  (1803-67),  by  Macnee.  — 
On  a  screen :  Lord  Macaulay  (1800-59),  by  Sir  F.  Grant;  Professor 
TyndaU  (1820-93),  by  J.  McClure  Hamilton.  —  Busts  of  Faraday 
(by  Brock),  George  Stephenson  (by  Pitts),  and  others.  Interesting 
autographs  in  the  cases. 

Rqom  XXVII  a  (Arctic  Explorers).  This  room  contains  portraits 
of  Sir  John  and  Lady  Franldin  (d.  1847  and  1876)  and  numerous 
small  portraits  of  Arctic  explorers  and  others  connected  with  the 
search  for  Franklin.  Also  portraits  of  Nares  and  McClintock,  the 
Arctic  navigators.  Bronze  bust  of  Franklin,  by  Lucchesl.  Arctic 
Council  discussing  a  scheme  for  the  search  for  Franklin,  by  Philips. 

We  now  return  to  R.  XXFV  (Landing)  and  descend  thence  to  the] — 

206     16.  NATIONAL  PORTRAIT  GALLERY.    The  West  End, 


On  the  W.  side  of  the  staircase :   Wordsworth^  by  PickersglU. 
Room  XXVIII  (Judges).    Modern  Judges,  including  Talfourd^ 
by  Pickersgill. 

XXIX.  OoaaiDOB  (Miscellaneous  Portraits).  Lord  John  Rttssell 
(1792-1878),  by  Grant;  Sir  George  Scharf  (d.  1895),  former  keeper 
of  the  National  Portrait  Gallery,  by  Ouless ;  Sir  George  Grey  (1812-98), 
by  Herkomer;  Benjamir^  Disraeli  (1804-81),  by  Millais;  John  Bright 
(1811-89),  by  Ouless;  Cobden  (1804-65),  by  Dickinson.  —  Busts  of 
Herbert  Spencer  (^iS10-i%S),  byBoehm,  and  Dr.  Thos.  AmoW  (1795- 
1842),  by  Behnes. 

XXX.  Landing.  Convention  of  the  Anti-Slavery  Society  in  1840, 
by  Hay  don,  with  portraits  of  Clarkson,  Fowell  Buxton,  Gumey,  Lady 
Byron,  etc.  —  Busts  of  Lord  Francis  Jeffrey  (d.  1850),  by  Park, 
and  Samuel  Lover  (d.  1868),  by  Foley. 

Rooms  XXXI-XXXIIa,  on  the  groundfloor  of  the  E.  Wing, 
form  the  Sculpture  Gallery.  R.  XXXI  contains  electrotype  casts  of 
statues  and  busts,  including  a  series  representing  English  Monarchs 
and  their  wives;  figures  of  Lord  Darnley  and  Mary^  Queen  of  Scots; 
recumbent  figures  of  Edward  11,  and  Robert  Curthose,  Duke  of  Nor- 
mandy; and  a  statue  of  Francis  JBacon,  from  his  tomb  (p.  419).  — 
R.  XXXII  contains  a  series  of  bust-models  by  Sir  J.  E.  Boehm.  In 
the  space  beyond  the  arch  are  bust-models  of  Sir  John  Millais  and 
Thomas  Huxley,  by  Onslow  Ford,  a  seated  figure  of -Edtoard  W.  Lane 
(1801-76),  the  Orientalist,  in  Egyptian  costume,  by  his  brother, 
and  a  bust  of  Tennyson,  by  F.  J.  "Williamson.  On  the  end-wall  are 
a  marble  half-figure  of  Mrs,  Siddons  (1755-1831),  by  T.  Campbell, 
and  a  bust  (above  the  door)  of  Henry  Fawcett  (d.  1884),  by  Hope 
Pinker.  By  the  windows  are  bust-models  of  C.  S.  Pamell  (d.  1891), 
by  Mary  Grant,  and  Darwin  (d.  1882),  by  Horace  Montford.  The 
case  in  the  centre  contains  clay  busts  of  the  Hon,  Mrs.  Norton  and 
Sir  Wm.  Stirling  Maxwell,  by  Williamson,  and  of  Abp,  Sumner 
(1780-1862),  by  Adams;  Sir  Rowland  Hill  (d.  1879),  by  Draper. 

Room  XXXIIa.  Recumbent  figure  of  Dean  Stanley  (d.  1881), 
by  Boehm;  statuette  of  Samuel  Morley,  M.  P.  (d.  1886);  bust  of 
George  Cruikshank  (1 792-1878);  bust -model  of  Dean  Buckland 
(d.  1856),  by  H.  "Weekes ;  the  original  model  of  a  bust  of  tlie  Duchess 
of  Sutherland  {iSOQ-QS),  by  Matthew  Noble. 

A  staircase  to  the  right  (as  we  enter  the  Gallery)  descends  to  the 
Basement,  with  — 

Room  XXXIII.  The  House  of  Commons  in  1793,  by  KarV  Anton 
Hickel,  presented  by  the  Emperor  of  Austria  in  1886.  —  The  First 
House  of  Commons  after  the  Reform  BiU  of  1832,  with  320  portraits, 
by  Hayter.  —  The  House  of  Lords  in  1820,  during  the  discussion  of 
the  bill  to  divorce  Queen  Caroline,  by  Hayter  (with  portraits  of  the 
Queen,  etc.).  —  Also  a  large  collection  of  engraved  legal  portraits. 


16.   Koyal  College  of  Surgeons.  Soane  Maseom. 

Fhral  HaU.    Covent  Qardtn  Market.    8U  PauVs.    Oarriek  Club. 

Lincoln's  Inn  Fields  (PL  R,  31 ;  /i),  to  the  W.  of  Lincoln's  Inn 
(p.  151),  are  Burronnded  by  lawyers'  offices  and  form  one  of  the  largest 
squares  in  London.  The  gardens  were  laid  out  by  Inigo  Jones,  and 
before  their  enclosure  in  1736  they  were  a  faTOurite  haunt  of  thieves 
and  a  resort  of  duellists.  They  were  thrown  open  to  the  public  in 
1895.  Lord  William  Russell  (p.  132)  was  executed  here  in  1683, 
and  among  the  other  names  closely  associated  with  the  Fields  are 
those  of  the  Duke  of  Newcastle,  prime  minister  of  George  II.  (house 
at  the  comer  of  Great  Queen  Street),  Blackstone,  Spencer  Perceval 
(No.  59),  Lord  Erskine,  Milton,  Nell  Gwynne,  Tennyson  (No.  55), 
John  Forster  (No.  58;  the  house  of  Mr.  Tulkinghorn  in  *Bleak 
House'),  Brougham  (No.  50),  and  Thomas  Campbell  (No.  61).  Comp. 
'Lincoln's  Inn  Fields',  by  C.  W.  Heckethom  (1895). 

On  the  S.  side  of  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields  rises  the  Royal  College 
of  Surgeons,  designed  by  Sir  Charles  Barry ,  and  erected  in  1835. 
It  contains  an  admirable  Museum,  conspicuous  for  its  excellent 
organization  and  arrangement.  Visitors  are  admitted,  through  the 
personal  introduction  or  written  order  of  a  member,  on  Mon.,  Tues., 
Wed.,  and  Thurs.  from  10  to  4  in  winter,  and  from  10  to  5  in 
summer.  The  Museum  is  closed  during  the  month  of  September. 
Application  for  orders  of  admission,  which  are  not  transferable,  may 
be  made  to  the  secretary. 

The  nucleus  of  the  museum  consists  of  a  collection  of  13,000 
anatomical  preparations  formed  by  John  Hunter  (d.  1793) ,  which 
was  purchased  by  Government  after  his  death  and  presented  to  the 
College.  It  is  divided  into  two  chief  departments :  viz.  the  Physio- 
logical Series,  containing  specimens  of  animal  organs  and  formations 
in  a  normal  state,  and  the  Pathological  Series,  containing  similar 
specimens  in  an  abnormal  or  diseased  condition.  The  number  of 
specimens  in  the  Museum  has  been  enormously  increased  since  its 
foundation,  and  the  building  containing  it  has  been  several  times 
enlarged.  It  now  consists  of  five  main  rooms  :  the  Western,  Middle, 
and  Eastern  Museums,  and  the  New  Large  and  Small  Museums. 

The  Human  Osteological  Collection  occupies  the  groundfluors  of  the 
Westbbn,  Nbw  Laboe,  and  Nkw  Small  Museums  and  includes  an  admirable 
and  extensive  collection  of  the  skulls  of  the  different  nations  of  the  earth, 
deformed  skeletons,  abnormal  bone  formations,  and  the  like.  In  the  Cen- 
tral Wall  Case  on  the  E.  side  of  the  New  Large  Museum  is  the  skeleton 
of  the  Irish  giant  Byrne  or  O'Bryan,  7ft.  Tin.  high;  adjoining  it,  under  a 
glass-shade,  is  that  of  the  Sicilian  dwarf,  Caroline  Grachami,  who  died  at 
the  age  of  10  years,  20  in.  in  height.  Under  the  same  shade  are  placed  wax 
models  of  her  arm  and  foot,  and  beside  it  is  a  plaster  cast  of  her  face. 
The  Floor  Cases  contain  various  anatomical  preparations.  In  the  centre  of 
the  Western  Museum  is  hung  the  skeleton  of  a  Greenland  whale ;  a  marble 
statue  of  Hunter  by  Weekes,  erected  in  1864,  stands  in  the  middle  of  the 
floor  at  the  S.  end  of  the  hall. 

208  16.  SOANE  MUSEUM.         TheWestEnd. 

The  Oomparative  Otteological  OoUectioa  occupies  the  Eastkkn  Husbdh, 
the  Middle  Huskdm,  and  part  of  the  Wsstebn  Mubbum.  In  the  centre  of 
the  Eastern  Husenm  are  the  skeletons  of  the  large  mammalia:  whales 
(including  a  sperm-whale  or  cachalot,  60  ft.  long),  hippopotamus,  giraffe, 
rhinoceros,  elephant,  etc.  The  elephant,  Ghunee,  was  exhibited  for  many 
years  in  England,  but  becoming  unmanageable  had  at  last  to  be  shot.  Th« 
poor  animal  did  not  succumb  till  more  than  100  bullets  had  been  fired  into 
its  body.  The  skeleton  numbered  4506  A.  is  that  of  the  first  tiger  shot 
by  the  Prince  of  Wales  in  India  in  1876.  The  skeleton  of  *Orlando%  a 
Derby  winner,  and  that  of  a  favourite  deerhound  of  Sir  Edwin  Landseer, 
are  also  exhibited  here.  The  Gases  round  the  room  contain  smaller  skeletons. 
In  the  Middle  Museum  the  most  interesting  objects  are  the  lai^e  antediluvian 
skeletons.  Skeleton  of  a  gigantic  stag  (erroneously  called  the  Irish  Elk)^ 
dug  up  from  a  bed  of  shell-marl  beneath  a  peat-bog  at  Limerick ;  giant 
armadilloes  from  Buenos  Ayres;  giant  sloth  (mylodon),  also  from  Buenos 
Ayres;  the  huge  megatherium,  with  the  missing  parts  supplied.  In  the 
Wall  Gases  is  a  number  of  smaller  skeletons  and  fossils.  Several  Floor 
Cases  in  the  Western  Museum  contain  a  collection  illustrating  the  zoology 
of  the  invertebrates,  such  as  zoophytes,  shell-fish,  crabs,  and  beetles. 

The  galleries  round  the  rooms  contain  Pathological  Speeimem  (W.  Mu- 
seum and  New  Large  Museum),  Phytiological  Spedmeru  (E.  and  Middle  Mu- 
seums), Dermatological  Specimens  (top  gallery  of  W.  Museum),  etc.  The 
Collection  of  CalcuU ,  the  Toynbee  Collection  of  Diseases  of  the  Bar^  and  the 
Collection  iUustrating  Diseases  of  the  Eye  (all  in  the  W.  Museum)  deserve 
special  mention.  The  Histological  Collection  now  comprises  12,(X)0  specimens. 
The  upper  galleries  of  the  new  museums  contain  a  collection  of  drawings 
and  photographs  illustrating  rare  or  curious  diseases.  A  room,  entered 
from  tixe  staircase  of  the  Eastern  Museum,  contains  a  collection  of  surg- 
ical instruments. 

The  College  also  possesses  a  library  of  about  52,000  volumes. 
The  Council  Room  contains  a  good  portrait  of  Hunter  by  Reynolds 
and  several  busts  by  Chantrey* 

At  No.  13,  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields,  N.  side,  opposite  the  College 
of  Surgeons,  is  Sir  John  Soane's  Unseam  (PI.  R,  31 ;  //),  founded 
by  Sir  John  Soane  (d.  1837),  architect  of  the  Bank  of  England. 
During  March,  April,  May,  June,  July,  and  August  this  interesting 
collection  is  open  to  the  public  on  Tues.,  Wed.,  Thurs.,  and  Frid., 
from  11  to  5.  During  the  recess  visitors  are  admitted  by  tickets 
obtained  from  the  curator,  Mr.  Walter  L.  Spiers.  Strangers  are,  how- 
ever, courteously  admitted  daily  (11-5)  throughout  the  year  on  pre- 
sentation of  their  cards.  The  collection,  which  is  exceedingly  diver- 
sified in  character,  occupies  about  a  score  of  rooms  and  cabinets, 
some  of  which  are  very  small,  and  is  most  ingeniously  arranged, 
every  corner  being  turned  to  account.  Many  of  the  contents  are  of 
little  general  interest,  but  some  of  the  pictures  and  other  objects 
of  art  are  of  great  importance  and  well  repay  a  visit.  There  are 
also  many  curiosities  of  historical  or  personal  interest. 

The  DiMiNO  Boom  and  Librabt,  which  the  visitor  first  enters,  are 
decorated  somewhat  after  the  Pompeian  style.  The  ceiling-paintings  are 
by  Henry  Howard^  R.  A.,  the  principal  subjects  being  Phoebus  in  his  car. 
Pandora  among  the  gods,  Epimetheus  receiving  Pandora,  and  the  Opening 
of  Pandora's  vase.  On  the  walls  are  Reynolds*  Snake  in  the  grass,  resem- 
bling the  picture  at  tiie  National  Gallery,  and  a  portrait  of  Sir  John  Soane, 
by  Later enee.  The  Italic  painted  fictile  vase  at  the  N.  end  of  the  room, 
2  ft.  8  in.  high,  the  Greek  vase  and  English  chopine  on  the  E.  side,  and 
a  French  clock  with  a  small  orrery  may  be  mentioned.  A  glazed  case  on 
a  table  contains  a  fine  illuminated  MS.  with  a  frontispiece  by  Giulio  Clovio. 

The  West  End,  16.   SOANE  MUSEUM.  209 

The  library  also  contains  a  large  collection  of  valuable  old  books,  drawings, 
and  MSS.,  wMeh  are  accessible  to  the  student. 

We  now  pass  through  two  diminutive  rooms,  forming  a  corridor,  into 
the  HD8XUM,  containing  numeroun  marbles,  columns,  etc.  To  the  right 
is  the  PiOTUBS  Oallbbt,  a  room  measuring  13  ft.  8  in.  in  length ,  12  ft. 
4  in.  in  breadth,  and  19  ft.  6  in.  in  height,  which,  by  dint  of  ingenious  ar- 
rangement, can  accommodate  as  many  pictures  as  a  gallery  of  the  same 
height,  46  ft.  long  and  20  ft.  broad.  The  walls  are  covered  with  movable 
shutters,  hung  with  pictures  on  both  sides.  Among  these  are:  Hogarth^ 
*The  Bake*s  Progress,  a  eelebrated  series  of  eight  pictures,  and  *The 
Election  (four  pictures)  \  Canaletto^  The  Rialto  at  Venice,  and  The  Piazza 
of  St.  Mark;  a  series  of  drawings  by  FiraneH;  a  collection  of  Sir  John 
Boone's  architectural  designs;  head  believed  to  be  a  fragment  of  one  of 
Baphaers  lost  cartoons  (comp.  p.  367),  and  a  copy  by  Flaxman  of  two  heads 
from  another  cartoon.  —  When  the  last  shutter  of  the  8.  wall  ia  opened 
we  see  into  a  well-lighted  recess,  with  a  copy  of  a  nymph  by  Westmacott, 
and  into  a  small  room  called  the  Honk's  Parloir  (see  below). 

From  the  hall  with  the  columns  we  descend  into  a  kind  of  crypt, 
where  we  thread  our  way  among  numerous  statues,  both  originals  and 
casts,  relics  of  ancient  art,  modem  works  by  Flaxman  and  others,  and 
a  collection  of  cinerary  urns,  to  the  Sxpulgh&al  Ghambks,  which  con- 
tains the  most  interesting  object  in  the  whole  collection.  This  is  the 
*  Sarcophagus  of  Set!  I.,  father  of  Bamses  the  Great,  found  in  1817  by 
Belsoni  in  a  tomb  in  the  valley  of  Biban  el-Huldk,  near  the  ancient 
Thebee ,  and  consisting  of  one  block  of  alabaster  or  arragonite,  9  ft.  4  in. 
long ,  3  ft.  8  in.  wide,  and  2  ft.  8  in.  deep  at  the  head,  covered  both 
internally  and  externally  with  hieroglyphics  and  figures.  The  thickness 
varies  from  2Vs  to  3Vs  inches.  The  engravings  on  the  sides  describe  the 
journey  of  Be,  the  sun,  through  the  chambers  of  the  underworld  duTing 
the  12  hours  of  night.  The  sarcophagus  was  bought  by  Sir  John  Soane 
in  1824  for  20001.    On  the  S.  side  of  this,  the  lower  part  of  the  Museum, 

is  the  MONUKENT  GOUBT. 

The  Monk's  Pabloib  (see  above)  contains  objects  of  medisBval  art,  some 
Peruvian  and  other  antiquities,  and  two  fine  Flemish  wood-carvings.  The 
rooms  on  the  groundfloor  (to  which  we  now  re-ascend)  are  filled  with 
statuary,  architectural  fragments,  terracottas,  and  models,  among  which 
some  fine  Boman  portrait-busts  may  be  noticed.  Behind  the  cast  of  the 
Apollo  Belvedere  is  an  additional  picture-gallery,  containing  specimens 
of  CanaUtto  (*Port  of  Venice),  Turner  (•Adm.  Tromp's  barge  entering  the 
Texel;  Kirkstall  Abbey),  Cflr«co«  (•Passage  Point),  Cleristeauy  Ea$ilake^  Ruys- 
dtielf  etc.  Adjoining  this  is  a  recess  with  portraits  of  the  Soane  family, 
works  by  Waiteau  (Les  Noces),  Turner^*  superb  water-colour  of  the  Val 
d^Aosta,  etc.  In  the  Bbbakfast  Boom  are  choice  illuminated  MSS.,  and  an  in- 
laid pistol  which  once  belonged  to  Peter  the  G^reat.  This  room,  for  its  arrange- 
ment, mode  of  lighting,  use  of  mirrors,  etc.,  is,  perhaps,  unique  in  London. 

The  Dbawino  Booms,  on  the  first  floor,  contain  a  carved  ivory  and 
gilt  table  and  four  chairs  from  the  palace  of  Tippoo  Sahib  at  Sering- 
apatam;  a  collection  of  exquisitely  delicate  miniature  paintings  on  silk, 
by  Labile ;  a  small  but  choice  collection  of  antique  gems  (the  *Capece' 
collection) ;  many  drawings  and  paintings ;  and  various  architectural  designs 
by  Sir  John  Soane.  In  the  glass-cases  are  the  first  three  folio  editions  of 
Shakspeare,  an  original  MS.  of  Tasso's  ^G^erusalemme  Liberata\  several  large 
illuminated  MSS.,  two  sketch-books  of  Sir  Joshua  Beynolds,  etc.  On  stands 
in  these  rooms  are  a  cork  model  of  Pompeii  and  a  series  of  plaster  of  Paris 
models  of  ancient  classic  buildings. 

On  the  walls  of  the  Staibgasb  are  hung  pictures,  prints,  and  sculptures. 
—  A  large  variety  of  ancient  painted  glass  has  been  glazed  in  the  windows 
throughout  the  museum. 

At  the  comer  of  the  street  running  W.  from  the  S.W.  corner 
of  the  square  to  ELingsway,  is  the  Sardinian  Catholic  Chapel  (PI.  R, 
Baedbkbb's  London.    15th  Edit.  14 

210  16.   OOVENT  GARDEN.        TheWestEnd, 

31 ;  /i),  opposite  wMoh  Benjamin  Franklin  lodged  while  working 
as  a  printer  in  Wild  Court,  a  little  to  the  W.  The  chapel  is  ahout 
to  he  demolished.  A  little  to  the  S.E.  is  the  large  KingU  College 
Hospital  (ahont  to  he  removed),  hehind  which  lies  the  once  unsa- 
Youry  district  of  (^are  Mofketj  named  from  the  Earls  of  Clare  (tahlet) 
and  now  conslderahly  improved.  The  Passmore  Edwards  Hall  here, 
opened  in  1902,  Is  the  seat  of  the  London  School  of  Economics,  now 
a  school  of  the  University  of  London  (p.  341). 

G&BAT  QuBBN  Stsbbt,  running  to  the  S.W.  from  theN.W.  comer 
of  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields  and  intersecting  Eingsway ,  contains  the 
Kingsway  Theatre  (p.  46)  and  Freemasom'  HaU  and  Freemason^ 
Tavern,  the  London  headquarters  of  the  Masonic  Craft.  Among 
former  residents  in  this  street  were  Lord  Herbert  of  Cherbury,  Sir 
Godfrey  Eneller,  Boswell,  and  Sheridan.  Beyond  Drury  Lane  (j».  158) 
Great  Queen  Street  is  continued  by  Long  Acre,  with  numerous 
coashbuilders'  establishments  and  the  Covent  Garden  Station  (Fl.  R, 
27;  //)  of  the  Hccadilly  Tube  (p.  35).  To  the  left  (S.)  of  Long  Acre 
diverges  Bow  Street,  in  which  is  the  Boyal  Italian  Opera,  or  Covent 
Garden  Theatre  (p.  45),  adjoined  by  the  Floral  HaU,  now  used  as 
a  foreign  fruit  wholesale  market.  Nearly  opposite  is  the  New  Bow 
Street  Police  Court,  the  most  important  of  the  14  metropolitan  police 
courts  of  London.  At  the  comer  of  Bow  Street  and  Russell  Street 
was  WiWi  Coffee  House,  the  resort  of  Dxyden  and  other  literary  men 
of  the  17-18th  centuries.  Waller,  Fielding,  Wycherley,  and  Grinling 
Gibbons  all  once  resided  in  Bow  Street. 

Russell  Street  leads  hence  to  the  E.  to  Drury  Lane  Theatre 
(p.  45),  and  to  the  W.  to  CoYent  Garden  Harket  (PI.  R,  31 ;  If), 
the  property  of  the  Duke  of  Bedford,  the  principal  vegetable,  fruit, 
and  flower  market  in  London.  It  presents  an  exceedingly  pictur- 
esque and  lively  scene,  the  best  time  to  see  the  vegetable-market 
being  about  6  o'clock  on  the  mornings  of  Tuesdays,  Thursdays,  and 
Saturdays,  the  market-days  (comp.  p.  63).  The  show  of  fruit  and 
flowers,  one  of  the  finest  in  the  world,  is  seen  to  advantage  from 
7  to  10  a.m.    The  Easter  Eve  flower-market  is  specially  brilliant. 

The  neighbourhood  of  Covent  Garden  is  full  of  historic  mem- 
ories. The  name  reminds  us  of  the  Convent  Garden  belonging 
to  the  monks  of  Westminster ,  which  in  Ralph  Agas's  Map  of  Lon- 
don (1560)  is  shown  walled  around,  and  extending  from  the  Strand 
to  the  present  Long  Acre  (see  above),  then  in  the  open  country.  The 
Bedford  family  received  these  lands  (seven  acres,  of  the  yearly  value 
of  6^  6s.  8d.)  as  a  gift  from  the  Crown  in  1552.  The  square  was 
planned  by  Inigo  Jones ;  and  vegetables  used  to  be  sold  here,  thus 
perpetuating  the  associations  of  the  ancient  garden.  In  1831  the 
Duke  of  Bedford  erected  the  present  maiket-bulldlngs,  which  have 
recently  been  much  improved,  though  they  are  still  quite  inadequate 
for  the  enormous  business  transacted  here  on  market-days.    The 

The  West  End.  17.  WHITEHALL.  211 

neighbouring  streets,  Russell,  Bedford,  and  Tavistock,  oommem- 
orate  the  family  names  oi  titles  of  the  lords  of  the  soil.  In  the 
Go  vent  Garden  Piazzas,  now  nearly  all  cleared  away,  the  families 
of  Lord  Crewe,  Bishop  Berkeley,  Lord  Hollis,  Earl  of  Oxford,  Sir 
Godfrey  Eneller,  Sir  Kenelm  Dighy,  the  Duke  of  Richmond,  and 
other  distinguished  persons  used  to  reside.  In  this  square  was  the 
old  ^Bedford  Coffee  house*,  frequented  by  Garrick,  Foote,  and  Ho- 
garth, where  the  Beef-Steak  Club  was  held ;  and  here  was  the  not 
oyer  savoury  ^Old  Hummums  Hotel*.  Here  also  was  *Eyans*s*  (so 
named  from  a  former  proprietor),  a  house  once  the  abode  of  Sir 
Kenelm  Digby,  and  long  noted  as  a  place  for  sappers  and  evening 
entertainments.  It  is  now  occupied  by  a  club.  —  At  No.  4  York 
Street,  to  the  E.  of  the  Flower  Market,  Thos.  de  Quinoey  wrote  the 
'Confessions  of  an  English  Opium  Eater'.  Charles  and  Mary  Lamb 
lived  at  No.  20  Russell  Street  (1817-23).  Joseph  Turner  (1776- 
1861),  the  son  of  a  hair-dresser,  was  born  at  No.  20  Maiden  Lane,  to 
the  S.  of  Covent  Garden;  and  in  the  same  street  Andrew  Marvell 
(1621-78),  the  poet,  once  resided,  and  Voltaire  lodged  for  some  time. 

The  neighbouring  church  of  St.  Paul,  a  plain  building  erected 
by  Jnigo  Jones  at  the  beginning  of  the  17th  cent.,  contains  nothing 
of  interest.  It  was  the  first  Protestant  church  of  any  size  erected 
in  London.  In  the  churchyard  are  buried  Samuel  Butler  (d.  1680), 
the  author  of  *Hudibras*;  Sir  Peter  Lely  (^Vahdervaes,  d.  1680 J, 
the  painter;  W,  Wyeherley  (d.  1715),  the  dramatist;  OrirUing 
Gibbons  (d.  1721),  the  carver  in  wood ;  T.  A,  Ame  (d.  1778),  the 
composer  of  *Rule  Britannia' ;  John  Wolcot  (Peter  Pindar ;  d.  1819), 
the  author;  John  Taylor  (d.  1654),  the  'Water  Poet' ;  and  Kynaston 
(d.  1712),  the  actor  of  female  parts. 

The  Garrick  dub,  13  and  15  Garrick  Street ,  Covent  Garden, 
founded  in  1831,  possesses  an  important  and  valuable  collection  of 
portraits  of  celebrated  English  actors ,  shown  on  Wednesdays  only, 
to  visitors  accompanied  by  a  member.  The  fine  bust  of  Shakespeare 
was  discovered  in  1846,  bricked  up  in  a  wall  at  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields. 

17.   Whitehall. 

The  Horse  Guards.  United  Service  Museum.  Oovemment  Offices, 
Westminster  Bridge. 

The  broad  and  handsome  street  leading  from  Trafalgar  Square, 
opposite  the  National  Gallery,  to  the  S.,  towards  Westminster,  is 
called  Whitehall  (PI.  R,  26 ;  IV),  after  the  famous  royal  palace  of 
that  name  formerly  situated  here  (p.  212).  This  street  and  its 
neighbourhood  contain  most  of  the  great  government  offices  and 
may  be  regarded  as  the  administrative  centre  of  the  British  Empire. 

Near  Charing  Cross,  to  the  left,  is  Great  Scotland  Yard  (PL 
B,  26 ;  iF),  once  the  headquarters  of  the  Metropolitan  Police  (comp. 


212  17.  HORSE  GUARDS.         TheWcHEnd. 

p.  216).  Scotland  Yard  is  said  to  have  belonged  to  tlie  Kings  uf  Sect- 
land  (whence  its  name)  from  the  reign  of  £dgar  to  that  of  Henry  II. 
At  a  later  period  Milton,  Inlgo  Jones,  Sir  Christopher  Wren,  and 
other  celebrated  persons  resided  here.  Opposite,  on  the  right  side 
of  Whitehall,  is  the  Admiralty,  or  offices  of  the  governing  body  of 
the  navy.  The  building  abntting  on  Whitehall  dates  from  1722-26, 
but  behind  it,  in  St.  James's  Park,  large  and  handsome  new  offices, 
forming  an  extensive  quadrangle,  have  been  erected  since  1887. 
The  Admiralty  Board  consists  of  a  First  Lord  (a  member  of  the 
Cabinet),  four  Naval  Lords,  and  a  Civil  Lord,  besides  a  par- 
liamentary and  a  permanent  secretary.  To  the  S.  of  the  Admiralty 
is  the  Horse  Guards,  the  office  of  the  inspector-general  of  the  forces 
(see  below),  an  inconsiderable  building  with  a  low  clock-tower, 
erected  in  1753  on  the  site  of  an  old  Tilt  Yard.  It  derives  its  name 
from  its  original  use  as  a  guard-house  for  the  palace  of  Whitehall. 
Two  mounted  Life  Guards  are  posted  here  as  sentinels  every  day  from 
10  a.m.  to  4  p.m.,  and  the  operation  of  relieving  guard,  which 
takes  place  hourly,  is  interesting.  At  11  a.m.  the  troop  of  40  Life 
Guards  on  duty  is  relieved  by  another  troop,  when  a  good  opportu- 
nity is  afforded  of  seeing  a  number  of  these  fine  soldiers  together. 
The  Infantry  sentries  on  the  other  side  of  the  Horse  Guards,  in 
St.  James's  Park,  are  also  changed  at  11  a.m.  A  passage,  much 
frequented  by  pedestrians,  leads  through  the  Horse  Guards  into 
St.  James's  Park,  but  no  carriages  except  those  of  royalty  and  of  a 
few  privileged  persons  are  permitted  to  pass. 

Opposite,  between  Whitehall  Place  and  Horse  Guards  Avenue, 
rises  the  imposing  new  War  Office,  designed  by  William  Young 
and  completed  in  1906.  The  army  is  administered  and  controlled 
by  the  Secretary  of  State  for  War  (a  member  of  the  Cabinet),  assisted 
by  the  Army  Council,  of  which  he  is  president.  The  council,  created 
in  1904,  includes  two  other  civil  members  and  four  military 
members.  The  office  of  commander-in-chief  of  the  army  was  abol- 
ished in  1904,  and  a  new  office  was  created,  viz.  that  of  inspector- 
general  of  the  forces,  who  reports  to  the  council.  —  In  front  of  the 
War  Office  is  an  equestrian  Statue  of  the  Duke  of  Cambridge  (1819- 
1904),  by  Adrian  Jones  (1907).  The  duke  commanded  the  British 
army  from  1856  tiU  1895. 

Immediately  to  the  S.  of  the  War  Office  stands  the  Banqueting 
Hall,  the  only  extant  relic  of  the  great  Palace  of  Whitehall,  At  the 
beginning  of  the  13th  cent,  the  Chief  Justiciary,  Hubert  de  Burgh, 
who  resided  in  this  neighbourhood,  presented  his  house  with  its 
contents  to  the  Dominican  monks  of  Holborn,  who  afterwards  sold 
it  to  Walter  Gray,  Archbishop  of  York.  Thenceforward  it  was  the 
London  residence  of  the  Archbishops  of  York,  and  was  long  known 
as  York  House  or  York  Palace.  On  the  downfall  of  Wolsey,  Arch- 
bishop of  York  and  favourite  of  Henry  VIII.,  York  House  became 
crown-property,  and  received  the  name  of  Whitehall:  — 

The  Wat  End.       17.  BANQUETING  HALL.  213 

*Sir,  70U 
Hast  no  more  call  it  Tork-place,  that  is  past; 
For,  since  the  cardinal  fell,  that  title^s  lost; 
^Tis  now  the  king's,  and  calFd  —  Whitehall*. 

Hen.  VIII,  iv.  e. 

The  palaee  was  greatly  enlarged  and  beautified .  by  its  new 
Qwner,  Henry  VIII.,  and  with  its  precincts  became  of  such  extent 
as  to  reach  from  Scotland  Yard  to  near  Bridge  Street,  and  from  the 
Thames  far  into  St.  James's  Park,  passing  over  what  was  then  the 
narrow  street  of  Whitehall,  which  It  spanned  by  means  of  a  beau- 
tiful gateway  designed  by  Holbein. 

The  banquetlng-hall  of  old  York  House,  built  in  the  Tudor 
style,  haying  been  burned  down  in  1615,  James  I.  conceived  the  idea 
of  erecting  on  this  site  a  magnificent  royal  residence,  designed  by 
Inigo  Jones,  which  would  have  filled  the  whole  space  between  West- 
minster and  Charing  Gross,  St.  James's  Park  and  the  Thames.  The 
building  was  begun  and  a  new  banqueting-hall  was  completed  in 
1622,  but  at  the  time  of  the  breaking  out  of  the  Civil  War  nothing 
farther  had  been  accomplished.  In  1691  part  of  the  old  palace  was 
burned  to  the  ground,  and  the  remainder  in  1697,  so  that  nothing 
remained  of  Whitehall  except  the  new  hall.  St.  James's  Palace 
became  thenceforward  the  royal  residence.  George  I.  converted 
the  banqueting-house  into  a  Royal  Chapely  which  was  dismantled 
in  1890,  and  in  1894  the  United  Service  Museum  was  removed 
hither  (see  p.  214).  The  basement  floor  or  crypt,  previously  subdivided 
into  dark  cellars,  was  restored  and  provided  with  a  concrete  floor, 
while  the  wood  of  the  oaken  pews  was  used  to  panel  the  bases  of 
the  walls  and  piers. 

The  reminiscences  of  the  tragic  episodes  of  English  history 
transacted  at  Whitehall  are  much  more  interesting  than  the  place 
itself.  It  was  here  that  Cardinal  Wolsey,  the  haughty,  splendour- 
loving  Archbishop  of  York,  gave  his  costly  entertainments,  and 
here  he  was  disgraced.  Here,  too,  Henry  YIII.  became  enamoured 
of  the  unhappy  Anne  Boleyn,  at  a  ball  given  in  honour  of  the  fickle 
and  voluptuous  monarch;  and  here  he  died  in  1547.  Holbein,  the 
famous  painter,  occupied  rooms  in  the  palace  at  that  period.  It 
was  from  Whitehall  that  Elizabeth  was  carried  as  a  prisoner  to  the 
Tower ,  and  to  Whitehall  she  returned  in  triumph  as  Queen  of 
England.  A  tablet  placed  beneath  the  lower  central  window  (on 
the  exterior)  records  that  Charles  I.  passed  through  the  hall  to  the 
scaffold  erected  in  front  of  it.  He  is  supposed  to  have  been  led 
through  one  of  the  windows  or  through  an  opening  made  in  the 
wall  for  the  purpose.  A  little  later  the  Protector  Oliver  Crom- 
well took  up  his  residence  here  with  his  secretary,  John  Milton, 
and  here  he  died  on  3rd  Sept.,  1658.  Here  Charles  II.,  restored, 
held  a  profligate  court,  and  here  he  died  in  1685.  See  ^The  Old 
Royal  Palace  of  Whitehall'  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Sheppard  (London: 

214  17.  UNITED  SERVICE  MUSEUM.     The  West  End. 

The  Banqueting  Hall  (PI.  R,  26;  IV),  on  the  E.  side  of  White- 
hall, is  one  of  the  most  splendid  specimens  of  the  Falladian  style 
of  architecture,  11 1ft.  long,  551/2  ft.  wide,  and  55 V2  ft.  high.  The 
ceiling,  divided  into  nine  compartments  hy  gilded  mouldings,  is 
embellished  with  allegorical  ♦Paintings  executed  by  Rubens  to  the 
order  of  Charles  I.,  who  knighted  the  artist  and  paid  him  3000i. 
The  central  scene,  representing  the  Apotheosis  of  James  I.,  is 
flanlLed  by  allegorical  representations  of  peace  and  plenty,  harmony 
and  happiness.  Two  other  large  paintings  symbolize  the  Birth  of 
Charles  I.  and  his  Coronation  in  Scotland,  while  four  oval  com- 
partments at  the  angles  of  the  ceiling  show  the  triumph  of  virtue 
over  vice.  The  pictures,  which  are  on  canvas,  were  painted  abroad 
about  1635.  They  have  been  restored  several  times,  the  last  occasion 
l)eing  in  1907.  —  Van  Dyck  was  to  have  executed  for  the  walls  a 
series  of  paintings,  representing  the  history  and  ceremonies  of  the 
Order  of  the  Garter,  but  the  scheme  was  never  carried  out. 

The  Banqueting  Hall  ia  now  occupied  by  the  Boyal  United  Service 
Museam,  an  interesting  collection  of  objects  connected  with  the  naval  and 
military  professions,  belonging  to  the  Royal  United  Service  Institution  (see 
below).  Admission,  see  p.  82;  sailors,  soldiers,  and  policemen  in  uniform 
are  admitted  free.  Catalogue  Qd.  —  At  the  entrance  to  the  hall  is  a  bronze 
bust  of  James  I.,  by  Le  Sueur.  In  the  centre  of  the  hall  is  a  large  *Model 
of  the  battle  of  Waterloo,  by  Captain  Sibome^  in  which  190,000  figures 
are  represented,  giving  an  admirable  idea  of  the  disposition  and  move- 
ments of  the  forces  on  the  eventful  day.  Here,  too,  are  HamiltonU  model 
of  Sebastopol,  showing  the  position  of  the  troops;  and  a  model  of  the 
battle  of  Trafalgar,  showing  the  British  fleet  breaking  the  enemy's  line. 
Adjacent  (partly  in  glass-cases)  are  numerous  relics  of  Napoleon,  Nelson, 
and  the  Duke  of  Wellington,  and  many  memorials  of  Waterloo.  The 
museum  contains  many  other  historical  and  personal  memorials:  relica 
of  Franklin's  expedition  to  the  K.  pole,  and  others  of  the  Koyal  George, 
sunk  at  Spithead  in  17825  the  swords  of  Cromwell  and  General  Wolfe; 
a  midshipman's  dirk  that  belonged  to  Nelson;  the  pistols  of  Sir  Ralph 
Abercromby,  Bolivar,  and  Tippoo  Sahib;  relics  of  Sir  John  Moore ;  personal 
relics  of  Drake,  Captain  Cook,  and  other  famous  seamen;  the  flag  of  the 
'Chesapeake'  captured  by  the  ^Shannon'  (1813).  Among  the  memoriala  of 
recent  campaigns  are  trophies  from  the  Crimean  War  (bugle  that  sounded 
the  charge  of  the  Light  Brigade),  and  from  China,  Ashantee  (state-umbrellas 
of  King  Coffee  and  King  Prempeh,  on  either  side  of  the  entrance),  and 
reminiscences  of  the  battle  of  Omdurman  (1898)  and  of  the  Transvaal 
War  (1900). 

The  rest  of  the  collection,  placed  partly  in  this  hall  and  partly  in 
the  Basbhbnt,  includes  weapons  and  martial  equipments  from  America, 
Africa,  the  South  Sea  Islands,  etc. ;  a  European  Armoury,  containing 
specimens  of  the  armour  and  weapons  of  the  different  European  nations ; 
an  A$iatie  Armowyy  with  Indian  guna  and  armour,  etc. ;  a  Naval  Chlleetion^ 
including  models  of  different  kinds  of  vessels,  ships^  gear,  marine  machinery, 
and  the  like,  including  an  ingenious  little  model  of  a  ship,  executed  by 
a  French  prisoner-of-war;  quick-firing  guns;  models  of  ordnance  and 
specimens  of  shot  and  shells ;  model  steam-engines ;  military  models  of 
various  kinds :  siege-operations  with  trenches,  lines,  batteries,  approaches, 
and  walls  in  which  a  breach  has  been  effected;  fortifications,  pioneer 
instruments,  etc.;  uniforms  and  equipments  of  soldiers  of  different 
countries;  a  complete  collection  of  naval  and  military  medals;  fire-arms 
and  portions  of  fire-arms  at  different  stages  of  their  manufacture;  paint- 
ings and  photographs  of  warlike  scenes  and  military  equipments  and 
apparatus;  etc. 

TheWestEnd.     17.  GOVERNMENT  OFFICES.  215 

Adjoining  the  Banqueting  Hall  on  the  S.  are  the  new  buildings 
of  the  Royal  United  Service  Institution  (founded  in  1830),  open 
to  of  fleers  of  the  navy,  army,  and  auxiliary  forces.  The  institution 
numbers  about  5500  members,  each  of  whom  pays-  an  entrance  fee 
of  a  guinea  and  a  yearly  subscription  of  the  same  amount  or  a  life- 
subscription  of  15{.  The  new  buildings  contain  a  large  Lecture  Hall^ 
Library^  Reading  Boom,  etc.   Museum,  see  p.  ^214. 

The  Treasury,  a  building  100  yds.  in  length,  situated  on  the 
left  side  of  Whitehall  between  the  Horse  Guards  and  Downing 
Street ,  originally  erected  during  the  reign  of  George  I.  and  pro- 
vided by  Sir  Charles  Barry  with  a  new  facade,  is  the  office  of  the 
Prime  Minister  (First  Lord  of  the  Treasury)  and  also  contains  the 
Trivy  Council  Office.  The  Office  of  the  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer 
occrpies  a  separate  edifice  in  Downing  Street. 

To  the  S.,  between  Downing  Street  and  Great  George  Street, 
rise  two  imposing  piles  of  buildings  containing  other  Goyernment 
Offices.  The  more  northerly,  constructed  in  the  Italian  style  in 
1868-73  at  a  cost  of  500,000^.,  from  designs  by  Sir  Q,  0.  Scott 
(d.  1878),  comprise  the  Home  Office,  the  Foreign  Office,  the 
Colonial  Office,  and  the  India  Office,  The  effect  of  the  imposing 
facade  towards  Parliament  Street  (the  southern  prolongation  of 
Whitehall)  has  been  greatly  enhanced  by  the  widening  of  the 
street  to  50  yds.,  whereby,  too,  a  riew  of  Westminster  Abbey  from 
Whitehall  is  disclosed.  The  more  southerly  pile,  erected  from 
the  design  of  J.  M.  Brydon  in  1900-8,  is  connected  with  the 
former  by  a  tasteful  bridge  spanning  Charles  Street,  and  is  in- 
tended to  accommodate  the  Local  Government  Board,  the  Board  of 
Education,  the  Board  of  Trade,  etc.  None  of  these  offices  are  shown 
to  visitors. 

This  new  block,  extending  back  to  Delahay  Street  (PI.  R,  25;  /F), 
will  eventvally  he  carried  to  St.  James's  Park.  —  The  widening  of  the 
lower  part  uf  Parliament  Street  involved  the  demolition  of  King  Street, 
a  narrow  thoroughfare,  to  the  W.  of  it  and  the  only  approach  in  earlier 
times  from  Whitehall  to  Westminster.  At  the  N.  end,  removed  to  make 
room  for  the  present  Government  Offices,  stood  Holbein'^s  great  gate 
(p.  213j.  Spenser,  the  poet,  spent  his  last  days  in  King  Street,  and  he 
was  carried  hence  to  Westminster  Abbey.  CromwelFs  mother  lived  here, 
often  visited  by  her  affectionate  son;  so  did  Dr.  Sydenham,  Lord  North, 
Bishop  Goodman,  Sir  Henry  Wotton,  and  at  one  time  Oliver  Cromwell 
himself.  Through  this  narrow  street  all  the  pageants  from  Whitehall  to 
the  Abbey  and  Westminster  Hall  passed,  whether  for  burial,  coronation, 
or  state-trials.  Parliament  Street  was  opened  only  in  1732,  long  after 
Whitehall  had  ceased  to  be  a  royal  residence,  and  was  carried  through 
the  old  privy  garden  of  Whitehall.  —  No.  17  Delahay  Street  was  the  home 
of  Judge  Jeflreys  (d.  1689).  The  office  of  the  Society  for  the  Propagation 
of  tJu  Goepel  in  Foreign  Par't  is  at  No.  19. 

The  modem  edifice  on  the  E.  side  of  Whitehall  opposite  the 
Treasury,  in  the  Franco- Scottish  Renaissance  style,  is  Montague 
House,  the  mansion  of  the  Duke  of  Buccleuch,  containing  a  splendid 
collection  of  miniatures  and  many  valuable  pictures. 

216  17.  WESTMINSTER  BRIDGE.     TheWestEnd, 

Whitehall  OarderUy  to  the  K.  of  Montague  House,  occupy  the  site  of 
the  old  Privy  Garden  of  Whitehall.  "So.  2  was  the  home  of  Benjamin 
Disraeli  (Lord  Beaconsfield)  in  1873-76.  Ko.  4  was  the  town-house  of  Sir 
Robert  Peel,  whither  he  was  carried  to  die  after  falling  from  his  horse  in 
Constitution  Hill  (June  39th,  1850). 

Derby  Street,  on  tlie  E.  side  of  Parliament  Street,  leads  to  New 
Scotland  Tard  (PI.  R,  25 ;  JV),  on  the  Victoria  Embankment,  the 
headquarters  of  the  Metropolitan  Police  since  1891.  The  turreted 
building,  in  the  Scottish  baronial  style,  was  designed  by  Norman 
Shaw,  and  is  impressive  by  its  simplicity  of  outline  and  dignity 
of  mass.  In  the  *Lost  Property  Office^  (entr.  from  the  Embankment) 
lost  articles  found  and  sent  to  the  police  headquarters  may  be 
reclaimed  on  payment  of  15  per  cent  of  their  value. 

Fiom  the  S.  end  of  Parliament  Street  Great  George  Street  (PI. 
R,  25  J 17)  runs  to  the  W.  to  Storey's  Gate  (p.  323),  while  Bridge 
Street,  skirting  the  N.  end  of  the  Houses  of  Parliament,  leads  to 
the  E.  to  Westminster  Bridge. 

The  Surveyors'  Inttitution^  12  Great  Qeorge  Street,  contains  a  Forulry 
Museum,  mainly  illustrating  the  diseases  of  trees,  parasite  growths,  and 
insect  pests.  Strangers  are  admitted  on  the  introduction  of  a  member  of 
the  institution.  On  the  opposite  side  of  the  street  is  the  Institute  of  Civil 
Engineers  (PI.  B,  25;  /F),  occupying  the  site  of  a  house  in  which  Lord 
Byron's  body  lay  in  state  in  1824.  The  busts  on  the  exterior  represent 
Telford,  Brindley,  Watt,  Bennie,  Stephenson,  Brunei,  and  Smeaton. 

♦WeatmiMter  Bridge  (PI.  R,  29; /V),  erected  in  1856-62,  by 
Page,  at  a. cost  of  250, 000^,  on  the  site  of  an  earlier  stone  bridge, 
is  1160  ft.  long  and  85  fi.  broad.  It  consists  of  seven  iron  arches 
borne  by  granite  buttresses,  the  central  arch  having  a  span  of  120  ft., 
the  others  of  114  ft.  On  a  pedestal  at  the  W.  end  of  the  bridge 
is  a  colossal  group  of  Boadicea  in  her  chariot,  by  J.  Thomycroft. 
The  bridge  affords  an  admirable  yiew  of  the  Houses  of  Parliament. 
It  was  the  view  from  this  bridge  that  suggested  Wordsworth's  fine 
sonnet,  beginning  ^Earth  has  not  anything  to  show  more  fair'. 
Below  the  bridge,  on  the  left  bank,  is  the  beginning  of  the  Victoria 
Embankment  (p.  125),  and  on  the  right  bank,  the  site  of  the  new 
London  County  Hall  (p.  xxxi);  above,  on  the  right  bank,  is  the 
Albert  Embankment,  with  the  extensive  Hospital  of  St.  Thomas 
(p.  379).  —  Tramways,  see  p.  23. 

18.    Houses  of  Parliament  and  Westminster  Hall. 

St.  Margaret's  Church. 
Parliament  Street(see  p.  215)  debouches  on  the  S.  in  Parliament 
Square  (PI.  R,  25;  77),  bounded  on  the  W.  by  New  Palace  Yard, 
which  separates  it  from  the  Houses  of  Parliament,  and  on  the  S. 
by  St.  Margaret's  Church,  behind  which  towers  Westminster  Abbey. 
On  the  N.  side  of  the  square  is  a  bronze  statue  of  Sir  Robert  Peel 
(d.  1850),  and  a  little  farther  to  the  left  is  that  of  Lord  Palmerston 
(d.  1865).    Adjacent,  opposite  the  entrance  into  New  Palace  Yard, 

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TheWe8tS!nd,     18.  HOUSES  OP  PARLIAMENT.  217 

Btands  the  hronze  Statue  of  the  Earl  of  Derby  (d.  1869),  in  the 
101)68  of  a  peer,  10  ft.  high,  hy  Noble,  erected  in  lo74.  The  granite 
pedestal  bears  fonr  reliefs  in  bronze,  representing  his  career  as  a 
statesman.  On  the  S.  side,  facing  St.  Margaret's,  is  a  bronze  Statue 
of  Lord  Beaconsfleld  (d.  1881),  in  the  robes  of  the  Garter,  by  Raggi 
(1883).  On  the  W.  side  is  the  bronze  Statue  of  Canning  (d.  1827), 
1)7  Weatmaeottj  near  which,  at  the  corner  of  Great  George  Street, 
is  a  handsome  Gothic  fountain,  erected  in  1863  as  a  memorial  to 
the  distingnished  men  who  brought  about  the  abolition  of  slavery 
in  the  British  dominions.  —  To  the  S.  of  the  square,  outside  West- 
minster Hall,  stands  a  fine  bronze  *Statue  of  Oliver  Cromwell  (1699- 
1658),  by  Hamo  Thomycrofl  (1899).  The  statue  is  10  ft.  high,  and 
stands  on  a  pedestal  12  ft.  in  height.  In  Old  Palace  Yard,  farther 
to  the  S.,  between  the  Houses  of  Parliament  and  Westminster 
Abbey,  rises  an  Equestrian  Statue  of  Richard  Coeur  de  Lion,  in 
bronze,  by  Marochetti. 

The  *Hoiiiei  of  Parliament,  or  New  Palace  of  Westminster  (PI. 
B,  25;  IV),  which,  together  with  "Westminster  Hall,  form  a  single 
pile  oif  buildings,  hare  been  erected  since  1840,  from  a  plan  by  Sir 
Charles  Barry,  which  was  selected  as  the  best  of  97  sent  in  for 
competition.  The  preyious  edifice  was  burned  down  in  1834.  The 
new  building  is  in  the  richest  late- Gothic  (Tudor  or  Perpendicular) 
style,  and  coTers  an  area  of  8  acres.  It  contains  11  courts,  100  stair- 
cases, and  1100  apartments,  and  has  cost  in  all  about  3,000, 000{. 
Although  BO  costly  a  national  structure,  some  serious  defects  are 
obseryable ;  the  external  stone  (dolomite)  is  gradually  crumbling, 
and  the  building  stands  on  so  low  a  level  that  the  basement  rooms 
are  said  to  be  lower  than  the  Thames  at  high  tide.  The  Clock  Tower 
(St,  Stephen's  Tower),  at  the  N.  end,  next  to  Westminster  Bridge, 
is  318  ft.  high;  the  Middle  Tower  is  300ft.  high;  and  the  S.W. 
Victoria  Tower,  the  largest  of  the  three  (75  ft.  sq.),  through  which 
the  King  enters  on  the  opening  and  prorogation  of  Parliament, 
attains  a  height  of  340  ft.  The  archway  is  65  ft  high.  The  large 
clock  has  four  dials,  each  23  ft.  in  diameter,  and  it  takes  five  hours 
to  wind  up  the  striking  parts.  A  light  in  the  Clock  Tower  by  night, 
and  the  Union  flag  flying  from  the  Victoria  Tower  by  day,  indicate 
that  the  ^House*  is  sitting.  The  great  Bell  of  the  Clock  Tower, 
popularly  known  as  'Big  Ben'  (named  after  Sir  Benjamin  Hall, 
First  Commissioner  of  Works  at  the  time  of  its  erection),  is  one  of 
the  largest  known,  weighing  no  less  than  13  tons.  It  was  soon  found 
to  have  a  flaw  or  crack,  and  its  tone  became  shrill,  but  the  crack 
was  filed  open,  so  as  to  prevent  vibration,  and  the  tone  became 
quite  pure.  It  is  heard  in  calm  weather  over  the  greater  part  of 
London.  The  imposing  river  front  (E.)  of  the  edifice  is  940  ft. 
in  length.  It  is  adorned  with  statues  of  the  English  monarchs 
from  William  the  Conqueror  down  to  Queen  Victoria,  with  armorial 
bearings,  and  many  other  enrichments. 

218  18.   HOUSES  OP  PARLIAMENT.     TheWestEnd. 

The  impression  prodnced  by  the  interior  is  in  its  way  no  less 
imposing  than  that  of  the  exterior.  The  tastefnl  fltting-up  of  the 
different  rooms,  some  of  which  are  adorned  down  to  the  minutest 
details  with  lavish  magnificence,  is  in  admirable  keeping  with  the 
office  and  dignity  of  the  building. 

The  Houses  of  Parliament  are  shown  on  Saturdays  from  10  to  4, 
(no  admission,  however,  after  3.30)  by  tickets  obtained  gratis  at 
the  entrance.  We  enter  on  the  W.  side  by  a  door  adjacent  to  the 
Victoria  Tower  (public  entrance  also  through  Westminster  Hall ; 
Handbook,  Qd,  or  la.,  unnecessary). 

Ascending  the  staircase  from  the  entrance  door,  we  first  reach 
the  Norman  Porch,  a  small  square  hall,  with  Gothic  groined  vault- 
ing, and  borne  by  a  finely  clustered  central  pillar.  We  next  enter 
(to  the  right)  the  Eino*s  Robino  Room,  a  handsome  chamber,  45  ft. 
in  length,  the  chief  feature  in  which  is  formed  by  the  fresco  paint- 
ings by  Wm.  Ihfce,  B,  -A.,  representing  the  virtues  of  chivalry,  the 
subjects  being  taken  from  the  Legend  of  King  Arthur.  Above  the 
fire-place  the  three  virtues  illustrated  are  Courtesy,  Religion,  and 
Generosity;  on  the  N.  side  are  Hospitality  and  Mercy.  The  fine 
dado  panelling  with  carvings  by  H,  H.  Armstead,  B,  A.,  illustrative 
of  Arthurian  legends,  the  rich  ceiling,  the  fireplace,  the  doors,  the 
flooring,  and  the  state-chair  at  the  E.  end  of  the  room  are  all  worthy 
of  notice.  Next  comes  the  Royal  or  Victokia  Gallery,  110  ft. 
long,  through  which  the  King,  issuing  from  the  King's  Robing 
Room  on  the  S.,  proceeds  in  solemn  procession  to  the  House  of 
Peers,  for  the  purpose  of  opening  or  proroguing  Parliament.  On 
these  occasions  privileged  persons  are  admitted  into  this  hall  by 
orders  obtained  at  the  Lord  Chamberlain's  Office.  The  pavement 
consists  of  fine  mosaic  work ;  the  ceiling  is  panelled  and  richly  gilt. 
The  sides  are  adorned  with  two  large  frescoes  in  water-glass  by 
Maclise:  on  the  left.  Death  of  Nelson  at  Trafalgar  (comp.  p.  162), 
and  on  the  right,  Meeting  of  Bliicher  and  Wellington  after  Waterloo. 
By  the  doors  in  this  gallery  (beginning  to  the  left)  are  bronze  statues 
of  Queen  Elizabeth,  William  III.,  Qneen  Anne,  King  Alfred, 
William  I.,  Richard  I.,  Edward  III.,  and  Henry  V. 

The  Pbince's  Chambbb,  the  smaller  apartment  entered  on  quit- 
ting the  Victoria  Gallery,  is  a  model  of  simple  magnificence,  being 
decorated  with  dark  wood  in  the  style  for  which  the  middle  ages 
are  famous.  Opposite  the  door  is  a  group  in  marble  by  Gt&son, 
representing  Queen  Victoria  enthroned,  with  allegorical  figures  of 
Clemency  and  Justice.  The  stained-glass  windows  on  the  W.  and 
E.  exhibit  the  rose,  thistle,  and  shamrock,  the  emblems  of  Eng- 
and,  Scotland,  and  Ireland.  In  the  panels  of  the  handsome 
wainscot  is  a  series  of  portraits  of  English  monarchs  and  their 
relatives  of  the  Tudor  period  (1485-1603). 

These  are  as  follows,  beginning  to  the  left  of  the  entrance  door: 
1.  Lonis  XII.  of  France;  2.  Mary,  daughter  of  Henry  VII.  of  England  and 

newest  End,     18.  HOUSES  OF  PARLIAMENT.  219 

wife  of  Loais  \  8.  Charles  Brandon,  Dnke  of  SniTolk,  Mary's  second  has- 
band;  4.  llarqnis  of  Dorset ;  5.  Lady  Jane  Qrey;  6.  Lord  Onildford  Dud- 
ley, her  hosband;  7.  James  IV.  of  Scotland  ^  8.  Qneen  Margaret,  danghtcr 
of  Henry  VII.  of  England  and  wife  of  James  (throngh  this  princess  the 
Stnarts  derived  their  title  to  the  English  throne)  \  9.  Barl  of  Angus,  sec- 
ond hnsband  of  Margaret,  and  Regent  of  Scotland ;  10.  James  V. ;  11.  Mary 
of  Gnise,  wife  of  James  V.,  and  mother  of  Mary  Stnart;  12.  Qaeen  Mary 
Stnart;  13.  Francis  II.  of  France,  Mary  Staart's  first  hnsband;  14.  Lord 
Damley,  her  second  husband;  15.  Henry  VII.;  16.  Elisabeth,  daughter  of 
Edward  IV.,  and  wife  of  Henry  (this  marriage  put  an  end  to  the  Wars  of 
the  Roses,  by  uniting  the  Houses  of  York  and  Lancaster);  17.  Arthur, 
Prince  of  Wales;  18.  Catharine  of  Aragon;  19.  Henry  VIII.;  20.  Anne 
Boleyn;  21.  Jane  Seymour;  22.  Anne  of  CI  eves;  23.  Catharine  Howard; 
24.  Catharine  Parr;  2B.  Edward  VL;  26.  Queen  Mary  of  England;  27. 
Philip  of  Spain,  her  husband ;  28.  Queen  Elisabeth. 

Oyer  these  portraits  rnns  a  frieze  with  oak  leaves  and  acorns 
and  the  armorial  bearings  of  the  English  soyereigns  since  the  Con- 
quest ;  helow,  in  the  sections  of  the  panelling,  are  12  reliefs  in 
oak,  representing  events  in  English  history  (Tudor  period). 

Two  doors  lead  from  this  room  Into  the  *Hou8e  of  Peeks,  which 
is  sumptuously  decorated  in  the  richest  Gothic  style.  The  oblong 
chamber,  in  which  the  peers  of  England  sit  In  council,  Is  90  ft.  in 
length,  45  ft.  broad,  and  45  ft.  high.  The  floor  is  almost  entirely  oc- 
cupied with  the  red  leather  benches  of  the  650  members.  The  twelve 
fine  stained-glass  windows  contain  portraits  of  all  the  kings  and 
queens  of  England  since  the  Conquest.  At  night  the  fiouse  is  lighted 
by  electricity.  Eighteen  niches  between  the  windows  are  occupied 
by  statues  of  the  barons  who  extorted  the  Magna  Charta  from 
King  John.  The  very  handsome  walls  and  ceiling  are  decorated 
with  heraldic  and  other  emblems. 

Above,  in  recesses  at  the  upper  and  lower  ends  of  the  room,  are  six 
frescoes,  the  first  attempts  on  a  large  scale  of  modern  English  art  in  this 
department  of  painting.  That  on  the  wall  above  the  throne,  in  the  centre, 
represents  the  Bsptism  of  King  Ethelbert  (about  696),  by  Dyee;  to  the 
left  of  it,  Edward  III.  investing  his  son,  the  'Black  Prince\  with  the 
Order  of  the  Garter,  by  Cope;  on  the  right.  Henry,  son  of  Henry  IV., 
acknowledging  the  authority  of  Judge  Gascoigne,  who  had  committed  the 
Prince  to  prison  for  striking  him ,  by  Redgrave.  '—  Opposite ,  at  the  N. 
end  of  the  chamber,  three  symbolical  pictures  of  the  Spirits  of  Religion, 
Justice,  and  Chivalry,  by  Eortley,  W,  C.  Thomae,  and  Maelise, 

At  the  S.  end  of  the  hall,  raised  by  a  few  steps,  and  covered 
witli  a  richly  gilded  canopy,  is  the  magnificent  throne  of  the  King. 
On  the  right  of  it  is  the  lower  throne  of  the  Prince  of  Wales, 
while  on  the  left  is  that  intended  for  the  sovereign's  consort.  At 
the  sides  are  two  large  gilt  candelabra. 

The  celebrated  woolsack  of  the  Lord  Chancellor,  a  kind  of 
cushioned  ottoman ,  stands  in  front  of  the  throne,  almost  in  the 
centre  of  the  hall.  —  At  the  N.  end  of  the  chamber,  opposite  the 
throne,  is  the  Bar,  where  official  communications  from  the  Com- 
mons to  the  Lords  are  delivered,